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and TKe Commons 

April 1907 October, 1907 


New York 

The Charity Organization Society 

105 East 22D Street 

Publication Committee 

ROBERT W. db FOREST, Chairman 

DANIEL C. GILMAN, Baltimore 
JOHN M. GLENN, Baltimore 


JOHN F. MOORS, Boston 

SIMON N. PATTEN, Philadelphia 

JACOB A. RIIS, New York 



S. W. WOODWARD, Washington 


edward t. devine 
graham: taylor 
lee k. frankel 
paul u. kellogg 
arthur p. kellogg 
graham: romeyn taylor 
friend pitts 
lewis e. palmer 
arthdr h. gleason 
arthur b. reeve 
belle l. israels 

Departmental Editors 



















April — October, 1907 

About the Police of London, 325. 

Adam, Emmet L., 175. 

Adams, 0. B., 93. 

Adams, George S., 627. 

Addams, Jane, 44, 45, 56, 136, 293, 308, 339, 

465, 479, 492, 651, 492, 707, 708, 709, 710. 
Adeloff, Adolph, 92. 
Adler, Felix, 293. 
Administration of an Institutional Church, 

The, 85. 
Agger, Eugene, 311. 
Aid and Shelter for Girls, 76. 
Aims of the American Civic Association, 631. 
Allen, Edward E., 703. 
Allen, Philip Loring, 63. 
Allen, William H., 4, 64, 136, 200, 362, 387, 

432, 453, 702. 
Allis, C. F., 360. 
Almirall, Raymond F., 223. 
American Ethical Union, 224. 
American Gymnasia Company, 565. 
American Idea, The, 52. 
American Problems, 52. 
American Red Cross Society, 140. 
American School Hygiene Association, 202. 
Amigh, Ophelia L., 93. 
Ammon, Mrs. Samuel, 309, 514. 
Anatomy of the Labor Movement, The, 59. 
Ancient Lowly, The, 60. 
Andrews, Champe S., 293. 
Angell, James B., 293. 

Anti-Tuberculosis Campaign in Yonkers, 358. 
Armstrong, Mrs. W. W., 312, 317. 
Armstrong, S. T., 82, 414. 
Associated Charities With Public Support, 

Attacks on New York's Tenement House 

Law, 8. 

Baker, James H., 52. 

Baker, Amos T., 622. 

Balch, Emily Greene, 11, 166, 259, 364, 676. 

Baldwin, William H., 175, 309, 721. 

Ball, Charles B., 226, 702. 

Balliet, Thomas M., 225. 

Baltimore and Its Housing Secrets, 137. 

Baraga, Frederic, 10, 21. 

Bare, O. E., 763. 

Barnard, J. Lynn, 58. 

Barnard, Kate, 389. 

Barrows, Isabel C, 69. 

Barrows, Samuel J., 95, 140, 194, 311, 347, 

603, 672, 763. 
Baruch, Simon, 223. 
Basis of Public Morals, The, 135. 
Baskerville, Beatrice C, 48. 
Bassett, Edward M., 358. 
Bayne, Howard R., 311. 
Beard, Ithamar W., 133. 
Bellevue Visiting Nurse, The, 466. 
Bergen, Caroline McP., 311, 312, 562. 
Bernheimer, Charles S., 450. 

Bernstein, Ludwig, 622. 

Better World Philosophy, 52. 

Beveridge, Albert J., 4, 579. 

Bijur, Nathan, 223. 

Biographical Sketches, 69. 

Billboard Ordinance, 216. 

Blaustein, David, 605, 714. 

Bliss, W. D. P... 114. 

Boardman, Mabel, 175. 

Bodine, William L., 93. 

Bogen, Boris D., 414, 417. 

Bonaparte. Charles J., 148, 394, 395, 397, 

622, 733, 754, 761. 
Book Reviews. 

Administration of an Institutional 
Church, 65. 

Ancient Lowly, The, 60. 

America's Awakening, 63. 

American Idea, The, 52. 

American Legislatures and Legislative 
Methods, 68. 

American Problems, 52. 

Basis of Public Morals, The, 135. 

Better World Philosophy, 52. • 

Biographical Sketches, 69. 

Books of Reference, 67. 

Boston Lodging Houses, 50. 

Briefs on Public Questions, 69. 

British and American Municipalities, 

Child Labor and The Nations, 579. 

Class Struggles in America, 54. 

Church and the Changing Order, 610. 

Educational Pamphlets, 66. 

Efficient Democracy, 136, 457. 

Efficient Life, The, 64. 

Essays on the Social Gospel, 610. 

Factory Legislation in Pennsylvania, 58. 

Family, The, 51. 

First American Anarchist, The, 69. 

First County Park System, 66. 

Four Aspects of Civic Duty, 62. 

Frederick Douglass, 348. 

Future in America, 48. 

German Workman; A Study in National 
Efficiency, 61. 

Golden Rule Jones, 454. 

Greater America, The, 423. 

Heroes of Progress in America, 70. 

Hieroglyphics of Love, 45. 

Historie de la Charite, 69. 

Historical Development of the Poor Law 
of Connecticut, The, 349. 

History of Socialism, 54. 

Industrial America, 58. 

Industrial Conflict, 441. 

Industrial Efficiency, 60. 

John Glynn. 423. 

Kinship Organizations and Group Mar- 
riages, 580. 

Labour and Capital, 59. 

Lectures on Socialism, 55. 



Local Government in Counties, Towns 
and Villages, 68. 

Making of the Criminal, 67. 

Maypole Possibilities, 565. 

Modern Social Conditions, 50. 

Mountain People of Kentucky, 422. 

New Basis U Civilization, 97, 135. 

Newer Ideals of Peace, 56, 136. 

Next Street But One, 50. 

On the Trail of the Immigrant, 49. 

Orthodox Socialism, 53. 

Penological Novel — The Turn of the Bal- 
ance, 348. 

Physical Basis of Mind and Matter, 52. 

Political Problems of American Develop- 
ment, 705. 

Polish Jew, 48. 

Prisoner at the Bar, 65. 

Railroad Accidents, Their Cause and Pre- 
vention, 627. 

Social Philosophy, 52. 

So( ial Theory and Philosophy, 51. 

Some Social and Civic Problems, 62. 

Spirit of Labor, 61. 

Spirit of the American Government, 611. 

Stories of Sonoratown, 49. 

Story of Life Insurance, 440. 

Studies in Social Conditions, 48. 

Studies in Socialism, 53. 

Three Acres and Liberty, 64. 

Town and City, 63. 

True and False Democracy, 611. 

Turn of the Balance, 348. 

Wilshire Editorials, 55. 
Booker T. Washington on Frederick Doug- 
lass, 348. 
Books of Reference, 67. 
Booth, Maud Ballington, 603, 622, 761. 
Booth, Eva, 117. 
Booth-Tucker, Frederick St. George Latour, 

118, 120. 
Booth, William, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122. 
Dosanquet, Helen, 5. 
Boston's Industrial Exhibit, 143. 
Boston Lodging Houses, 50. 
Boston's Opportunity, 217. 
Bowen, Mrs. Joseph T., 465. 
Boyle, Edward, 323. 
Brace, C, Loring, 247. 
Brackett, Jeffrey R., 641. 
Brandeis, Louis D., 291. 
Brandt, Lilian, 66. 160, 248. 
Braucher, H. S., 310. 
Brannan, John W., 223. 
Breckenridge, L. P., 573. 
Brennan, P. J., 175. 
Bressler, David M., 278. 
Brewer, David J., 114, 175. 
Briefs on Public Questions, 69. 
Brinkerhoff, Roeliff, 604. 
British and American Municipalities, 451. 
Brockway, Z. R., 604. 
Brown, Eemarchus C, 608. 
Brown, Elmer Ellsworth, 155, 309, 500. 
Brown, William Adams, 9, 34. 
Buffalo Association for the Relief of the 

Blind, 324. 
Bulkley, William L., 199. 
Burden of Feeble-Mindedness, 392. 
Burlingham, Charles C... 130. 
Burnett, Frances Hodgson, 29. 

Busse, Fred A., 621. 

Butler, Amos W., 177, 343, 359, 382, 383, 

392, 763. 
Butler, Edmond J., 9, 94, 223. 
Butler, Elizabeth B., 5, 612. 
Butler, Nicholas Murray, 186, 611. 
Byall, J. Bruce, 458. 
Byers, Joseph P., 763. 

Cabot, Richard C, 467. 

Cadbury, Edward, 613. 

Canadian Child Labor, 359. 

Canfield, George F., 223, 311. 

Canney, Maurice A., 610. 

Capen, Edward Warren, 349. 

Caring for "Ex-patients" at Stony Wold, 341. 

Carnegie, Andrew, 55, 71, 293. 

Carstens, C. C, 117. 

Cause and Extent of the Recent Industrial 

Progress of Germany, 441. 
Chapin, R. C, 59. 

Charity Legislation in New York State, 418. 
Charity Organization Society, 136, 137. 
Charity Stamps in Austria, 153. 
Cheney, Lloyd L., 318. 
Chetwood, Charles H., 223. 
Chicago and Detroit Wage War on Smoke, 

Chicago's Chief Sanitary Inspector, 226. 
Chicago's Ghetto Problem, 115. 
Chicago Industrial Exhibit, 39. 
Chicago's Juvenile Protective League, 300. 
Chicago Parks and Playgrounds, 241. 
Chicago's Plan of Campaign Against Tuber- 
culosis, 466. 
Chicago's Recreation Centers, 242. 
Child and the Mill, The, 633. 
Child Labor. 

Canadian Child Labor, 359. 

Census Bulletins Nos. 68 and 69, 60. 

Child Labor and the Nations, 579. 

Child Labor in Ontario, 116. 

Child Labor Crisis in Pennsylvania, 138. 

Child and the Mill, The, 633. 

Delaney: A State Disgrace, 242. 

Florida and Child Labor, 416. 

How Much Longer, Oh Pennsylvanians, 

New York Child Labor Bills Pass, 178. 

New York Child Labor Legislation, 434. 

Social Legislation in the South, 75. 

Two Cents Worth of Information, 175. 
Child Labor: Census Bulletins Nos. 68 and 

69, 60. 
Child Labor and The Nations, 579. 
Child Labor Crisis in Pennsylvania, 138. 
Child Labor in Ontario, 116. 

Conference on Physical Welfare of 
School Children, 201. 

For the Children of Indiana, 359. 

Free Eye Glasses for School Children, 

International Congress on School Hy- 
giene, 429, 639. 

Kindergarten in a Hospital, 115. 

Mothers and Children's Building at 
Jamestown, 139. 

National Children's Home Society, 246. 

The Children's Theatre, 23. 

Treatment of Children, 231. 



Truancy and Its Treatment, 690. 

Westchester Children's Society, 416. 
Children's Theatre, The, 23. 
Chinese Edict Against Opium, 294. 
Chisholm, B. Ogden, 590. 
Choate, Joseph H., 293. 
Church and the Changing Order, The, 610. 
Church Industrial Committee, 415. 
"Cincinnati Method" of Treating Consump- 
tion, The, 417. 
Cincinnati Park Plan, 216. 
Civic Improvement, 106, 216, 319, 426, 598. 
Claghorn, Kate Holladay, 49, 440. 
Clark, Roger P., 466. 
Clark, Royal Phelps. 7<i3 
Class Struggles in America, 54. 
Clark, Robert, Company, 422. 
Clark, Walter, 309. 
Clark, William, 381. 
Clay, Cecil, 763. 

Clean Milk in New Bedford, 619. 
Cleghorn, John, 622. 
Cleveland, Frederick A., 200. 
Cleveland Milk Exhibit, 180. 
Club Women of Texas, 217. 
Coates, Thomas P. G., 117, 121, 763. 
Coffeen, Elmer L., 219. 
Coit, Stanton, 708, 710. 
Commander, Lydia Kingswell, 52. 
Commission on Public Ownership, The, 429. 

Aims of the American Civic Association, 

Associated Charities with Public Sup- 
port, 458. 

Child Labor in Rhode Island, 236. 

Death Penalty, The, 193. 

Efficient Democracy, 457. 

Improvement and High Rents, 194. 

In Defense of Patent Medicines, 85. 

Indiana's Desertion and Non-Support 
Laws, 457. 

Insane of Illinois, The, 132. 

New York City Homes, 1*33. 

Protecting Society, 193. 

Russell Sage Foundation, The, 85. 

Sex Instruction in the Schools, 194. 

Studies in Town Life, 236. 


Conference on Backward, Truant and 
Delinquent Children, 93. 

Conference on Physical Welfare of 
School Children, 201. 

Congress on School Hygiene, 429, 639. 

Eighth International Housing Congress, 
The, 666. 

Final Plans for National Conference, 246. 

Hampton Negro Conference, 605. 

Maryland Conference of Charities, 176. 

Minneapolis and the National Confer- 
ence, 4, 382, 604. 

National Peace Congress, 94. 

National Playground Convention, 308. 

New Officers of the National Conference, 

Proceedings of the National Conference 
of Charities and Correction at Phila- 
delphia, 67. 

South Dakota's First Conference of Char- 
ities, 74. 

Conference on Backward, Truant and Delin- 
quent Children, 93. 

Conference on Physical Welfare of School 
Children, 201. 

Congress of the American Prison Association, 
The, 754. 

Congress on School Hygiene, 429. 

Conover, Allan D., 763. 

Consumptive Convalescents and The Land, 

Cook, Flora, 309. 

Cook, George W., 175. 

Cooley, R., 5, 609. 

Cooper, Peter, 70. 

Country Schools, 64. 

County vs. City Interests in State Legisla- 
tures, 142. 

Court of Rehabilitation, The, 739. 

Craftsman and The Carnegie Technical 
School, 71. 

Craig, G. M., 610. 

Crandall, Floyd M., 223. 

Credit for Mayor Fitzgerald, 632. 

Criminal Mendicant, The, 739. 

Crosby. Ernest Howard, 454, 455. 

Crowell. F. Elisabeth, 224. 

Curtis, Frances G., 323. 

Curtis, Henry S.. 339, 465, 495, 546. 

dishing, Oscar K., 249, 323. 

Cutting, Robert Fulton, 200. 

Danger of Endowments, The, 355. 

Dangers of Municipal Ownership, The, 63. 

Darlington, Thomas B., Ill, 223. 

Davies, Edgar T., 45. 

Davis, George A., 311, 312. 

Dawson, William Harbutt, 61. 

Death of Dr. Wise, 735. 

Death Penalty, The, 193. 

Decker, Martin C, 358. 

de Forest, Robert W., 197, 340, 712. 

De Groot, E. B., 476, 478. 

De Lacy, William H., 721. 

Delaney: A State Disgrace, 242. 

Delavan, Bryson D., 340. 

Deneen, Charles S,, 44, 45, 310, 603, 621. 

Denson, Daisy, 345. 

Department Public Charities, New York, 446. 

Devine, Edward T., 1, 87, 135, 641, 737. 

Digest of City Charters, 69. 

Dinwiddie, Courtenay, 179. 

Dix, Dorothea, 70. 

Dixon, Samuel G., 574. 

Dock, George, 226. 

Dock, L. L., 642. 

Dodge, Cleveland H., 197. 

Dombrowski. Joseph, 10, 20. 

Downey, William F., 175. 

Dr. Blaustein's Resignation, 605. 

Draper, Andrew, 466. 

Driscoll, Clement, 73. 

Dutcher, A. C, 622, 759. 

Educational Pamphlets, 66. 

Edward VII, King of England, 429, 640. 

Efficient Democracy, 136, 457. 

Efficient Life, The, 64. 

Eighth International Housing Congress, The, 

Elgin, William E., 763. 
Eliot, Charles W., 293. 




Elliott, John Lovejoy, 225. 

Ellwood, Charles A., 187. 

Ely, Richard T., 186. 

Erdmanh, Martin, 223. 

Esler, James M., 323. 

Essays on the Social Gospel, 610. 

Essex County Park System, The, 645. 

Estabrook, Harold K., 343. 

Eustis, John E., 358. 

Evans, Britton D., 177. 

Evolution of a Kentucky Negro Mission, The, 

Executive of the New Foundation, 197. 
Extension of the Groszmann School, The, 111. 

Factory Legislation in Pennsylvania, 58. 

Fairbanks, William G., 93. 

Fairlie John A., 68. 

Fallows, Rt. Rev. Samuel, 622, 761, 763. 

Family, The, 51. 

Farnam, Henry W., 191. 

Farrand, Livingston, 244. 

Favill, Henry Baird, 309, 501. 

Federated Jewish Charities of Baltimore, 126. 

Federated Support of Charities, Is It Prac- 
ticable? 227. 

Fernandis, Sarah Collins, 703. 

Fetter, Frank A., 187. 

Fiedler, L., 449. 

Field Houses of Chicago, 519. 

Field Houses of Chicago and Their Possibil- 
ities, 535. 

Fighting With His Eyes Shut, 346. 

Final Plans for National Conference, 246. 

First American Anarchist, The, 69. 

First Country Park System, The, 66. 

First Hand Sociological Studies, 326. 

First Juvenile Court Building, The, 587. 

First Work in Hand (Bureau of Municipal 
Research), 201. 

Fish, Aloys M., 157, 405, 670. 

Fisher, Irving, 293, 294. 

Fisher, Walter L., 452, 453, 454. 

Fitch, M. H., 52. 

Flexner, Simon, 340. 

Flick, Lawrence F., 140, 177. 

Florida and Child Labor, 416. 

Folk Game and Festival, The, 556. 

Folk, Joseph W., 757. 

Folks, Homer, 214, 247, 311, 312, 313, 418, 
466, 622, 754, 757, 763. 

For a Federal Health Bureau, 293. 

For an Institute of Pathology, 340. 

Forbes, James, 747, 748, 749. 

Foreman, Henry G., 479. 

Fornes, Charles W., 223. 

For State Board of Charities in Maine, 310. 

For the Children of Indiana, 359. 

Forward Movement in Maryland, The, 175. 

Forward Step in the Labor Movement, 623. 

Foster, J. Frank, 309. 

Four Aspects of Civic Duty, 62. 

Frankel, Lee K., 130, 160. 

Frederick Douglass, 348. 

Free Eye-Glasses for School Children, 130. 

Fry, Emma Sheridan, 30. 

Future in America, The, 48. 

'Garden Cities in America, 114. 
'Garrison, William Lloyd, 378, 381. 

Garvin, Albert, 763. 

German Workman: A Study in National Effi- 
ciency, The, 61. 

Gerry, Elbridge T., 311. 

Ghetto in the Suburbs, 734. 

Gichner, Rose, 220. 

Gift to Washington Associated Charities 
Fund, 114. 

Gilder, Richard Watson, 200. 

Gilman, Daniel C., 197. 

Gilman, Mrs., 55. 

Gilman, Robins, 416. 

Gilmour, J. T., 622, 759, 763. 

Girard, Stephen, 70. 

Girls' Friendly Society and Social Service, 

Glenn, John M., 176, 197, 198. 

Glenn, Mary Willcox, 52, 198, 293, 323. 

Golden Rule Jones, 454. 

Goldstein, Sidney E., 160, 205. 

Goler, George W., 737. 

Goodnow, Frank J., 452, 453. 

Gould, Helen M., 197. 

Gore, William H., 85. 

Graves, W. C, 763. 

Greater America, The, 423. 

Greeley, Frederick, 465. 

Green, David I., 232. 

Gregory, M. S., 414. 

Grice, Mrs. Edwin C, 139. 

Grose, Howard B., 49. 

Groszmann, Maximilian P. E., 112. 

Grout, Edward M., 223. 

Gulick, Luther H., 64, 202, 308, 339, 465, 

Guthrie, W. B., 454, 705. 

Habitual Criminals and Capital Punishment, 

Haddox, C. E., 762, 763. 
Hadley, Arthur Twining, 135, 187. 
Haggard, Rider, 118. 
Hague, Mrs. Arnold, 175. 
Haight, Elizabeth, 219. 
Hale, Edward Everett, 275. 
Hall, Bolton, 230. 
Hall, George A., 434. 
Hall, G. Stanley, 293. 
Hampton Negro Conference, 605. 
Hanev, William H., 422. 
Hanly, Frank, 603, 622, 754, 758, 759. 
Hapgood, Hutchins, 61. 
Harkness, Mrs. Edward S., 328. 
Harnack, Adolph, 610. 
Hart, Hastings H., 247. 
Hart, W. H., 763. 

Hartman, Edward T., 142, 143, 253. 
Hatton, Augustus Raymond, 69. 
Hawes, John B., 222. 
Hawthorne Club Prize, A., 621. 
Health, Morality and the Playground, 500. 
Healy, Timothy, 225. 
Hebberd, Robert W., 86, 223, 385, 446, 574, 

Hedrick, Perry L., 226. 
Henderson, Charles R., 40, 92, 187, 247, 603, 

622, 708, 709, 737, 754, 755, 763. 
Hendrick, Burton J., 440. 
Heniger, Jacob, 30. . 
Henrotin, Ellen M., 46, 431. 




Henry, Alice, 623. 

Herman, Augustine, 11. 

Hermann, Wilhelm, 610. 

Heroes of Progress in America, 70. 

Herts, A. Minnie, 30. 

Hervey, Walter L., 225. 

Hieroglyphics of Love, 49. 

Higgins, Alice, 343. 

Higgins, Frank, 313. 

Hill, Archibald A., 348, 627, 645. 

Hill, Mary A., 422, 423. 

Hill, Patty S., 565. 

Hilles, Charles D., 692. 

Hinman, Mary Wood, 475. 

Histoire de la Charite, 69. 

Historic Development of the Poor Law of 

Connecticut, The, 349. 
History of Socialism, A, 54. 
Hoboken's Girl Messenger, 5. 
Hodges, George, 65. 
Hofer, Amalie, 478. 
Hofer, Mari Ruef, 308, 471, 475, 556. 
Hollander, Jacob H., 126, 177, 188, 323. 
Holt, Henry and Company, 423. 
Holt, Winifred, 346. 
Horse Cars' Last Stand in New York, The, 

Houghton, Mifflin & Company, 441. 
Hours for Women Workers, 92. 

Attacks on New York's Tenement House 
Law, 8. 

Boston Lodging Houses, 50. 

Housing Problem in Wisconsin, 251. 

International Housing Congress, 447, 

New Tenement House Law for Boston, 

Next Step in Chicago's Housing Prob- 
lem, 413. 

One Thing the Sage Foundation Can Do, 

Tenement House Law Amendment, 94. 

Washington Housing Commission, 175. 
Housing Problem in Wisconsin, 251. 
How Much Longer, Oh Pennsylvanians, 243. 
Howard, Earl Dean, 441. 
Howard, John, Jr., 311. 
How Manage Municipal Play Centers, 541. 
How the New Meets the Old in Maryland, 

How They Played at Chicago, 471. 
How to Secure a Playground, 514. 
Hubbard, C. M., 609. 

Hughes, Charles E., 8, 178, 311, 340, 358, 432. 
Hull House Maps and Papers, 20. 
Hutchinson, Charles L., 339, 465. 
Hymn of Freedom, A, 460. 

Illinois Industrial Legislation, 91. 
Imbrie, Andrew C, 181. 
Imbrie, D R., 763. 

Immigrants, 49. 

Immigration in June, 589. 

Immigration Committee, The, 719. 

Incoming Millions, The, 49. 

Jewish Immigrants in Texas, 619. 

Legislation for Immigrants, 224. 

New Immigration Act, The, 122. 

On the Trail of the Immigrant, 49. 

Our Slavic Fellow Citizens, 11, 166, 259, 
Immigration in June, 589. 
Immigration Committee, The, 719 
Immigrants, 49, 

Imported Neighborhood Spirit, 714. 
Impressions of American Charity, 268, 399, 

580, 707. 
Improvement and High Rent, 194. 
Incoming Millions, The, 49. 
In Defense of Patent Medicines, 85. 
Indiana's Desertion and Non-Support Laws, 

Indiana's New Laws on Charities, 608. 
Industrial America, 58. 
Industrial Conflict, The, 441. 
Industrial Efficiency, 60. 
Industrial Progress in Germany, 441. 
Industrial Removal Office and Its Works, 278. 
Industrial Viewpoint, 169, 283, 408, 566, 696. 
Industry and Economics, 58. 
Insane Criminal and Criminal Insane, The, 

International Congress for Children, 702. 
In the Making, 702. 
International Congress on School Hygiene, 

International Housing Congress, 447, 605. 
Ireland, John, Archbishop, 293, 389. 
Irvine, A. G., 763. 

Is Modern Philanthropy New? 577. 
Israels, Belle Lindner, 153, 311, 312. 

Jacobs, George W. & Company, 348. 

Jacobs, Henry Barton, 177. 

Jamestown Exposition, 139. 

Jamme, Marie, 4, 387. 

Janeway, E. G., 340. 

Janeway, Theodore C, 340, 445. 

Janney, Bernard T., 114. 

Jaures, Jean, 53. 

Jenkins, P. Fellows, 707. 

Jenks, J. W., 135. 

Jerome, William Travers, 96. 

Jersey City Young Men's Building, 294. 

Jewett, Frances Gulick, 63. 

Jewish Immigrants in Texas, 619. 

John, E. R., 218. 

John Glynn, 423. 

John M. Glenn, Director of Sage Foundation, 

Johnson, Alexander H., 50, 67, 75, 293, 323, 

385, 401, 458. 
Johnson, G. N, 308. 
Johnson, Tom L., 4, 389, 609. 
Jones, Harrison F., 94. 
Journey of a Load of Wood, The, 625. 
Juvenile Courts. 

Chicago's Juvenile Court, 7. 

Chicago's Juvenile Protective League, 

First Juvenile Court Building, 587. 

Impressions of American Charity, 581. 

Juvenile Court Loses Judge Mack, 416. 

Juvenile Delinquents, 589. 

luvenile Offenders in Massachusetts, 735. 

New Juvenile Bench in Denver, 71, 469. 




Prisoners and Juvenile Delinquents, 588. 

Relation of Play to Juvenile Delin- 
quency, 562. 

Swedish Juvenile Court, The, 620. 
Juvenile Court Loses Judge Mack, The, 416. 
Juvenile Delinquents, 589. 
Juvenile Offenders in Massachusetts, 735. 

Keep, Charles H., 358. 

Kelley, Florence, 58, 116, 388, 394. 

Kellogg, Arthur P., 78, 388, 389. 

Kellor, Frances A., 311. • 

Kelton, A. C., 763. 

Kelly, David I. 646. 

Kelsey Carl, 188, 293. 

Kelsey, Fred W., 66. 

Kemp, Janet E., 137. 

Kennaday, Paul, 211, 595, 639. 

Kennedy, John S., 135. 

Kern, O. J., 64. 

Kerr, Charles H. & Company, 454. 

Keyes, E. L., 66. 

King, F. A., 61. 

Kindergarten in a Hospital, 115. 

King, Bolton, 381. 

King, Frederick A., 219. 

Kingsley, Sherman C, 4, 295, 387, 388. 

Kinship Organizations and Group Marriage, 

Kirk, William, 59. 
Kirkup, Thomas, 54. 
Knopf, S. A., 4, 66, 226, 387, 388. 
Knubel, E. E., 65. 
Kober, George M., 175. 
Koren, John, 4, 323, 387, 588, 622, 761, 762. 
Kruesi, Walter E., 67. 
Kruszka, X. W., 10, 20. 
Kunz, Dessa, 251. 

Labour and Capital, 59. 

Labriola, Antonio, 454. 

La Follette, Robert L., 63. 

Lallemand, Leon, 69. 

La Motte, Ellen N., 749. 

Lathrop, Julia C, 701, 702. 

Laughlin, J. Laurence, 58. 

Lectures on Socialism, 55. 

Lee, Joseph, 308, 339, 436, 465, 479, 480, 486, 
632, 645. 

Legislation for Immigrants, 224. 

Legislative Happenings in Pennsylvania, 307. 

Leonard, James A., 603, 622. 759. 

Le Resignol, James Edward, 53. 

Leuba, James H., 225. 

Levi, Baron Adolph, 702. 

Lewis, Denslow, 194. 

Lewis, Orlando F., 51, 67, 80, 223, 342, 343, 
386, 575, 576, 622, 761. 

Lies, Eugene T., 219. 

"Light Work" as a Factor in the Spread of 
Tuberculosis, 749. 

Lincoln, Jennette E., 565. 

Lindley, Walter, 323. 

Lindsay, John D., 311, 312. 

Lindsay, Samuel McC, 60. 68, 293, 445, 641. 

Lindsey, Ben B., 71, 72, 293, 308, 469, 581. 

Linton, W. J., 381. 

Loane, M., 50. 

Local Government in County Towns and Vil- 
lages, 68. 

Long. John D., 293. 
Lovejoy, Owen R., 388. 
Low, Minnie F., 300. 
Low, Seth, 432. 
Lowman, John H., 657. 
Lusk, Graham, 340. 

McAneny, George, 200. 

McCarroll, William, 358. 

McCarthy, Dennis, 466. 

McClaughry, A. W., 604, 75 , », 762, 763. 

McClure, Phillips & Company, 440. 

McDowell, Mary, 309, 479, 480, 535. 

McFarland, J. Horace, 632. 

McKenna, Charles F., 317, 466. 

McKim, John A., 311. 

McKinley, Whitefield, 175. 

McLean, Francis H., 53, 239. 

MeMahon, Charles F., 317. 

McNaughton, Ruth, 53. 

McVey, Frank L., 189. 

MacArthur, Mary, 45, 46, 47. 

Macfarland, Henry B. F., 177, 339, 465, 545. 

Mack, Julian W., 416, 603, 622, 757, 763. 

McKenzie, William R., 622, 758. 

Macmillan Company, 97,. 611. 

Magruder, Rev. J. W., 138, 220. 

Making of the Criminal, The, 67. 

Mallarv, M. M., 93, 622, 759, 763. 

Mallock, W. H., 55. 

Maltbie, Milo Roy, 358. 

Manny, Frank' A., 437. 

Manson, John, 117, 120, 121. 

Manufacturing and Institutions, 590. 

March, Clement, 223. 

Marks, Marcus, 224. 

Marquis, Don, 633. 

Marsh, Benjamin C, 666. 

Martin, John, 55. 

Maryland Conference of Charities, 176. 

Massachusetts and Her Villages, 141. 

Massachusetts Industrial Exhibit, 6. 

Masters, Alfred J., 317. 

Matheson, M. Cecile, 613. 

Mathews, Shailer, 610. 

Matthews, Amanda, 49. 

Maxwell, William H., 362. 

May Pole Possibilities, 565. 

Mazzini — Bibliography, 381. 

Mazzini, a Prophet of the New View, 378. 

Mead, Edwin D., 225. 

Medical inspection in Boston Schools, 222. 

Medical Inspection in Milwaukee Schools, 

Medical Inspection of Factories, 340. 
Medical Sociology, 140. 
Melendy, Royal Loren, 541. 
Merington, Marguerite, 29. 
Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, 341. 
Mid-summer Playground Meeting, 465. 

Clean Milk in New Bedford, 619. 

Cleveland Milk Exhibit, 180. 

Milk Inspection, 116. 

Nathan Straus Milk Depots, 341. 

Second International Milk Congress, 737. 
Milk Inspection, 116. 
Milligan, Rev. John L., 604, 763. 
Mills, Fred H., 763. 
Mills, Herbert E., 189. 



Miner, Maude E., 314, 733, 734. 

Minneapolis and the National Conference, 

Minneapolis Conference, 4, 382. 

Minor Offenses Most Common, 589. 

Miss Lathrop and the Chicago Institute, 701. 

Missouri Tuberculosis Sanatorium, 622. 

Modern Social Conditions, 50. 

Moffett, E. A., 451. 

Molineux, Roland B., 737, 739. 

Moore, J. Howard, 52. 

Moore, Sarah W., 324. 

Moreland, Assemblyman, 419. 

Morgan, E. F., 763. 

Morris, Charles, 70. 

Moses, J. Garfield, 23. 

Mothers' and Children's Buildings at James- 
town, 139. 

Moton, R., 605. 

Mountain People of Kentucky, The, 422. 

Mr. Allen's Appointment, 703. 

Muensterberg, Emil, 268, 399, 580, 702, 707. 

Mulry, Thomas M., 223, 317, 323, 384. 

Municipal Bank, New York, The, 623. 

Murphy, Edgar Gardner, 290. 

Murphy, E. J., 603, 621, 717. 

Music for Playground, 216. 

National Children's Home Society, 246. 

National Committee on Vagrants, A, 342. 

New Era for Playgrounds, A, 329. 

National Labor Federations in the United 
States, 59. 

National Peace Congress, The, 94. 

National Playground Convention, 308. 

National Prison Association, 603, 621, 717. 

National Society for Systematic Beneficence, 
A, 360. 

National Tuberculosis Meeting, 140. 

National Tuberculosis Meeting in Washing- 
ton, 211. 

Nearing, Scott, 175. 

Need of an Emergency Shelter, 733. 

Needs of a Tuberculosis Day Camp, The, 

Negro Carpenters in New York, 198. 

Negro Building and Exhibit at the James- 
town Exhibition, 723. 

Neil, Robert L., 311, 312. 

Nelson, N. O., 70, 454. 

New Basis of Civilization, The, 97, 135. 

New Department of Social Research, 445. 

Newer Ideals of Peace, 56, 136. 

New Immigration Act, The, 122. 

New Joliet Prison, 204. 

New Juvenile Bench in Denver, 71, 469. 

New Officers of National Conference, 323. 

Newsboy Problem, The, 92. 

New Sanatoriums and Dispensaries, 245. 

Newsholme, Arthur, 640. 

New Tenement House Law for Boston, 93. 

New View of Poverty, The, 461. 

New View, The, 87, 135, 237, 355, 461. 

New View of Crime, 237. 

New York Bureau of Municipal Research, 

New York Child Labor Bills Pass, 178. 

New York Child Labor Legislation, 434. 

New York City Farm Colony, 329. 

New York Committee on the Physical Wel- 
fare of School Children, The, 180. 

New York's Hospital Commission, 223. 

New York Hospitals for Manhattan and the 
Bronx, 178. 

New York Jewish Protectory Opened, 214. 

New York School of Philanthropy, 97, 116, 

New York Settlement for Negroes, 328. 

New York State Probation Commission, 466. 

New York Street Cleaning Department and 
the East Side, 450. 

New York Summer School of Philanthropy, 
293, 448, 701. 

New York's Utilities Commission, 358. 

New York's Vacation Schools, 415. 

Next Step in Chicago's Housing Problem, 

Next Street But One, The, 50. 

Nibbling at a Trade, 203. 

Nibecker, Frank H., 93, 323. 

Non-Support Laws at the Nation's Capital, 

Northrop, Cyrus, 247. 

Notes, 26, 103, 133, 174, 195, 234, 305, 321, 
336, 352, 442, 458, 581, 601, 616, 632, 715, 
731, 764. 

Notions of a Prison Man, 157, 405, 670. • 

Nurse Outside the Hospital, The, 467. 

Nurses' Registration in Illinois, 310. 

Oakey, Thomas, 381. 

Ogden, Isaac C, 227. 

Ogden, Robert C, 197. 

O'Grady, Grace L., 63. 

Old Age Pensions, 275. 

Old and the New, The, 692. 

Olmstead, Willard H., 312. 

One Boys' Club and Its Growth, 181. 

One Thing the Sage Foundation Can Do for 

New York, 77. 
On the Trail of the Immigrant, 49. 
On the Vagrant Elusive, 575. 
Operation of Public Utilities, 469. 
Organized Play in the Country, 547. 
Orthodox Socialism, 53. 
Osborne, Thomas M., 358. 
Osgood, Irene, 388. 
Osier, William, 640. 
Our Slavic Fellow Citizens, 11, 166, 259, 364, 

Outing Publishing Company, 423. 

Page, Florence Lathrop, 114. 
Page, Senator, 434. 
Page, Thomas Nelson, 114. 
Paine, Ralph D., 423. 
Palmer, Lewis E., 80, 451. 
Parks and Playgrounds. 

Chicago Parks and Playgrounds, 241. 

Chicago's Recreation Centers, 242. 

Cincinnati Park Plan, 216. 

Essex County Park System, 645. 

Field Houses of Chicago, 519, 535. 

First County Park System, 66. 

Folk Game and Festival, 556. 

Health, Morality and the Playground, 
500. . 


How Manage Municipal Play Centers, 

How They Played at Chicago, 474. 

How to Secure a Playground, 514. 

Music for Playgrounds, 216. 

National Playground Convention, 30S, 
and Issue of August 3. 

New Era for Playgrounds, 329. 

Organized Play in the Country, 547. 

Parks, People, Picnics and Police, 357. 

Part of Play in Education, 155. 

Philadelphia Bows to Chicago, 735. 

Play and Democracy, 481. 

Play as a School of the Citizen, 486. 

Playgrounds and the Board of Education, 

Playgrounds in Grand Rapids, 292. 

Playgrounds in Philadelphia, 311. 

Playgrounds in the Prevention of Tuber- 
culosis, 501. 

Playground Progress and Tendencies of 
the Year, 495. 

Public Recreation and Social Morality, 

Recreation Centers in the City of New 
York, 510. 

Relation of Municipal Playgrounds to 
Schools, 545. 

Relation of Play to Juvenile Delinquen- 
cy, 562. 

Small Parks and Congested Housing, 413. 

Sportsmanship and Games, 512. 

Union of Playgrounds and Public 
Schools, 537. 
Parks, People, Picnics and Police, 357. 
Parsons, Herbert, 225. 
Parole System in Cleveland, The, 609. 
Parsons, S. T., 175. 

Part of Play in Education for Life, The, 155. 
Paterson, R. G., 63. 
Patterson, Arthur, 423. 
Patten, Simon N., 97, 135. 136, 189, 297, 

362, 397, 462, 463. 
Patton, T. B., 763. 
Peabody, George, 70. 
Pels, Moses, 129. 

Pennsylvania: A Graveyard for Social Legis- 
lation, 247. 
Pennsylvania and Tuberculosis, 574. 
Pennsylvania Schools for Adults, 323. 
Penny Arcade and the Cheap Theatre, 295. 
Penological Novel, A, 347. 
Perkins, Dwight H., 309, 538. 
Permanent Improvements; New York Public 

OTi £3 t*i tips ^74 
Personal Paragraphs, 218, 321, 353, 616. 
Philadelphia Bows to Chicago, 735. 
Philbin, Eugene A., 223. 
Phillips, Frederick (Bedrich Pelip), 11. 
Physical Basis of Mind and Matter, The, 52. 
Physical Defects of School Children, 701. 
Park, Louis H., 124. 
Play and Democracy, 481. 
Playgrounds and The Board of Education, 

Play as a School of the Citizen, 486. 
Playground in the Prevention of Tubercu- 
losis, 501. 
Playground Progress and Tendencies, 495. 
Playground Convention, 216 and Issue of 

August 3. 

Playgrounds in Grand Rapids, 292. 

Playgrounds in Philadelphia, 311. 

Plea for Charity, 1. 

Plea of a "Parlor Socialist," A, 154. 

Polish Jew, The, 48. 

Political Problems of American Development, 

Poor Law of Connecticut, The, 349. 

Poor White Boy of the South; the Mobile 
Boys' Club, The, 650. 

Porter, Robert P., 63. 

Powell, A. P., 64. 

Practical Training for Employes of State 
Institutions, 7. 

Pratt. Rutherford, 323. 

Prescott, William H., 718. 

Prince, John T., 690. 

Prisoners and Juvenile Delinquents, 588. 

Prisoner at the Bar, The, 65. 

Probation Legislation in New York, 311. 

Probation Work and the Settlement, 299. 

Proceedings of the Philadelphia Conference, 

Professor Mallock on Socialism, 55. 

Program of Social Work, A, 97. 

Progressive Day Nursery, A, 438. 

Prophet of the Poor, The Life Story of Gen- 
eral Booth, 117. 

Protecting Society, 193. 

Proudfit, Alexander C, 181. 

Public Comfort Stations; Chicago Wakes Up, 

Public Evening Industrial Schools, 199. 

Public Health Defense League, 74. 

Public Recreation and Social Morality, 492. 

Public Significance of Labor Day, The, 641. 

Pure Food for New York, 73. 

Putnam — G. P. Putnam's Sons, 580. 

Quiet Day With Social Workers, 9. 

Railroad Accidents, The Cause and Preven- 
tion, 627. 

Randall, Frank L., 603, 622, 754, 759, 760. 

Ransom, J. B., 622. 

Recent Social Legislation in Maine, 309. 

Recipe for Good Government, 432. 

Recreation Centers in the City of New York, 

Reeve, Arthur B., 59. 

Rehabilitating the Criminal, 737. 

Reichert, John, 65. 

Reid, John, 154. 

Reinsch, Paul S., 68. 

Relation of Intemperance to Poverty, The, 

Relation of Municipal Playgrounds to 
Schools, 545. 

Relation of Play to Juvenile Delinquency, 

Religious Basis of the Social Movement, 34. 

Remarkable Survey of New York's Blind, 5. 

Revell, Fleming H. Company, 441. 

Reynolds, James Bronson, 175. 

Rhode Island League, 217. 

Rice. Gertrude S., 197. 

Rice, Mrs. William B., 311. 

Richards, Ellen H., 147. 

Richards, R. C, 627. 

Richmond, Mary E., 48, 239, 388. 

Riis, Jacob, 77, 175, 393, 465, 652. 



Riedell, Elizabeth, 611. 

Riley, Thomas J., 641. 

Ringwalt, Ralph Curtis, 69. 

Robins, Raymond, 343. 

Robins, Margaret Dreier, 388. 

Robinson, G. C, 763. 

Roby, Frank S., 603, 622. 

Rockefeller Gift to Cleveland, 216. 

Rockefeller, John D., 216. 

Rodman, Henrietta, 61, 64. 

Rogers, David Camp, 653. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 141, 293, 294, 308, 339, 

396, 432, 465, 721. 
Ross, Edward Alsworth, 4, 45, 190. 
Rushmore, Charles E., 311. 
Russell Sage Foundation, The, 85. 
Russian Famine Relief, 139. 
Ryan, J. A., 388. 

Sage Foundation, 85. 

What University Men Think, 186. 
Sage, Margaret Olivia, 197, 340. 
Sager, Arthur N., 622, 757. 
Sague, James E., 358. 
Saleeby, C. W., 636, 637. 
Salomon, Harald, 620. 
Salvation Army and the Public, The, 117. 
Sanders, A. K., 622. 
San Francisco's Cleaning, 216. 
San Francisco in 1907, 248. 
Sanville, Florence Lucas, 247. 
Sargent, Laura Sanborn, 475. 
Scanlon, Michael J., 317. 
Schlom, Miss, 220. 

American School Hygiene Association, 

Conference on Welfare of School Child- 
ren, 201. 

Congress on School Hygiene, 429, 639. 

Country Schools, 64. 

Craftsman and the Carnegie Technical 
School, 71. 

Free Eye Glasses for School Children, 

Kindergarten in a Hospital, 115. 

Medical Inspection in Boston Schools, 

Medical Inspection in Milwaukee Schools, 

New York Committee on Physical Wel- 
fare of School Children, 180. 

New York's Vacation Schools, 415. 

Nibbling at a Trade, 203. 

Pennsylvania Schools for Adults, 323. 

Public Evening Industrial Schools, 199. 

Sex Instruction in the Schools, 194. 

School and Industry Discussed, 203. 
Schools of Philanthropy. 

Boston School of Philanthropy, 701. 

Chicago Institute of Social Science, 701. 

New York School, 97, 116, 135, 136, 701. 

New York Summer School, 293, 448. 

Standards in Schools of Philanthropy, 
School and Industry Discussed, 203. 
Schuyler, Louise Lee, 197. 
Scott, Superintendent, 5. 

Scott, Josepn F., 385, 604, 763. 

Scudder, Myron T., 307, 478, 547. 

Scudder, Vida, 714. 

Scrotton, Samuel R., 199. 

Seager, Henry R., 190. 

Second International Milk Congress, 737. 

Sehon, George L., 4, 387. 

Seligman, Edwin R. A., 191, 200. 

Sending Poor Consumptives West, 414. 

Seligsberg, Alice, 225. 

Sewall, Frank, 381. 

Sex Instruction in the Schools, 194. 

Shadwell, Arthur, 60. 

Shakeup in the State Hospital (Foxborough), 

Shall the Salvation Army Take the Public 
Into Its Confidence, 117. 

Shann, George, 613. 

Sharpe, H. C, 622, 762. 

Shaw, Albert, 200, 705. 

Shaw, Bernard, 461, 463. 

Shaw, Rev. George Balcom, 603, 621. 

Shirer, H. H., 763. 

Shurtleff, G. K., 663, 702. 

Sickels, Lucy M., 93. 

Siddons, Frederick L., 175. 

Simkhovitch, Mary K., 57, 354, 708. 

Simkhovitch, Vladimir, 708. 

Simons, A. M., 54. 

Sinclair, Upton, 55. 

Sleman, John B., Jr., 175, 339. ' 

Small Parks and Congested Housing, 413. 

Smith, A. E., 73. 

Smith, Charles Sprague, 460. 

Smith, Goldwin, 59. 

Smith, J. Allen, 611. 

Smith, Samuel G., 441. 

Snuffing Out the Cocaine Fiend, 73. 

Social Functions of the Hospital — Mt. Sinai 
Hospital, New York, 160, 205. 

Social Museum in a University, 653. 

Social Service Movement in the Young Men's 
Christian Association, 663, 702. 

Socialism and Charity, 148, 394. 

Socialism and Philosophy, 454. 

Social Center in a Swiss Village, A, 437. 

Social Legislation in Minnesota, 221. 

Social Legislation in Kentucky, 414. 

Social Legislation in Missouri, 326. 

Social Legislation in North Carolina, 345. 

Social Legislation in the South, 75. 

Social Mission from France, 449. 

Social Philosophy, 52. 

Social Reform in Arizona, 324. 

Social Relief W T ork of the Salvation Army, 
The, 117. 

Social Theory and Philosophy, 51. 

Social Value of Playgrounds in Crowded Dis- 
tricts, 507. 

Solenberger, E. D., 117, 118, 119, 219, 246. 

Solomon, Helen, 438. 

Some Books of the Year, 48. 

Some Observations of French Hospitals. 642. 

Some Religious Aspects of the Social Prob- 
lem, 610. 

Some Social and Civil Problems, 62. 

Something New Under the Sun, 595. 

South Dakota's First Conference of Charities, 

Spalding, Mrs. Keith, 466. 



Spalding, Warren P., 735. 

Speed, Louise J., 726. 

Spencer, Anna Garlin, 54, 55. 

Spirit of Labor, The, 61. 

Spirit of the American Government, 611. 

Sportsmanship and Games, 512. 

Sprague, Carlton, 324. 

Sprague, L. W., 225. 

Spratling, William P., 323. 

Standards in Schools of Philanthropy, 641. 

Starvation for Illinois Charities a Poor 

Economy, 179. 
State Board of Visitors in Minnesota, 177. 
Staten Island Tuberculosis Hospital, 431. 
St. Catherine's Home — Aid and Shelter for 

Girls, 76. 
Steele, H. Wirt, 388, 629. 
Steelman, Rev. Albert J., 603, 622. 
Steiner, Edward A., 49. 
Sternberg, George M., 175. 
Stevens, Frank W., 358. 
Stewart, Seth T., 199, 308, 465, 510. 
Stewart, W. D., 603, 622. 
Stewart, William R., 223, 343. 
Still After the Cocaine Fiend, 111. 
Stillman, W. O., 311, 312. 
Stine, Marcus, 311. 
Stokes, Rose Pastor, 431. 
Stories of Sonoratown, 49. 
Storrs, H. C, 763. 
Story of Life Insurance, 440. 
Straus, Nathan, 341. 

Street Cleaning Difficulties in New York, 590. 
Strong, Josiah, 548. 
Studies in Social Conditions, 48. 
Studies in Socialism, 53. 
Sutten, J. L., 763. 
Swedish Juvenile Court, The, 620. 
Sylvester, Richard, 5. 

Tabor, Francis H., 308, 512. 

Taft, William Howard, 62. 

Taylor, Graham, 169, 283, 408, 465, 566, 575, 

641, 696, 701, 709, 712. 
Taylor, Graham Romeyn, 39, 142, 169, 408, 

465, 471, 754. 
Tenement House Law Amendment, 94. 
Test of Service to the State, 307. 
Thaw Trial, The, 95. 
Thomas, Harriet E., 236. 
Thomas, Northcote W.. 580. 
Three Acres and Liberty, 64. 
Tillard, J. N., 733, 746. 
Tilley, David B., 343. 
To Beautify a Southern City,' 216. 
To Investigate Old Age Pensions, 605. 
Toronto Psychiatric Clinic, 113. 
Tower, Elizabeth, 329. 
Town and City, 63. 
Towne, Arthur, 311, 312, 466, 625. 
Townsend, Howard, 223. 
Train, Arthur, 65. 
Travelers' Aid at Jamestown, 291. 
Treatment of Dependents and Defectives, 104. 
Treatment of Children, 231. 
Treatment of Poverty, The, 635. 
Treatment of the Delinquent, 108, 333. 
Treatment of Habitual Drunkards, 414. 
Trend of Things, The, 83, 109, 130, 191, 303, 

335, 424, 455, 615, 714, 730. 

Tribon, Rev. D. H., 763. 
Truancy and Its Treatment, 690. 
Trudeau, Edward Livingston, 230. 
True and False Democracy, 611. 
Trueblood, Benjamin F., 94. 
Trumbull, Millie R., 38. 

Anti Tuberculosis Campaign in Yonkers, 

Caring for Ex-Patients at Stony Wold, 

Chicago's Plan of Campaign Against 
Tuberculosis, 466. 

"Cincinnati Method" of Treating Con- 
sumption, The, 417. 

Consumptive Convalescents and the 
Land, 230. 

How the Old Meets the New in Mary- 
land, 629. 

"Light Work" as a Factor in the Spread 
of Tuberculosis, 749. 

Missouri Tuberculosis Sanatorium, 622. 

National Tuberculosis in Washington, 
14G, 211. 

Needs of a Tuberculosis Day Camp, 639. 

New Sanatoriums and Dispensaries, 245. 

Pennsylvania and Tuberculosis, 574. 

Sending Poor Consumptives West, 414. 

Something New Under the Sun, 595. 

Staten Island Tuberculosis Hospital, 431. 

Tuberculosis Addresses, 66. 

Tuberculosis and the Schools, 657. 

Two Years' Campaign Against Tubercu- 
losis, 244. 

Will You Help Build the Fence? 78. 
Tuberculosis Addresses, 66. 
Tuberculosis and the Schools, 657. 
Tucker, Frank, 200. 
Tucker, Helen, 605, 723. 
"Turn of the Balance," The, 348. 
Tuthill, Richard S., 417. 
Two Cents Worth of Information, 175. 
Two Years' Campaign Against Tuberculosis, 

Tyler, Elizabeth, 328. 

Ufford, Walter S., 138, 218. 

Uniform Medical Records for State Chari- 
table Institutions, 941. 

Union of Playgrounds and Public School, 

Van Deventer, Minnie, 115. 

Veiller, Lawrence, 8, 308, 312, 413, 507. 

Venturi, E. A., 378. 

Virginia Conference of Charities and Correc- 
tion, 718. 

Voluntary Patients in an Insane Hospital, 

Wade, Frank E., 457, 466. 

Wadsworth, James, 419. 

Wage Earners' Insurance in Massachusetts, 

Walker, John, 45. 
Waning of Liberty in Massachusetts, The, 

Warburg, Felix W,, 311, 465, 466. 
Ward, C. Osborne, 60. 
Ward, Robert De C, 122. 



Warner, Rev. Beverly, 651. 

Warren, Josiah, 69. 

Washburn, W. D., Jr., 4. 

Washington, Booker T., 70, 348. 

Washington Housing Commission, 175. 

Waterman, Mrs. John Barnett, 650. 

Webster, T. K., 92. 

Welch, William H., 293. 

Weller, Charles P., 137, 175. 

Wells, H. G., 48. 

Wells, T. D., 763. 

Welshe, Anna M., 622. 

Westchester Children's Society, 416. 

What University Men Think of the Russell 

Sage Foundation, 186. 
Wheeler, Everett P., 193. 
White, Andrew D., 45i. 
White, Gaylord S., 9, 223, 610. 
White, William A., 177. 
White, Rev. William J., 317, 386. 
Whitehouse, R. T., 309. 
Whitlock, Brand, 347. 
Whitman, John L., 622. 

Whittaker, W. H., 323, 603, 622, 759, 760, 761. 
•Wilcox, E. D„ 52. 
Wilkin, Robert J., 312, 317. 
Willard, Frances T., 70. 
Willcox, Walter F., 50, 223. 
Willcox, William R., 358. 
Williams, Mornay, 577. 
Will You Help Build the Fence? 78. 

William H. Allen, Civic Achiever, 362. 

Williams, Norman, 388. 

Wilshire, Editorials, 55. 

Wilson, Alexander M., 7, 218. 

Wilson, George S., 177. 

Wilson, S. S., 762. 

Wines, Frederick Howard, 133, 621, 717, 763. 

Winter's Work of the Field Department, 239. 

Wise, Peter M., 735. 

With the Jails, 290. 

Wolfe, Albert B., 50. 

Wolfer, Henry, 5, 385, 622, 627, 763. 

Women's Trade Union Conferences, 431. 

Women's Work and Wages, 612. 

Woods, Robert A., 225, 708, 709, 718. 

Woodward, S. W., 175. 

Woolston, Florence, 378. 

Workers for the Blind, 718. 

Would-Be Suicides, 80. 

Wright, Edward S., 604. 

Wright, Carroll D., 200. 

Wright, Sophie, 651. 

Year's Progress in Probation, A, 313. 

Year's Work, The, 468. 

Y. M. C. A. and the Foreigner, The, 628. 

Zeman, Mrs. Humpal, 20. 

Zionist Bank in New York City, A, 449. 

Zueblin, Charles, 225, 309, 543. 


and The Commons 

Social Forces 

A Foreword FortnigKtly by tKe ILditor 


In every town and village there are men, women, and children who are in 
need of relief. It is scarcely necessary to present the evidence. If it were, every 
visitor of a charitable society, every settlement worker, missionary, district nurse, 
health inspector, policeman, and magistrate could testify. The need is not the 
spectacular but evanescent deprivation of San Francisco's disaster, nor the abject 
squalor of East London, nor the appalling imminent starvation of Russia and 
China. It is well to emphasize that the needs which call continuously for 
charitable intervention in American cities and towns are not for a moment to be 
compared with any of these. Persons who are charitable only in the presence of 
a convulsion of nature, or at the thought of starving millions, are of no use in 
the presence of the more common and persistent and yet more varied and fascinat- 
ing kinds of need which are encountered in the daily walks of the life of a 
■modern social worker. 

It is true, however, that in some of the case records there is a fascination 
not unlike that of the Thaw trial, which has held the attention and has aroused 
the conscience, while also it has disillusioned the innocent and probably perverted 
some whose minds are susceptible to this form of suggestion. Sin and guilt 
and heroic struggles to escape not only from their consequences but from their 
very power are by no means infrequent. One woman in particular arises in 
memory to teach again what heroism means. She is a widow with a little 
daughter just old enough, at the time when in her despair the mother asked for 
"help, to begin to question the meaning of visits which for some years a man had 
made to her mother. The world has a very ugly name for her relationship to 
this man, and, though there were circumstances in palliation, the agonizing 
mother knew that they would not be sufficient to prevent her disgrace if the 
facts were to become known, and that in a year or two the child must inevitably 
come to a shameful knowledge of the source of their income. She had been 
too weak to break the guilty bonds on her own account, but she became strong 
for the sake of her child. The one condition of a new start which she felt to be 
absolutely essential was that it should not be financially aided by the man who 
had provided for her, and with whom she must now break definitely and irre- 

She accomplished it, no matter precisely how. She has held her ground, not 
easily and not without help. She has supported herself and has repaid her 
loans. She has her reward in the freedom which she has won for herself and 
her child. How familiar the outlines of the story are in fiction. So familiar as 
to raise a doubt of its authenticity, yet a hard-working visitor has seen it unfold 
in this instance, through every stage of tragedy, and struggle, and danger of ex- 
posure, and doubt, and silent sympathy, and wise counsel, to a prosaic, successful, 

Social Forces 

and happy outcome. They two, the visitor and the woman, have worked it out 
together, no one else knowing more about it than was necessary to secure a loan 
or perfect some other essential detail. This woman of the great city, fighting 
her battle so nearly alone, surely deserved the charity which she received. Her 
mother instinct was her salvation, but the charity to which she appealed was the 
means by which she was enabled to act in accordance with that instinct under 
the complex and difficult conditions of life in the city. It meant money, sympathy, 
counsel, and service. For such charity there are every year a thousand calls 
to which there is no intelligent response. 

This need for charity is not confined to those who are about to be dispossessed, 
to those who have no fuel, whose cupboards are bare, who are shivering for lack of 
shoes and clothing. It is rather an anomaly that it is too often necessary for 
such a crisis to arise before the underlying real need for charity is discovered. 
The crisis may be but an accident. A landlord happens to be less lenient than 
heretofore. An unexpected illness temporarily cuts off income. A discouraged; 
and irresponsible head of the family goes away. A conscientious teacher notices 
that a pupil appears undernourished and reports to a charitable society. Or in 
any other of a score of ways, those who were already in sore need of charity 
become "applicants." The need was there before ; the need is present in countless 
others who do not happen to meet with such a crisis, who are not "applicants. "' 
It may be a need for money, or it may be a need for better counsel, fuller in- 
formation, training, warning, discipline, an opportunity for work, medical advice,, 
a surgical operation, social intercourse — for any one or more of a thousand 
changes, slight enough in themselves it may be, or so radical as an entire change 
of occupation or residence. The charity of the poor for each other — so often 
and so justly praised — seldom goes so far as really to meet these needs; and the 
charity of the rich for the poor does not so much as see them. There is no 
personal knowledge which might make the well-to-do realize these opportunities 
for doing good, and there is no imagination which might enable them to discover 
them through the eyes of others. 

The final, unpardonable, and unrecognized failure in the social fabric is the 
lack of charity. No improvement in the mechanical details of co-operation, no 
economy of funds now wasted in injudicious almsgiving, no repressive police 
measures directed towards mendicancy and imposture, will take the place of 
charity. Not even a determination that charity shall be restricted and surrounded 
by such conditions as seem likely to promote self-help and self-reliance will atone 
for the absence in the heart and in the minds of the people of that charity which 
sufrereth long and is kind. Whether in modern urban communities charity should 
take the form of a check sent the charity organization society, or that of 
residence and personal service in the tenements, may be, for any given individual, 
an open question. Doubtless some can do both. Everyone can do one or the 
other or can in some other way give practical evidence that he has a feeling 
of personal responsibility for meeting the needs of his real neighbors. So much 
as this is involved in good citizenship. Those who do not share in any way in 
the charity of to-day are doing little, we may be sure, however much they may 
claim to be its especial champions, to bring nearer the justice of to-morrow. 


AND The Commons 

edward t- devine. editor 
Graham Taylor. Associate 
Lee K. Frankel, Associate foi 


THe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs ill PHilantHropy and Social Advance 

Alley im- ^ n ^ e National Capital the 

provement In campaign for the COn- 
Washington. f version of hidden residenti- 
al alleys into minor streets has received a 
•temporary check through a recent decis- 
ion of the Supreme Court. The existing 
law provides that the expense of con- 
demning property in order to widen and 
extend an alley must be assessed upon 
the property benefited. The statute 
states that the special jury provided for, 
shall appraise the damages to the real 
estate affected and shall 

apportion an amount equal to the amount 

of said damages according as each lot 

or part of lot of land in such square may 
be benefited by the opening, widening, ex- 
tending or straightening such alley. 

This has always been interpreted to 
mean that the benefits assessed must 
equal the damages and costs so that the 
property in each square shall pay the 
entire expense of converting its hidden 
alleys into minor streets. Now, the Su- 
preme Court declares that it is unconsti- 
tutional to require the jury to find always 
an amount of benefits exactly equal to the 
damages involved. It is inferred that 
the damages may in some cases be 
greater than the benefits and then an 
imposition of the entire damages would 
amount to a confiscation of property 
without compensation. The alternative 
suggested in this decision of the Supreme 
Court is that any excess of damages or 
costs, over benefits or assessments, must 
be met out of the general treasury. That 
is to say, the general community must 
bear as general taxation the difference 
between the cost of converting an alley 

into a minor street and the increase in 
surrounding property values improved 
by the change. Some members of the 
committee on the improvement of hous- 
ing conditions consider that this is just. 
They say that it is because of general 
agitation for the improvement of condi- 
tions in Washington that the alleys are 
being opened and that the general public 
ought to share with local property own- 
ers the costs involved. On the other 
hand, the secretary of the committee 
takes two adjoining squares, one having 
a hidden alley, the other a minor street, 
and shows that the assessed valuation of 
the latter is enough larger to defray the 
cost of converting the alley of the former 
into a street. 

When local juries are asked to deter- 
mine the amounts of benefits accruing to 
adjoining property through the opening 
up of an alley, and are aware that any 
difference between benefits and damages 
will be met from the public treasury, it 
is quite evident that they are not likely 
to throw the entire burden upon the 
private property owners. When this 
is considered in connection with the 
fact that Congress is always suspicious 
of the private real estate interests of 
the National Capital and always fear- 
ful of being obliged to pay more 
than is just whenever the condemna- 
tion of private property is con- 
cerned, it is feared that it will be diffi- 
cult to persuade the senators and rep- 
resentatives to appropriate funds suffi- 
cient to carry forward the gradual con- 
version of Washington's 300 hidden al- 
levs into minor streets. The district 

Charities and The Commons 

commissioners and other local officials 
have felt that the work could not be ac- 
complished at all if a part of the expense 
must be met by general appropriations. 
In any case it is evident that the recent 
decision of the Supreme Court will neces- 
sitate a renewed, hard fight against the 
notorious alleys which constitute the 
principal blotch upon home conditions of 
the National Capital. In this connec- 
tion the report which James B. Reynolds, 
the special commissioner whom President 
Roosevelt requested to investigate the 
housing and social conditions of the Na- 
tional Capital, is awaited with interest. 
It is understood that Mr. Reynolds ex- 
pects to submit it to the president at an 
early date. 

The Minne- Senator Albert J. Bever- 
apoiis idge of Indiana will ad- 

Conference. dregs the opening se ssion 

of the National Conference of Charities 
and Correction which meets in Minne- 
apolis June 12. Governor Johnson, of 
Minnesota, will preside and features of 
the Quarterly Bulletin of the National 
Conference, now in press, are the re- 
sponses which have come from mid- 
western governors to his invitation to be 
present at this national gathering. The 
provisional program shows a remarkable 
list of papers which cannot be enumer- 
ated here other than to point out some of 
the more distinctive. The completeness 
of the secretary's announcements at so 
early a date is a matter for congratula- 

Under the section on Needy Families, 
Their Homes and Neighborhoods, Pro- 
fessor Edward A. Ross, of the Depart- 
ment of Political Economy, University 
of Wisconsin, will discuss the standard 
of living, a subject which was given such 
prominence at this year's New York 
State Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection; and W. D. Washburn, Jr., of 
Minneapolis, will consider preventive 
measures applicable to the Mississippi 
valley, a paper which should give point 
to the trend of the conference in its re- 
lation to the Middle West. The new 
section on The Promotion of Health in 
Home, School and Factory, affords an 
especially suggestive group of papers 

marked by the concreteness of the ques- 
tions to be discussed. For example, a 
symposium on Health in the School will 
be conducted by Dr. S. A. Knopf, of 
New York, discussing the work of school 
nurses and physicians, dental clinics, free 
eye-glasses, luncheons at cost, school 
baths, sanitation and other factors of 
school environment; Miss Marie Jamme r 
of the Minneapolis Visiting Nurse Asso- 
ciation, will conduct the symposium on 
Health in the Factory — physical examina- 
tion of working children, factory in- 
spection, welfare work, court rulings on 
factory laws; and Sherman C. Kingsley, 
of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society, 
on Health Work Directed to the Home. 
"Are you using a visiting cleaner?" will 
be asked of charitable societies ; "House 
to house teacher of cooking?" "House to 
house nurse?" "What out-patient work 
is done by your hospitals?" The chair- 
man of the section is William H. Allen r 
secretary of the New York Committee 
on Physical Welfare of School Children. 
The psychiatric clinic, early treatment of 
mental disease under the voluntary rela- 
tion without commitment, the industrial 
re-education of the chronic insane, work 
in the community for the recovered in- 
sane, and the boarding out system — 
papers on these subjects will emphasize 
the renewed attention given to making 
state systems of insane hospitals reach 
incipient insanity on the one hand and ex- 
ercise the responsibilities of after care on 
the other. Similarly, in the section on 
the defective, the relation of specialized 
institutions to the general school problem 
will be brought out while the general re- 
sponsibilities of the state will fall in the 
section on state board supervision. An- 
other new committee and one big in 
possibilities, is that on statistics, with 
John Koren, special expert of the United 
States Census Bureau presiding; while 
the combination of three former commit- 
tees into one strong committee on chil- 
dren, under George L. Sehon, of Ken- 
tucky, will relate such varied movements 
as child labor, juvenile reformation, rec- 
reation, and the like. 

It is high time that the attention of 
philanthropic workers be given to the 
practical problem of police administra- 

The Common Welfare 

tion and its relation to general social con- 
ditions. Papers by Superintendent Scott 
of Elmira, Warden Henry Wolfer of the 
Minnesota State Prison at Stillwater; 
Major Richard Sylvester, president of 
the International Association of Chiefs 
of Police, and Commissioner Harris R. 
Cooley of Cleveland, ought to contribute 
toward this end. 


Hoboken's The employment of a six- 
teen-year-old girl in the 
messenger service of a tele- 
graph company in Hoboken caused con- 
siderable comment in the newspapers a 
month ago, and gave rise to an inquiry 
as to just what were the conditions of 
messenger work in Hoboken. There are 
two telegraph companies in Hoboken, 
each of them employing about half a 
dozen boys — the Western Union Tele- 
graph Co. and the Postal Telegraph Co. 
The latter company is reported as making 
the most of the privilege accorded to it 
by New Jersey's lack of law, employing 
children of any age from fourteen down 
—the average being twelve years. The 
messengers of the other company are, as 
a rule, just fourteen. Miss Elizabeth B. 
Butler, secretary of the Consumer's 
League of New Jersey, writes as follows : 

The hours are from eight to eight. Usual- 
ly there are only one or two boys on the 
night shift, and his turn to work at night 
comes to each boy at intervals of three or 
four weeks. Of course, in busy seasons, 
such as election night, and Christmas time, 
all the boys are on duty overtime. 'We get 
ten cents an hour extra pay for overtime,' 
one small boy told me, 'but we have to work 
five hours for nothing first.' Election night 
they worked all night, and went on duty 
the next day without any resting time be- 
tween. The boys are paid ostensibly $4 
a week, but from this the company deducts 
$.50 a week for the hire of the uniform. 
This means that in a normal week of sev- 
enty-seven hours' work — a week in which 
there is no overtime, below or above the five 
hours limit of free service on the part of the 
employe, the boys are paid at the rate of 
four and one-half cents an hour. Hoboken 
has not even the slight protection of an or- 
dinance providing that boys in this service 
must not be sent to places injurious to their 
health or morals. There is no law appli- 
cable to these children but the compulsory 
education law, and that, by reason of the 
lack of a school census, is in this instance 
rendered innocuous. The records of the 

probation office show how complete is the 
education in vice and crime which the mes- 
senger service affords. 

A Remark- As result of an exhaust _ 

Survey of ive census, the New York 

New York's K, , « ' . , , 

Blind. btate Commission on the 

Blind, this week recommended in a re- 
port to the Legislature the creation of 
a state board for the blind, not dissimilar 
in scope to the permanent Massachusetts 
commission, and the carrying out of a 
state policy that would eliminate the pre- 
ventable causes of blindness, reduce the 
•burden of chronic care for the victims 
of these preventable causes, and by a 
state register, employment bureau, and 
industrial training, aim to meet the needs 
of the adult blind now so largely neg- 
lected, and re-establish them in the eco- 
nomic community. 

This commission continued the work 
begun by the state commission of 1903, 
and has on file records of 5,800 blind per- 
sons in New York state (of whom 2,250 
are in the greater city) — 300 more than 
were returned by the federal census. The 
statistical tables are based on 5,310 cases 
on file on February 15, of whom 55.4 per 
cent are males, 44.6 females ; 64.9 per 
cent totally blind, 35.1 partially blind. 
The commission finds that one in every 
1,295 people in the state are blind and 
estimates the total number in the United 
States to be nearly 100,000. 

Approximately, 600, or ten per cent 
of the blind in the state, are between five 
and twenty-one years of age, but of these 
fifty per cent are not actually enrolled in 
the schools; half of them at least, or 150 
children, are still eligible. In other 
words, only about two-thirds of the num- 
ber who are eligible, are in the schools. 
Even more striking is the obverse of this 
showing — that 90.6 per cent of the 5,310 
cases on file are twenty years of age and 
upwards, and that the only state pro- 
vision made for the adult blind is their 
care in the almshouses as part of the in- 
digent population, while the number so 
cared for is 361. 

The report calls attention to the excel- 
lent facilities afforded by libraries for the 
blind in connection with the public 
libraries of the state, and notes the recent 
rapid advances in providing literature for 

Charities and The Commons 

blind readers. The pension system in 
vogue in the city of Greater New York 
is described briefly. Under the head of 
private charities maintained in the state 
are described the Home for Blind Babies, 
the Church Home for the Blind, and the 
Industrial Home for the Blind, all in the 
Borough of Brooklyn; the St. Joseph's 
Blind Asylum at Mt. Loretto, Staten 
Island, the Society for the Relief of the 
Destitute Blind at Amsterdam avenue, 
and the work done for the past year and 
a half by the New York Association for. 
the Blind. This part of the report con- 
cludes with the statement that "the state 
of New York is spending for the educa- 
tion of its blind children about $100,000 
annually, but with the exception of $1,000 
expended for embossing new books and 
the amounts expended by the several 
counties in caring for the indigent blind 
in the various almshouses of the state, 
(a total of 361) not one dollar of 
public money is spent for the improve- 
ment of the condition of the adult blind." 
The report then considers the blind of 
the United States, their number, which 
the commission believes to be nearly 
100,000, the provisions, public and pri- 
vate, made for their education and care, 
which includes, for blind minors, homes 
for blind babies and schools for the in- 
struction of young children ; for blind 
adults, pensions, homes, workshops, in- 
dustrial homes, home teaching and cir- 
culating libraries. Each of these pro- 
visions is described, somewhat in detail, 
special emphasis being laid upon the 
various kinds of institutions provided 
throughout the United States for the 
adult blind. It is shown that California, 
Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin main- 
tain entirely at state expense institutions 
for the adult blind ; that Connecticut and 
Pennsylvania have institutions which 
were primarily private corporations, but 
which are now to some extent aided by 
public funds, and that dotting the face of 
the country are little homes for blind 
women, the outgrowth of private charity. 
In considering at length the matter of 
the prevention of blindness, the com- 
mission quotes authorities to show that 
ophthalmia neonatorum is the cause of 

more blindness than any other local dis- 
ease except perhaps atrophy of the optic 
nerve; that in 99 cases out of 100 this 
disease is preventable by the use of very 
simple precautions ; that the probable an- 
nual cost to the people of the state of New 
York of the support of its victims is over 
$110,000; that among 1,000 blind there 
are only 225 unavoidable cases, 449 that 
are possibly avoidable and 326 that are 
absolutely avoidable, or in other words, 
that one-third of the cases of blindness 
are absolutely preventable. The causes 
of blindness are considered under two 
heads, those resulting from disease and 
those from accident. Attention is called 
to the fact that the foundation of eye 
disease is frequently laid in the schools 
and remedies to prevent blindness from 
this cause are suggested. 

The draft of a proposed law closes the 
report. This law provides for a State 
Board for the Blind, consisting of five 
persons appointed by the governor for a 
term of five years, the members of the 
board to serve without compensation. 
The board shall prepare and maintain a 
complete register of the blind, act as a 
bureau of information and industrial aid, 
continue to make inquiries concerning the 
causes of blindness and the prevention 
of the same. The board may provide 
home teaching and, with the consent of 
the governor, may establish schools for 
industrial training and workshops for the 
employment of suitable blind persons, 
and may appoint such officers and agents 
as may be necessary. $40,000 is asked 
for carrying out the provisions of the bill. 

Massachu- With the idea ° f getting 

setts industrial together some graphic ex- 
amples of good and bad 
industrial conditions in Massachusetts, a 
dozen organizations are working in that 
state, perfecting plans for an exhibit to 
open on April 7, in Horticultural Hall, 
Boston. It is announced that "the ob- 
ject of the exhibition is the stimulation 
of interest on the part of the public in 
industrial and social problems which are 
matters of grave concern to the work- 
ers, but are only vaguely realized as af- 
fecting the general welfare of the com- 

The Common Welfare 

Maps and charts will show the loca- 
tion of the principal industries in Massa- 
chusetts, the number of men, women, 
and children employed in the different 
manufacturing centers, and the relative 
position of this state among the manu- 
facturing states. 

Under the heading, industrial hygiene 
and safety, will be shown conditions ex- 
isting in factories in Massachusetts that 
make for ill-health, lowered vitality, 
and, in the long run, for inefficiency. 
Contrasted with these will be shown 
other conditions that are found in the 
same industries where the health of the 
worker is conserved. This exhibit will 
strongly emphasize the recommendation 
of the State Board of Health in its re- 
cent report on conditions affecting the 
health and safety of employes — that 
legislation be enacted making the condi- 
tions of the best workshops the standard 
to which others in the industry must 
conform. The American Institute of 
Social Service will contribute the ma- 
terial shown in New York in February 
in its exposition of safety devices and 
industrial hygiene. Another group of 
exhibits will show the value of industrial 
training, which is being carried on in 
the state as a constructive measure for 
improving social conditions. The ex- 
hibit will further show the important 
contribution made by organized labor 
toward better economic and social con- 
ditions for the wage earner; the good 
trades unions have accomplished in fur- 
thering industrial peace and promoting 
a higher standard of citizenship; the 
work of various organizations in arous- 
ing the consumer to a consciousness of 
his responsibility for the conditions under 
which goods are made ; and the efforts 
of factory owners to promote the wel- 
fare of employes. 

The exhibit is being arranged by the 
following organizations : 

Women's Trade Union League, Massachu- 
setts Consumers' League, Boston Central La- 
bor Union, Boston Association for the Relief 
and Control of Tuberculosis, Women's Edu- 
cational and Industrial Union, Boston Trade 
School for Girls, North Bonnet Street In- 
dustrial School, Industrial Committee of the 
Twentieth Century Club, Massachusetts 
State Federation of Women's Clubs, Women's 
Education Association. 

Committee headquarters are at 4 Joy 
street, Boston. Alexander M. Wilson is 
director of the exhibit. 

Tr^n?ng a for Tne success of the Chicago 
Employes Institute of Social Science 

institutions, in providing special train- 
ing for those engaged in or preparing 
for public service in institutions or other 
charitable or reformatory agencies, en- 
courages the hope in Illinois of enabling 
the state university to extend its civil 
service training in this practical direc- 
tion. An appropriation for this purpose 
was favorably considered by influential 
members of the legislature at its session 
two years ago but at the end of the ses- 
sion the bill failed to be reported out of 
the joint conference committee of the 
two nouses after it had passed the senate. 
If, at the urgent suggestion of some of 
the most intelligent friends of the uni- 
versity and the state institutions, the pres- 
ent legislature will grant ah additional 
appropriation for training individuals 
holding and applying for positions in the 
penal and charitable institutions of the 
state, the efficiency of their service can 
be greatly promoted at slight cost. The 
plan proposed includes the location of 
university extension centers at all of the 
state institutions to supplement the 
training given by their staffs to their 
employes. It also provides for bringing 
them in small relays, after the manner of 
teachers' institutes, to the university at 
Urbana, or to Chicago, where they can 
confer with practical specialists on the 
fields where their work and its methods 
are to be seen. Truant officers and pro- 
bation officers of the Juvenile Court at 
Chicago are now receiving such training 
principally at the hands of their own 
officials. For the course in juvenile de- 
linquency offered by the Institute of 
Social Science is being conducted by the 
chief probation officer of the Juvenile 
Court with the assistance of its judges, 
the superintendent of the compulsory de- 
partment of the board of education and 
irs child study expert and the heads of 
some of the state, county and city insti- 
tutions, together with the most capable 
representatives of the best private child- 
helping agencies. 

Charities and The Commons 

AttacKs on New York's 
Tenement House Law 

Lawrence Veiller 

The usual attacks on the tenement 
house law that are made during each 
session of the New York Legislature 
have been renewed in a series of bills 
recently introduced by Assemblyman 
Sheridan, of the Bronx. The bills are 
similar to those introduced in previous 
years and come from the same source, a 
property owners' association in the 
Bronx. The main features of these bills 
and the evil results that would follow 
their passage, may be broadly summar- 
ized as follows : 

Assembly bill 609 would change the defin- 
ition of a tenement house by exempting 
from the provisions of the tenement house 
law, houses occupied by three families, thus 
taking a step backward of twenty years. 
The tenement house law when originally 
enacted in 1867, did not apply to three-fam- 
ily houses, but only to houses containing 
four families or more. In 1887 — twenty 
years ago — as a result of the conditions 
which were then found to exist in such 
houses, it was found necessary to amend 
the law so as to include all houses contain- 
ing three families or more and this has 
been the law from then to the present time. 
If the proposed amendment were to prevail, 
it would take out of the provisions of the 
present law thousands of tenement houses, 
and leave such buildings without proper 
safeguards and restrictions. This would 
be especially regrettable as it is the experi- 
ence of the Tenement House Department 
that many of the three-family houses are 
the worst houses in the city from a sani- 
tary point of view and require constant at- 

Assembly bill 1358 would change the law 
so as to permit new tenement houses of 
three stories and basement, practically four 
stories high, with three families in each, 
to be erected without stairs leading to the 
roof, but with the only means of roof exit 
a scuttle and ladder. The recent disastrous 
fire in a Brooklyn tenement house, reported 
in the papers of March 11, in which a 
mother and her two children were suffocat- 
ed because they could not get out through 
the scuttle, indicates the necessity of pre- 
serving in its integrity the present provision 
of law. 

Assembly bill 1360 would amend the law 
so as to exempt existing tenement houses 
from having a scuttle in the roof in case 
the building has a peaked or slanting roof. 
There is no reason for such a change. The 
laws of this state have required a scuttle 
in every tenement house since 1862. The 
purpose of the scuttle is a two-fold one — 

partly to afford means of egress in case of 
fire; partly to allow the flames and smoke 
to be ventilated and go up through the 
roof. Even in the case of a house of this 
kind with a peaked roof, the scuttle would 
be useful. Tenants whose escape was cut 
off below could get out on the roof and cling 
to its sides until rescued by ladders from 
the outside. 

A further bill (Assembly bill 1361), would 
withdraw from the definition of a tenement 
house, old dwellings of two stories and base- 
ment in height, occupied by two families, 
but with provision for a third family. It 
is obvious that if a building is arranged to 
be occupied by three families, it should be 
classed as a tenement house, otherwise 
evasion of the law would be encouraged. 

Assembly bill 1362 would amend the law 
by giving to the tenement house commis- 
sioner and his deputies and other subordin- 
ate employes, discretionary power to modify 
the tenement house act. If such a change 
were made it would open the door for graft 
and corruption at every point and would be 
a return to the old system in vogue in the 
building department prior to 1901. There 
was at that time such discretionary power 
in regard to the percentage of lot to be occu- 
pied by new buildings, with the result 
found by the Tenement House Commission, 
viz., that in ninety-nine per cent of the cases 
this discretion was exercised, and the re- 
quirements of the law set aside and made 
of no effect. 

Assembly bill 1359 relates to the issuance 
of certificates by the Tenement House De- 
partment upon the completion of a new 
building and would destroy • the present 
wise provision which requires that before 
a new tenement house can be occupied, a cer- 
tificate shall be issued that it complies with 
the law; by substituting a provision that 
the building may be occupied if the super- 
intendent of the Building Department says 
so. Comment upon such a proposal hardly 
seems necessary. The present provision of 
law was enacted to put an end to the abuses 
which existed for so many years in the 
Building Department by which an owner 
would fill up a new building with tenants, 
although there were many violations pend- 
ing, sell the building to an innocent pur- 
chaser who would then be held for the vio- 
lations which could not be removed, the re- 
sult being that every building that was 
erected was erected in violation of law in 
numerous particulars. No more perfect il- 
lustration of the purposes and standards ac- 
tuating the persons back of this legislation 
could be had than is had in this measure. 
In addition to the bills introduced by Mr. 
Sheridan, there have also been introduced 
by Assemblyman Glore two objectionable 
bills relating to bakeries in tenement houses 
(Assembly bills 486 and 1673); also a bill 
by Senator Page (Senate bill 795), dealing 
with the same subject, but preserving the 
protection which the law now affords tene- 
ment dwellers; this latter bill is a proper 

A Quiet Day for Social Workers 

measure and has the approval of the Tene- 
ment House Commissioner, Mr. Butler, and 
also of the friends of tenement house re- 

The bills of Assemblyman Glore would re- 
move this protection and would permit a 
fire originating in a bakery to spread 
throughout the other parts of the building. 
The present law was enacted so as to pre- 
vent such occurrences, experience having 
shown that one-fourth of all the fires in 
tenement houses originate in the cellar and 
a large number of these in bakeries, and 
many of them at night or during the early 
morning hours when the tenants are asleep; 
such fires are usually attended by loss of 

In addition to the above bills, it is 
understood that Tenement House Com- 
missioner Butler has for some time past 
been preparing a general bill which will 
soon be introduced, amending the tene- 
ment house act chiefly in the line of 
clearing up any doubtful matters, and 
embodying as a matter of statute, the 
various rulings and interpretations of 
the law that have been in force in the 
department since its inception. In view 
of the uniformly friendly attitude of the 
legislature towards the present tenement 
house law, since its enactment in 1901, 
and in view of the well-known attitude 
of Governor Hughes on this subject, 
there is little likelihood of the passage of 
any measure that seeks to break down 
any of the law's beneficent provisions, 
although the friends of tenement house 
reform should remember as in the past, 
that "eternal vigilance is the price of 
liberty" and be duly watchful. 

A Quiet Day for Social 


Gaylord S. White 

That there are, after all, fundamental 
faiths and aspirations which bind to- 
gether earnest people who differ in many 
points, was once more made plain on 
Lincoln's birthday, when a number of 
men and women engaged in social and 
religious work gathered in the Adams 
Chapel of the Union Theological Semin- 
ary in New York to listen to a series of 
addresses by members of the faculty of 
that institution. The purpose of the 
gathering was declared, in the announce- 
ment, to be to provide "a quiet day for 
social workers." and it was stated that 

the faculty had planned the series of 
addresses with the conviction that relig- 
ious truth can be presented in such a 
way as to unite earnest people instead of 
dividing them. The hope was express- 
ed that the occasion might bring together 
men and women who differ from each 
other in many convictions but who, at 
the same time, share the purpose of pro- 
moting social welfare. "The pressure 
of life," the announcement continued, 
"upon those actively engaged in social 
work, is so constant and so great that 
little time can ordinarily be found for 
intellectual and spiritual stimulus and 
readjustment. This day of quiet confer- 
ence is intended to offer something to 
meet this need." That others felt the 
need was apparent from the cordial res- 
ponse to the invitation. It was an inter- 
esting and significant gathering. Doubt- 
less, there was wide difference of opinion 
represented by those who came ; but this 
was an occasion not to develop diverg- 
ence of view but to discover harmony of 
thought and aim. It is perhaps to be 
regretted that there was no opportunity 
for discussion of the addresses, for dis- 
cussion would probably have strengthen- 
ed still more the impression, shared by 
all, of comradeship in effort and aspira- 
tion. Some idea of the line of thought 
may be gained from the topics of the 
addresses. Professor William Adams 
Brown opened the series with an address 
on The Religious Basis of the Social 
Movement, which will be found else- 
where in this issue. He was followed 
by the acting president of the seminary, 
Professor Knox, who spoke on the 
Fundamental Religious Truth in the 
Light of Modern Thought. Ethical Re- 
ligion was the topic of an address by 
Professor McGiffert ; The Social Mes- 
sage of Jesus was discussed by Profes- 
sor Frame ; The Ultimate Aim of Social 
Reform by Professor Fagnani ; Our 
Common Service by Professor Thomas 
C. Hall and Inspiration by Professor 
Coffin. It was suggested by not a few 
that this "quiet day" of conference 
might well become a regular feature of 
Lincoln's birthday for those who feel the 
value of relating religion and life in this 
time of social unrest and readjustment. 



Father Dombrowski was born in Poland in 1842 ; fought for freedom in the war of '63 ; was 
obliged to leave Poland ; entered the priesthood and came to America in 1869. In Detroit he 
founded a Polish seminary and introduced the order of Felician sisters for teaching, care of orphans, 
etc. He died in 1903, known as the "patriot priest." 

Father Baraga was the first bishop of Marquette, Michigan. He was Slovenian missionary 
to the Indians and author of valuable philological works on Indian languages. He was born in 
1797 near Laibach, Carniola. 

Father Kruszka of Ripon, Wis., is author of a history of the Poles in America of which eight small 
volumes have appeared. 

Our Slavic Fellow- Citizens 

Chapter I — History of Settlement Previous to 1880 
E.mily Greene BalcK 

Copyright, 1907, Charities and Tiik Commons 

The time has not yet come to write 
with any thoroughness the history of 
Slavic immigration. The preliminary 
work must be done by local antiquarian 
societies, state historical associations, 
writers of monographs and especially by 
the various nationalities themselves, and 
as yet only the Poles and Bohemians 
have arrived at a stage to undertake this. 
Meanwhile, I submit for criticism a rough 
outline so far as I have made it out. 

First Period: Before 1850 

I distinguish 
three periods, 
that before 1850, 
from 1850 to 
1880, and the 
last twenty-seven 
years. The first 
period is mark- 
ed not by any 
considerable in- 
flux but by scat- 
tered individuals 
rescued from ob- 
livion by some 
personal distinc- 
tion or some 
touch of the pic- 

The list i s 
headed by the 
Pole John of 
Kolna, who is 
said to have 
brought his vessel to Labrador sixteen 
years before Columbus discovered Amer- 
ica. In the seventeenth century appear 
a group of sturdy colonial worthies of 
Manhattan, including the Bohemian 
Augustine Herman, Lord of Bohemia 
manor, who made the first map of Mary- 
land and assisted at the purchase of the 
site of Philadelphia from the Indians, the 
Bohemian Frederick Phillips (Bedrich 
Filip) whose manor house, built in 1682, 
is now the city hall of Yonkers, and the 
Polish family of the Zbrowskis (angliciz- 



ed into Zabriskie), which gave New Jer- 
sey a chancellor and is still prominent. 1 

These men and their descendants inter- 
married with well known families like 
the Bayards, Jays, Morrisons and 
others, and like all the immigrants of 
the period before 1850, quickly merged 
in the general population. 

In the next century the Moravian 
brethren begin to come by 1735, but it 
is at least doubtful, in spite of the name 
commonly given to the sect, how much 
Moravian (/. e. 
Czech or Bo- 
hemian) blood 
there was among 

Our revolu- 
tion brought 
from Poland the 
national hero, 
Kosciuszko, to- 
gether with Pul- 
aski, who died 
at Savanpah,and 
Niemce w i c z , 
biographer o f 
\Y ash ington , 
men who with 
the Frenchman 
Lafayette s^em 
to lend a touch 
of exotic ro- 
mance t o the 
homespun of our 
own embattled farmers. 

The Polish insurrection of 1831 sent 
us a more considerable and more abiding 
contingent including, among many Poles, 
a Bohemian volunteer in their cause, Dr. 

( x ) One finds indeed various scattering refer- 
ences to Poles in the colonial period. 

2 A Dutch manuscript makes the following men- 
tion of this first Bohemian colonist: "A patent for 
this land, embracing nominally four thousand 
acres, hut in fact upwards of twenty thousand, 
had been issued in I960 by the proprietary of 
Maryland to Augustine Herman or Heermans, a 
Bohemian by birth and a surveyor by profes 
Hon, who had formerly lived among the Dutch 
at New Amsterdam and obtained some distinc- 
tion there, as a compensation for his services 
in preparing for Lord Baltimore a map of the 
count rv." 

Built in 1682. Now the city hall at Yonkers, N. Y. 

Dignovity, later of San Antonio, Texas, 
where his family are said still to prosper. 

A pathetic echo of this immigration 
is a reminiscence of an American lady 
who lived as a girl in Troy sometime in 
the early thirties. She never forgot see- 
ing there a group of Polish gentlemen, 
ragged, but obvious aristocrats, working 
at the cobbled paving of the street with 
bleeding fingers. A few days later one 
of these men looked at his torn hands, 
drew out a pistol and shot himself. 

The revolutionary war of 1848 sent 
us non-political refugees, from both 
Bohemia and Poland, as well as those 
from France and Germany, of whom 
Carl Schurz is the best known. Of this 
movement a well informed Bohemian 
writes : 

The first emigration from Bohemia to 
the United States took place in the few- 
years succeeding the Revolution of 1848 in 
Austria, and the cause therefore was almost 
entirely political dissatisfaction due to the 
reaction toward despotism which followed 
that revolution. These first settlers were 
of the most intelligent class of people and 
in very many cases of the wealthy classes. 
They established themselves in St. Louis, 
Mo., and in Caledonia, Wis. (near Racine). 1 

The gold fever of 1849 brought ad- 
venturers to California, some Bohemians 
probably and some Dalmatians. Dal- 
matians, indeed being sailors and fisher 
folk — either of the coast or islands of the 

(*) Anon — The Bohemian Settlements in Ke- 
waunee County. Mss. in possession of State His- 
torical Society of Wisconsin. 


Adriatic — have come to us sporadically 
from early times and one is said to have 
come to California before 1700 via India. 
The census of 1850 1 to which we turn 
to sum up the results of this period as 
well as it can be done, does not specify 
Bohemia or Poland as countries of origin. 

(*) In order to avoid repetition I will once for 
all enter a warning as to the significance of the 
census figures in this field. The census professes 
to give only country of birth, not nationality. In 
1850, to go no further back, Austria and Russia 
were among those specified. In 1860 Poland was 
added, in 1870 Bohemia and Hungary. It is to 
be noted that Bohemia is politically only one of 
the seventeen "Lander" of Austria and that Po- 
land is now divided between the Russian, German 
and Austrian empires. Obviously this leads to 
errors, in addition to what one must usually ex- 
pect in replies to census inquiries, and doubtless 
many Bohemians answer (quite correctly) that 
they were born in Austria, many Poles that they 
were born in Austria, in Germany or in Russia, 
as the case may be. Czechs from Moravia appear 
in the census as Austrians, although they form 
one group with the Bohemians, a group quite as 
homogeneous in blood, speech, feeling and tradition 
as the Poles. In Texas, for instance, where the 
"Bohemians" are mostly from Moravia, the im- 
portance of the group is entirely masked by the 
registration of all Moravians as of natives of 
Austria along with Austrian Germans, Jews, Slo- 
venians, Tyrolese Italians, etc., etc. On the other 
hand it is easy to speak as if "natives of Poland" 
were synonymous with Poles, "natives of Hun- 
gary" with Hungarians, and so on. As a matter 
of fact this is far from being the case. In 1905 
the immigration figures show Hungarians (Mag- 
yars) making only a little over a quarter of the 
immigrants from Hungary, while Russians are 
under two per cent of the immigrants from Rus- 
sia. Again these figures report 92,338 Jews from 
Russia and 11,114 Jews from Austria entering in 
1905 ; the bulk of these, who came from Russian 
Poland and Austrian Poland respectively, appear 
in the census simply as "natives of Poland" and 
quite distort the facts as to the 47,224 Poles 
from Russia and 50,450 Poles from Austria of the 
same year. Especially as regards concentration 
in cities the Polish Jews make the census figures 
for the "natives of Poland" almost meaningless as 
regards Poles. 

Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens 


The Polish immigrants of this period 
being mainly from German Poland and 
Silesia are indistinguishable from the 
mass of the German born, who already 
in 1850 numbered nearly six hundred 
thousand. Natives of Austria, the 
bulk of whom were certainly Bohemians, 
then numbered, so far as registered, 
under one thousand (946). The largest 
groups were at our doors, so to speak, 
in New York city (109), New Orleans 
(129) and in California (87). Inland 
the beginnings of the later large Bo- 
hemian colonies in Missouri, Illinois and 
Wisconsin were already apparent. 

Second Period; 1850— I88O 

The Older Slavic Immigration 

During this period there was a con- 
siderable immigration of Bohemians and 
Poles, the latter still mainly from the 
German provinces. Bohemian immigra- 
tion began to be of importance earlier 
than the Polish and throughout this 
period continued to outnumber it, as 
shown on chart I. 

In 1880 the census showed over forty- 
eight thousand natives of Poland (of 
whom a large though unknown number 
were doubtless Polish Jews) and eighty- 





/ h i o 




/yso /. 



five thousand of Bohemia, beside thirty- 
nine thousand ascribed to Austria, of 
whom a good share would be also Bo- 
hemians (or Moravians, which amounts 
to the same thing). There were also 
twelve thousand from Hungary. Of 
their distribution I will speak later. 

The character of the immigration of 
this period is essentially economic, in 
contrast with the earlier scattering and 
largely political movement. The peasant 
and the town and village artisan began 
to come and to come as settlers with their 
families and their little capital, and they 
made their way to regions that were then 
pioneer country. There were of course 
still those (as there are to-day) influenc- 
ed mainly by hope of a freedom that they 
lacked at home ; and various political 
events increased this element from time 
to time. 

The war between Austria and Prussia 
in 1866 sent us both Bohemians and 
Poles, and the latter were , also led to emi- 
grate by the insurrection of 1861, and by 
the course of events in Prussia after the 
war with France and during the Kultur 
Kampf of the early seventies. An in- 
stance of the spirit of such men was 
told me by the son of a Bohemian pioneer 
in Texas. A friend from the old country 
visited them in their new abode. "Why, 
Valentine," he said, "at home your pigs 
are housed better than you are here." 
"That is true," was the sturdy answer, 
"but I would rather live here in this log 
house than in a palace under the Austrian 
government." The son of a man of this 
stamp not unnaturally finds himself a 
person of influence in his community — 
in this particular case, judge, editor and 
member of the county school committee. 

So in the Chicago schools to-day the 
teachers notice among the Polish pupils 
the difference between the children of 
men of intelligence, self exiled for the 
sake of ideals, and of the Polish "man 
with the hoe," the product of centuries 
of perhaps the hardest serfdom of 
Europe. Though it must be said that 
Polish children in general are considered 
good scholars. 

In this second period appear for the 
first time groups of some size and 
cohesion. Apparently Slavs have never 


Charities and The Commons 

immigrated as organized bodies (unless 
we count the Moravians or seme of the 
Russian sectaries) but though coming 
separately or in little bands of relatives or 
neighbors, they have a strong tendency to 
congregate in homogeneous groups often 
made up of people not simply members 
of the same national subdivision but 
neighbors in the same home village. This 
is the natural result not only of social 
affinities intensified by isolation in a 
strange land with a strange tongue, but 
by the fact that the immigrant who finds 
a successful location draws over acquaint- 
ance from home. Yet while the bulk of 
our Slavic population are in larger or 
smaller colonies of their own, it will al- 
most always be noticeable that repre- 
sentatives are to be found dispersed far 
and wide, the scouts as it were who may 
lead to new settlements. 

The two chief early routes seem to 
have been from Bremen or Liverpool to 
either New York or New Orleans, though 
in the days of sailing vessels the goal 
and the character of the journey prob- 
ably varied more than now. From New 
York the settlers went West, while from 
New Orleans and the other gulf ports they 
also pushed inland. The earliest colony of 
Bohemians was in St. Louis, where they 
had established a Catholic church by 
1854. In Texas both Poles and Bo- 
hemians had early and very interesting 
farming settlements. At the same time 
by the great waterway of the Mississippi, 
then in all the glory of its steamboating 
era, they penetrated northward to join 
and merge with their countrymen travel- 
ling overland from the East. 

The first Bohemian settler in Texas 
seems to have been a Protestant pastor, 
Bergman, from Silesia, who left home in 
February, 1848, and came to Catspring, 
near Austin, where he went to farming. 
A letter of his describing Texas most 
favorably fell accidentally into the hands 
of another Bohemian named Lesikar, and 
through his persuasions a group of Bo- 
hemians who had been thinking of emi- 
grating to Southern Hungary decided 
with Lesikar to follow Bergman's ex- 
ample. Their story suggests what emi- 
gration meant in those days. The voyage 
from Liverpool to Galveston lasted 

seventeeen weeks. The vessel was 
crowded with Irish immigrants, the food, 
which was bad, was served out raw and 
each family had to cook for themselves, 
an arrangement then common. Half of 
the party died on the journey. 

From this beginning, settlers from 
Bohemia and Moravia multiplied in 
Texas, spreading into a number of coun- 
ties. The situation was nevertheless a 
very difficult one. The state had made 
part of the Union only since 1845 an< ^ 
had long been a resort for the most 
varied elements. The Americans gener- 
ally carried on large plantations with 
slave labor or else had great herds of 
half wild cattle. The chief traffic was 
with Mexico and neighboring states in 
cotton and cattle. Into such a society 
came Bohemians, Poles and Germans 
singly or in small groups with a little 
capital only, buying comparatively small 
farms and working them themselves. The 
Bohemians almost without exception held 
anti-slavery views which set the Amer- 
icans against them and subjected them 
to all sorts of persecutions. When the 
Civil War broke out things were naturally 
worse. "They fired on people who wanted 
to avoid military service as if they had 
been rabbits and if one were caught he 
had to go as a soldier." Some went to 
Mexico for awhile, others are said to 
have hidden in the woods and slept in 
hollow trees. Added to these troubles 
were the war prices. No goods came 
through from the Northwest, and what 
was brought in from Mexico was very 

It is tempting to cite instances of the 
careers of these early Texan settlers. 
One story is that of Joseph Petr, whose 
father emigrated from Moravia when the 
boy was eleven — one of six children who 
could no longer be supported in the old 
home. The new farm was bought on 
credit, the whole family had to work 
early and late and schooling was out of 
the question. After five years the Civil 
War broke out, the eldest son died in the 
ranks and the sixteen year old Joseph 
was employed carting provisions for the 
soldiers. After the war he learned black- 
smithing and helned with his father's 
farm and store. He prospered and came 

Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens 


to own one thousand acres of good land 
on which twenty Bohemian families 
found their living as employes or tenants. 
He held a number of offices, was post- 
master and twice elected to the state 

Thus their native persistence carried 
the Bohemians through the dark days of 
their first settlement and to-day their 
number is locally estimated at sixty 
thousand in the state, a respectable and 
respected element of the farming dis- 
tricts. 1 

As already said, Poles as well as Bo- 
hemians came early to Texas and at their 
oldest settlement of Panna Marya (the 
Virgin Mary) the first Polish church in 
America was founded in 1855. I had an 
interesting talk with a son of one of the 
original colonists, who spoke gladly of 
the old times. Rev. Leopold Moczygem- 
ba, a Franciscan missionary in Texas ; 
became acquainted with an Irish Catholic 
named Tewey (?) (who owned land) 

and suggested a colony. At 
first there was only fifteen 

or twenty families, but in 

all a hundred or more 

came, though it is not pos- 
sible to get precise num- 
bers. The first immigrants 

came by sailing vessels to 

Galveston up the river to 

Indianola and thence by 

wagon, arriving in the early 

winter. They built huts of 

boughs and other material 

they could find. The con- 
ditions proved very hard, 

the climate was dry and all 

the surroundings strange 

to them. They had no 

trouble with Indians, but 

Texas in those days was 

a refuge of bad men and 

the Americans were often 

unfriendly and violent. 

"They would take a man 

and beat him," I was told, 

0) A Bohemian writer remarks 
"The Moravians in Texas, con- 
servative in character, have not 
acquired the energy and alertness, 
the business spirit requisite in 
America, so that they do not ac- 
complish as great a success as 
they might with their industry, 
honesty and thrift. Of late years 
their main crop has suffered from 
the ravages of the cotton weevil." 

" just for the fun of it. Several times a 
Pole bought a horse and in the night the 
seller would come and steal it." Those 
who had trades could earn money by go- 
ing to town ''instead of scratching in dry 
ground." Many left and went north. 
My informant was nearly eleven when 
his family came to Texas. He served on 
the Confederate side during the war. He 
had evidently prospered, the place which 
was by itself spoke of pretty substantial 
farming, the house was comfortable and 
solid, and the son was a nice looking fel- 

The pictures I carry away from Panna 
Marya are the group of girls in pink, blue 
and red sunbonnets, boys bareheaded 
and barefooted learning their catechism 
in the cool stone church, the priest's 
house with its veranda and flower beds, 
the store, a typical country store, with 
a saddled horse hitched under the live 
oak before it, the big bare school rooms 
in .which the children were, being taught 

The earliest Polish Church in the United States dating back to 1855 


Charities and The Commons 

in English, not of the purest yet not of 
the worst either — the whole making up 
an impression of the quiet, rather stag- 
nant life of men still close to the 
European peasant, yet by no means un- 
touched by America, a life wholesome if 
not very highly evolved. 

The Panna Marya settlement was quick- 
ly followed by others, five founded 
churches the next year and eleven other 
Polish settlements did the same in the 
following twenty years. The state still 
continues to be sought by Poles to some 
extent (over one thousand Polish immi- 
grants gave Texas as their destination 
in the last eight years) and the Polish 
population is estimated at sixteen to 
seventeen thousand. 

One of the earliest goals of the Bo- 
hemians and Poles was Wisconsin and 
the attitude of this state toward immi- 
gration probably did a good deal to bring 
this about. A fact that is easily for- 
gotten in the present state of feeling, in 
regard to immigration is the eager and 
official solicitation of immigrants that 
was carried on for years by various 
states. Mr. Gregory in a paper con- 
tributed to the proceedings of the State 
Historical Society of Wisconsin in 1901 
writes as follows : 

The men who controlled the destinies of 
Wisconsin * * * framed the state constitu- 
tion and the early statutes in such a way as 
to encourage foreign settlers to feel at home 
here, and in this respect Wisconsin's laws 
have never changed. During a large part 
of the time since admission to the Union (in 
1848) an active propaganda to encourage im- 
migration has been carried on by the state. 

Wisconsin further, like various other 
states, appointed a commissioner of emi- 
gration to stimulate the inflow. In 1852 
the first man to fill this office reported 
to the governor that he had been in New 
York distributing pamphlets in English, 
German, Norwegian and Dutch describ- 
ing the resources of the state. They were 
handed to immigrants on vessels and in 
hotels and taverns and sent abroad; edi- 
torials and advertisements were inserted 
in foreign papers, and he and his assist- 
ants talked personally with as many 
immigrants as possible. He says him- 

It is hardly possible to make a true esti- 
mate of the influence exerted by the agency 

in New York. Information has emanated 
from there in every direction and is now 
spread over a large and for our object most 
valuable part of Europe. 

After four years this canvass for 
immigrants was suspended for a time, 
but an active propaganda was recom- 
menced by the state soon after the Civil 
War and continued, with some changes 
of detail almost to the present time. 

Moreover, in 1864 the Wisconsin legis- 
lature memorialized Congress for the 
passage of national laws to encourage 
foreign immigration on the ground that 
labor was scarce owing to the war and 
that wages had more than doubled. 
Again in 1879 Wisconsin established a 
State Board of Immigration to enhance 
and encourage immigration, with au- 
thority to disseminate information. The 
official circulars mentioned as induce- 
ments climate, rich lands at a nominal 
price, free schools and a free university, 
equality before the law, religious liberty, 
no imprisonment for debt and liberal 
exemption from seizure by a creditor, 
suffrage and right to be elected to any 
office but that of governor or lieutenant 
on one year's residence whether a citizen 
or not (intention to become one having 
been declared) and full eligibility to 
office for all actual citizens. "There is 
never an election in the state that does 
not put some and often very many 
foreign born citizens into office. Indeed 
there is no such thing as a foreigner in 
Wisconsin save in the mere accident of 
birthplace ; for men coming here and 
entering into the active duties of life 
identify themselves with the state and 
her interests and are to all intents and 
purposes American." We are told "The 
language above used is, except in 
rhetoric, identical" with that in an edition 
of 1884. 

Beside this direct encouragement by. 
the state "a similar canvass was main- 
tained by counties and land companies 
and at a later stage by railway compa- 
nies, some of them sending agents to 
travel in Europe." Of such solicitation 
at the very beginning of Bohemian immi- 
gration I found tradition still mindful 
in the old country. 

Mr. Senner, formerly commissioner of 

Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens 


immigration at New York, said before 
the Industrial Commission (Vol. XV, 
1901, p. 182) that the effect of such ad- 
vertisement is exaggerated. 

There is no doubt that people have been 
educated to take our advertisements with a 
large grain of allowance. They look rather 
more sceptically on these matters than they 
did fifteen or twenty years ago. Though 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Texas and a few 
other states at that time (1901) maintained 
permanent colonization bureaus in Europe 
their success is very small. 

Granting this, it is still true that immi- 
grants have felt themselves directly and 
officially invited and urged to come, and 
it is not surprising that I often find 
them aggrieved and hurt at the tone of 
too many current references making 
foreigner synonymous with everything 
that is unwelcome. It is no wonder that 
Wisconsin was, as said, a favorite goal 
with Bohemians and Poles. The latter 
had a church in Polonia in 1858 and 
the Bohemians were at Caledonia near 
Racine in 1844. The first Bohemian 
newspaper, Slavic, was published here, 
and here the Bohemian free thought 
movement seems to have first taken 
shape. Within a few years there Were 
settlements in Milwaukee, then a town 
of about 30,000, and in Manitowoc and 
Kewaunee counties. The latter now con- 
tains the largest colony of Bohemians in 
Wisconsin (unless perhaps that in Mil- 
waukee), and in 1890 they were estimated 
at three-sevenths of the population of 
the county. 

It is therefore particularly fortunate 
that the collections of the Wisconsin His- 
torical Society contain an unpublished 
account of the early days there. 

The first Bohemian settlers in Kewaunee 
County came from Milwaukee. The induce- 
ment offered was the opportunity given for 
obtaining cheap but good farming lands for 
which the purchasers could pay, and sup- 
port themselves at the same time from the 
timber found upon them. The succeeding 
immigrants came directly from Bohemia by 
the solicitation of their friends and rela- 
tives already settled here and almost with- 
out exception their reason was a desire to 
better their material condition. Most of 
them immediately bought lands, usually 
with borrowed money, and at once settled 
upon them, while others worked in the large 
saw mills at Kewaunee for a part of the 
year and upon their lands during the re- 

mainder. In about 1870 the larger part of 
the immigrants were already established 
here and since then but few have come. 
Though in certain parts of Bohemia peculi- 
arities in dress and customs are even now 
prevalent, they rapidly disappeared among 
the settlers here until there is now none at 
all strikingly noticeable. Very little person- 
al property was brought along, except the 
ancestral feather bed which yet plays such 
a prominent part in the baggage of the im- 
migrants of to-day; each family was usually 
provided with some money, though funds 
were not absolutely necessary, because while 
clearing his newly purchased farm the set- 
tler was sure of support from the timber 
cut. The greatest difficulties encountered 
were due to the distance of the market and 
the lack of roads. During the first year 
Manitowoc at a distance of thirty miles was 
the nearest market and the roads to that 
were corduroys through swamp lands. 
When the village 01 Kewaunee was settled 
the condition of affairs was improved but 
even then some farmers were obliged to car- 
ry to town on their backs the split shingles 
they had made and receiving their pay in 
flour return home with the sack on their 
shoulders. In the fall supplies were laid 
in for the whole winter and if ever the 
flour gave out, hand coffee mills were used 
to grind whatever wheat they might have. 
By far the greater part of the Bohemian 
emigrants belonged to the agricultural and 
common laboring classes in the old country. 

Another Kewaunee county informant 1 
writing of the old times says : 

The old settlers suffered hardships hav- 
ing bought lands and their funds exhausted, 
they were compelled to carry shingles on 
their shoulders made by hand to Kewaunee, 
or Ahnapee in exchange for the necessaries 
of life, traveling on foot from twenty to 
thirty miles; the writer lived in an adjoin- 
ing town of Mishicott in Manitowoc county, 
in 1854, had his feet frozen in making cord 
wood at thirty-seven and one-half cents per 
cord, where they charged him board with 
$2.50 per week. He was then fourteen 
years old and was expected to earn the pork 
and bread for the family; he made shingles 
while his feet were healing, and after b.eing 
able to walk, loaded 2,000 shingles on a hand 
sled to Mishicott, three miles distant, to 
trade for flour and pork, but on trying the 
merchants, was sorry to find that they would 
give "storepay" for shingles, except ' flour 
and pork, which must be paid for in cash; 
but our cash was gone; finally the merchant 
relented and furnished me with twenty 
pounds flour at the rate of $14 per barrel, 
and the flour was of the same quality as 
middlings of the present time. Such were 
the conditions in this county from 1850 
to 1857; there was a poor market for every- 
thing. The soil was good, covered with 

i 1 ) Letter from Louis Bruemmer. Mss. Hist. 
Soc. of Wisconsin. 

Charities and The Commons 

heavy timber such as maple, beech, hemlock, 
cedar, basswood or linden, black and white 
ash, oak and elm, but through hard work 
and industry, lands were cleared, and in a 
couple of years they were glad that they had 
a log cabin, a yoke of oxen, a cow and 
twenty-five hens and from five to twenty 
acres improved land, which partially sup- 
ported the family. The money and cloth- 
ing were generally earned by the heads of 
the families, in saw mills of which there 
were plenty within a radius of twenty miles, 
and their lot was better then — even a hun- 
dred per cent better than in their European 

We will return to a consideration of 
this thrifty county later in discussing 
economic conditions. 1 

Another similar informant from Craw- 
ford county (Wis.) says the Bohemians 
who are from all parts of the old coun- 
try, first came in 1857, having been in 
other states first. They came individu- 
ally. The first six men (the original 
gives their names) bought land of the 
government, but later comers bought 
from resident farmers or speculators. 
The numbers have increased gradually. 
Most came from Chicago, a few direct 
from Bohemia on invitation of their rela- 
tives here. A few have sold and gone 
further west. 

St. Louis, Texas and Wisconsin are 
not the only seats of early settlements. 
There were Bohemian colonists, says 
Rudi's Jicinsky, 2 at about the same time in 
Wisconsin, New York, Ohio, Illinois, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa and Texas. 
Yet the wooded country of Wisconsin 
and Minnesota, where the timber sup- 
plied a source of income from the first, 
were sought earlier than the prairie dis- 
tricts. So Iowa seems to have been set- 
tled from Wisconsin. 

A St. Louis Bohemian told me that 
in the panic of 1859 many lost their 
land for a few dollars' indebtedness and 
had to give up farming and join some 
city colony, many coming to St. Louis. 
From a family of the early Iowa settlers 
I gleaned a story which has several 
points of interest. The father's family, 
of Bohemian peasant stock, came about 
1854 to Galveston and thence by steamer 

( x ) For a most interesting and instructive ac- 
count of this settlement, see Miss Mashek's article 
in Charities, Dec. 3, 1904. 

2 Cedar Rapids Gazette. 

to Houston, then a small place. The 
Bohemian settlers there seemed unpro- 
gressive, the talk of yellow fever was not 
cheering, the water was bad, the insect 
plagues intolerable and sleep out of the 
question. The family quickly decided to 
push on to St. Louis, which meant going 
back to Galveston to take the St. Louis 
steamer. On the Mississippi boat were 
a set of roughs and a big row took place. 
The mother used to tell how one of the 
men stood and looked at the little boy 
(my informant) as he lay asleep. One 
man was killed. 

The father was disgusted with the 
South after these experiences and de- 
cided to go to Racine, Wisconsin. The 
route was via Galena and Chicago. In 
Chicago the father fell sick and died but 
the family finally got to Racine. They 
did not remain, however, but joined a 
party of their countrymen going to Linn 
county, Iowa, to settle. There were per- 
haps four families each with its yoke of 

In Iowa ;he son prospered until to- 
day his fields stretch over the wide roll- 
ing slopes as far as the eye can see and 
his farmhouse is given over to his super- 
intendent while he lives with his family 
in the town. In Iowa he met his wife, 
whose family came from Bohemia a few 
years earlier than his. 

Her story is typical of the not un- 
common case where the transition to 
America means a fall, not a rise, in 
social status. Her family were cultivated, 
well to do people. One son came to Amer- 
ica on account of being involved in the 
revolution of 1848, with family money 
to invest. They understood that he was 
succeeding and decided to join him, but 
on arrival they found themselves stranded 
as the money had been swallowed up in 
a business misadventure. Moreover, by 
the tragic coincidence of two accidents 
to letters, they lost touch with the son 
who had remained in Europe. He had 
moved and they had moved and on both 
sides letters were returned as impossible 
to deliver. They came first to New 
York, then went on to Wisconsin and 
from there to Iowa, going by train to 
Milwaukee. They stopped en route where 
one of the party had a log cabin, and here 

Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens 


they stayed a season, three families shar- 
ing its inconveniences. 

Chairs were blocks of wood and beds 
were on the model of a saw horse. 
There was a hole covered with boards 
in which they stored potatoes. In April, 
1852, they started out again in regular 
immigrant fashion. The family had 
only one wagon for all their luggage and 
the daughter, then seventeen, who told 
me the story, made the three weeks' 
journey on foot. Every few miles was 
a farm house with the sign "tavern," and 
here they got their meals. 

They reached Cedar Rapids, then a 
little place with some thirty houses, the 
people Americans and a few German 
laborers. The chief man of the settle- 
ment, a judge, asked the father if 
he did not have a daughter who would 
come and work at his house. So this 
delicately reared girl, who had been 
brought up to go to school, sew and em- 
broider, not even accustomed to wash the 
dishes, went out to service on a pioneer 
farm. None of the family were used to 
hard work and it killed the father in a 
year. But the young are strong to en- 
dure and the daughter grew up and 
married the prosperous farmer already 
described. Their children have had a 
college education and the son on a re- 
cent trip to Europe found their rela- 
tives there, one cousin a professor in the 
University of Vienna, another cousin 
teaching Greek in a seminary, and an 
uncle owner of a large factory. His 
mother, while glad to have news of her 
relatives, would be most unwilling to 
have her European relatives see her 
American circumstances. She can not 
forget what she felt to be the degradation 
of her barefoot, hardworking girlhood. 
Ohio was the seat of another early 
Bohemian colony in and about Cleve- 
land, where the first comers arrived about 
1848. It is interesting to notice that 
as it was from Wisconsin that the first 
Bohemians went to Iowa, so it was men 
bound for Wisconsin who started the 
Cleveland colony. As often seems to be 
the case the earliest were Jews, but true 
Bohemians came directly after, and by 
1855 there were nineteen families which 

had gr6*wn in 1869 to over three thous- 
and persons. 

In spite of all the hardship of the 
pioneer days, doubly difficult to those 
who came from a very different sort of 
life at home, the old people often look 
back with regret to the "good old times" 
when numbers were less and intimacy 
more, and the very fact of being strang- 
ers together in a strange land made in- 
ternal differences of religion or social 
class seem trivial. 

One old lady who came in 1853, said : 

At first it was very hard, for the Amer- 
icans looked upon us with distrust or rather 
aversion, which I could never explain to 
myself. Later I learned that it was only 
our customs — our bare feet and handker- 
chiefs over our heads — that they objected 

Of the old settlers many were farm- 
ers, though their children like other 
people's, have largely come to the 
cities since. Many, too, had trades; of 
these at Cleveland in 1869, when the 
colony numbered 1,749 males and 1,503 
females, 120 were carpenters, builders, 
coopers, etc., eighty-four masons and 
stone cutters, fifty-six tailors, fifty smiths 
of various sorts and machinists, forty- 
four shoemakers, twenty-two innkeepers, 
seventeen butchers and bakers, fifteen 
storekeepers, thirteen professional musi- 
cians, eleven iron moulders, and others 
furriers, tanners, harness makers, up- 
holsterers, watchmakers, dyers, cobblers, 
bookbinders, printers, brewers, etc. Fifty 
girls were at service on farms. 

The Bohemian settlements further 
west in Nebraska, the Dakotas and 
Oklahoma belong rather in the period 
after 1880; those in Nebraska, and to a 
less extent in Dakota, began in the 

The chief city colonies were founded 
early, but did not grow very rapidly. 
New York made its chief gains in the 
seventies, when it rose (according to the 
census) from 1,487 to 8,093, multiplying 
itself between five and six times, while 
in the twenty years from 1880 to 1900 
it did not quite double. Many came to 
New York from Kutna Hora as a result 
of a strike in the government tobacco 
factory there in i878( ?) , and this brought 


Charities and The Commons 

it about that many Bohemians went into 
cigar making in New York, new comers 
being drawn into a trade which already 
occupied many of their fellow country- 

The Bohemian colony in Chicago, 
already in 1870 the largest in the coun- 
try (when the census gave it 6,277), 
closely reflects the general movement. 
The first comers, apparently about 185 1, 
were political exiles, later there was a 
more .numerous and less select influx of 
peasants and artisans. 1 After the fire of 
1 87 1 came a stream of skilled laborers, 2 
and as custom tailoring was then a good 
trade in Chicago, many Bohemians went 
into it. Unfortunately the Bohemian 
sweatshop has become widespread. 

The Poles, like the Bohemians, were 
early in Wisconsin and this state now 
ranks fourth in the number of Poles. 
Michigan was apparently even earlier, 
a church having been founded at Paris- 
ville in that state in 1857, while the 
earliest Polish church in Wisconsin was 
in Polonia, in 1858. Polonia at present 
counts 360 families, but rejoices in a 
magnificent church towering over the 
country side and built at a cost of seven- 
ty thousand dollars. Beside the church 
is an orphanage (connected with the 
house of the Felician sisters at Detroit, 
founded by Father Dombrowski, a 
parish school where some forty boys 
board during the winter, besides the day 
scholars) and the modest residence of 
the priest. The Polonia farmers came 
mainly from West Russia and are said 
to be "getting on better all the time," 
though last year hail destroyed most of 
the crops, even potatoes. The houses 
looked well built and homelike and the 
whole impression was cheerful, apart 
from the doubt whether such a church 
did not imply a vastly disproportionate 
sacrifice. It is, however, fair to note 
that $36,000 has been given by the pres- 
to The late Mrs. Humpal Zeman in her arti- 
cle on Hull House Maps and Papers (1895) wrote 
"Among these earlier emigrants were men of cul- 
tivation and energy, who loved liberty so well that 
they were ready to undertake all manner of 
menial service for her sake ; and thus one would 
often find men of education and high social stand- 
ing engaged in street sweeping, cigar making and 
other humble occupations ; and graduates of the 
University of Prague working for $2.50 and $4 a 

( 2 ) Idem. Industrial Commission. XV. P. 507. 

ent pastor and his predecessor and that 
$18,000 is still unpaid. 

The fact that the Poles are practically 
all Roman Catholics, and as a rule very 
zealous ones, means that a chronology 
of the founding of new churches, such 
as Father Kruzska has employed prac- 
tically represents the spread of their 
colonies. 1 

That is, in the twenty-four years, 1855 
to 1879 inclusive, seventy- four Polish 
churches were founded, seventeen in 
Texas, fifteen in Wisconsin, six in Michi- 
gan and six in Missouri. These were 
the earliest states. The first of six set- 
tlements in Illinois was in Chicago, in 
1869, of seven in Pennsylvania in Sham- 
okin, in 1870. New York city and Buf- 
falo appear in 1873, Minnesota the same 
year, Nebraska three years later. De- 
troit is dated 1872, Cleveland, 1875. 

In fact it is during the seventies that 

1 The first time a state appears in the list it is in 

Year of founding : 

1855. Pauna Marya (Texas). 

1856. Bandera, San Antonio, St. Jadwiga, Mev- 

ersville, Yorktown (Texas). 

1857. Parisville (Michigan). 

1858. Polonia (Wisconsin). 

1863. First Milwaukee (Wisconsin). 

1864. Pine Creek (Wisconsin). 

1866. Washington, Krakow, Clover Bottom, 
Union (Missouri). 

1868. Northeim (Wisconsin). 

1869. First Chicago (Illinois). 

1870. Bluff, New Waverly (Texas) ; Manitowoc 

(Wisconsin) ; Shamokin (Pennsylvania). 

1871. Plantersville, Cottage Hall (Texas) ; Bay 

City (Michigan) ; Second Milwaukee, 
Hull (Wisconsin) ; Otis (Indiana). 

1872. Marlin, Flatonia (Texas) ; first Detroit 

(Michigan) ; Cincinnati (Ohio). 

1873. Bremond, Huntsville (Texas) first Grand 

Rapids (Michigan) ; first Berlin (Wis- 
consin) ; second and third Chicago (Illi- 
nois) ; Shenandoah (Pennsylvania) ; New 
York, first Buffalo, Dunkirk (New York) ; 
Berea (Ohio) ; Winona, Delano, Fari- 
bault (Minnesota). 

1874. La Salle (Illinois). 

1875. Brenham (Texas) ; Manistee (Michigan) ; 

Beaver Dam, Princeton, Independence, 
North Creek (Wisconsin) ; St. Joseph 
(Missouri) ; Radom (Illinois) ; Nanti- 
coke, Excelsior, Blossburg, Pittsburg 
(Pennsylvania) ; Jeffersonville, Lanes- 
ville (Indiana) ; Brooklyn (New York) ; 
first Toledo, first Cleveland (Ohio). 

1876. Czestochowa, Anderson (Texas) ; Pozniin 

(Michigan) ; Stevens Point, Poniatowski 
(Wisconsin) ; Brimfield (Illinois) ; first 
South Bend (Indiana) ; second Toledo 
(Ohio) ; N. Poznau (Nebraska). 

1877. First Mt. Carmel (Pennsylvania). 

1878. Krok (Wisconsin) ; first St. Louis (Mis- 


Our Slavic Fellow-Citizens 

2 I 

the Polish movement first becomes of 
great numerical importance. The census 
shows a gain in the decade i860 to 1870 
of seven thousand natives of Poland (we 
must remember that Polish Jews are in- 
cluded), in the next decade of over thirty- 
four thousand, figures destined to be 
quite overshadowed in the two decades 
of the last period, when the gains were 
ninety-nine and two hundred and thirty- 
six thousand respectively. 

A subject which certainly should be 
treated in an account of Slavs in 
America, but which I can only touch on 
without in any way doing justice to it, is 
the service of both Bohemians and Poles 
during the Civil War. The anti-slavery 
sentiment of the former has already been 
alluded to and the first regiment that 
went from Chicago to fight for the Union 
was a Lincoln rifle company that some 
Bohemian-Slavonian young men had or- 
ganized in i860. 1 The dominating note 
in the great Bohemian national cemetery 
in Chicago is the soldier's monument, 
just such as stands on every village com- 
mon in New England, and perhaps noth- 
ing so much as this visible sign of blood 
shed in the same cause, bridges the dif- 
ference of national feeling. 

Although Bohemians and Poles 
made up the main body of Slavic 
immigration previous to 1880, repre- 
sentatives of the other groups came also 
and among the most interesting of these 
were certain early Slovenians. So far 
as known the first of this little 
nationality to come to America was 
neither a political refugee nor a work- 
ingman seeking a better lot, but a Cath- 
olic missionary and saint, Bishop Baraga, 
the first of a series of Slovenian priests 
who have devoted themselves to the 
spread of their religion in the Northwest. 
Frederic Baraga was born in 1797 in 
his father's castle near the beautiful city 
of Laibach. The gifted, fine natured boy 
was studying at the University of Vienna 
— law and "other useful sciences," and 
English, French and Italian — when, be- 
coming convinced of his vocation, he 
entered the priesthood. After some 
vears in a Slovenian parish he decided 

(*) Mrs. Humpal-Zeman. 
Papers, p. 125. 

Hull House Maps and 

to fulfil his long cherished desire for 
missionary work among the Indians of 
the American Northwest. The Leo- 
poldine society, established in Vienna 
for his work in 1829, opened the way 
and in 1831 he was with his new superior, 
Bishop Fenwick, in Cincinnati. Here he 
stayed for a few months until the season 
opened enough for him to go into the 

Before summer opened, he was in his 
chosen field, the pastor of a flock of 
Indian converts. For twenty-two years, 
the happiest of his life, he endured ex- 
tremities of hardship and peril in the 
work that he loved and his elevation to 
the bishopric in 1853, with its lessened 
opportunities for personal work, was ,a 
genuine cross to him. 

His newly created see then covered 
not only the upper peninsula of Michi- 
gan, but a great part of lower Michigan, 
northern Wisconsin, eastern Minnesota 
and parts of Ontario and necessitated 
exhausting journeys on snowshoes and 
in canoes. Once, for instance, this slight, 
frail man walked on snowshoes twenty- 
four hours without resting in bitter cold, 
through the deep snow, carrying a heavy 
pack and with nothing to eat but a piece 
of dry, frozen cake. Prematurely aged 
by the continued strain of excessive ex- 
posures, he died in 1868, aged seventy. 
Besides his religious work, in which he 
was extraordinarily successful, not only 
in converting, but in moulding and up- 
lifting his Indians, Bishop Baraga dis- 
tinguished himself by his philological 
publications, especially an Ojibway gram- 
mar and dictionary, the first, and said to 
be still the standard, work on the sub- 
ject. 1 

Bishop Baraga's career had the not 
unnatural result of making Catholic 
leaders in America desire more of his 
breed, while at the same time his in- 
fluence, especially exerted on his occa- 
sional visits to Austria, stimulated in- 
terest in the American field among his 

(M Those interested to know more of this fine 
type of a Roman Catholic missionary saint will 
do well to read Verroyet's Life and Lahors of Rt. 
Rev. Frederic Baraga, first hishop of Marquette, 
Michigan, to which are added short sketches of 
the aims and labors of other Indian missionaries 
of the Northwest. Wiltsins ft Co.. Milwaukee, 


Charities and The Commons 

This partly explains the curious fact 
that while the Poles in America, perhaps 
nearly three million of Catholics, with 
a goodly share of culture as well as zeal, 
have never had a bishop of their own 
nationality, the much smaller and ob- 
scurer group of the Slovenians have had 
five, beside many priests. Of late years 
their own people have been coming in 
numbers and need Slovenian pastors, but 
beside these, many are in charge of non- 
Slovenian parishes — especially in the 
diocese of St. Paul — and as they speak 
German practically as a second mother 
tongue and as they are excellent linguists 
they evidently prove a very useful class 
of priests. 

Besides these early ecclesiastical im- 
migrants there were scattering Sloveni- 
ans quite early in the country. For in- 
stance, in Calumet, Michigan, there is a 
flourishing department store owned by 
the descendants of a Slovenian who came 
with a fellow countryman as early as 
1856 as a peddler or traveling dealer. 
Slovenians are said to have first been in 
Chicago and in Iowa in 1863, but 1866, 
when their chief farming colony was 
founded in Brockway, Minnesota, is a 
more important date. They were in 
Omaha in 1868. In 1873 their present 
large colony in Joliet began. They be- 
gan to come to New York in 1878, 
though not in large numbers till 1893. 
Like most of the smaller Slavic groups, 
however, their mass migration falls 
in the third period or after 1880. 

As regards the distribution of the 
Slavic population at the end of this 
period, in 1880, we have no better data 
than the census, the drawbacks of which 
I have already pointed out. 

Considering the natives of Austria, 
Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, we find 
each of these countries represented in 
every state and territory with the single 
exception that there was no Hungarian 
in New Hampshire. 

New York state appears to have 

the largest group of natives of Aus- 
tria, Bohemia, Poland and Hungary, 
the total being thirty-two thousand, 
but a very large number of these are 
Polish Jews, beside the other non-Slovc 
elements included. Wisconsin, with 
twenty-four instead of thirty-two thou- 
sand, doubtless has the largest Slavic 
population among the states. It in- 
cludes over 18,000 from Bohemia and 
Austria, and over 5,000 from Poland. 
The Illinois total stands only five hun- 
dred under Wisconsin's, in reality a 
large Jewish contingent in Chicago 
doubtless makes the difference in Slavic 
population greater than this suggests. 

Next to these three states come Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Nebraska and Ohio, with 
eleven to thirteen thousand each, mainly 
Bohemians. Michigan has over eight 
thousand, of which over five are from 
Poland, giving this state probably the 
largest Polish group in the country at 
that time. 

Pennsylvania, later to be the Slavic 
state par excellence, ranked in 1880 
after these eight states, with 8,333. I* 
was, however, one of three states that 
then had over a thousand natives of 
Hungary. New York (4,440) and Ohio 
were the others. Texas and Missouri 
(equivalent to St. Louis) had old and 
considerable Bohemian colonies. Of na- 
tives of the four countries together, 
Kansas had over four thousand and 
California over three, the former mainly 
Bohemians, the latter with a number at 
least of Dalmatians, though there is no 
way of estimating them. Finally, it is 
to be noted that the Bohemians had al- 
ready made their way to Dakota, thir- 
teen hundred strong. 

It is at once noticeable how wide is 
this distribution and yet how large a part 
of the whole bulk is in the group of 
states, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Michigan, Nebraska, Dakota and 
Kansas. Of the Bohemians, the most 
important group, over seventy per cent, 
were in this region. 

"I will be house-wife and little mother to you all." 

TKe Children's TKeatre 

J. Garfield Moses 

New Yorh 

The Children's Theatre in the Educa- 
tional Alliance, New York, does not owe 
its existence to the philanthropic impulse 
of one individual or group of individuals. 
Its growth has been marked by evolution. 
It is the result of the endeavor to meet 
a need and it lives by reason of that need. 
It is one of the signs of the times. It is 
a protest against commercialism in art, 
for it means that here the theatre has be- 
come one of the handmaidens of educa- 
tion, which has seized upon it as one of 
the most potent means of presenting ideas 
to the child mind through picture and 
spoken story. 

The Children's Theatre appeals pri- 
marily to the young, and its appeal is 
made only upon the very highest and 
most artistic grounds. It is educating a 
body of future playgoers and creating a 
demand for high drama and high art ; 
for drama is great and artistic just in 
^"oportion to the character of the demand 
for it. The mere offer of art does not 
create appreciation. This can only be 
got through education. The drama of the 
future will be moulded by the demand of 
the future, and the Children's Theatre is 
creating a body of intelligent and dis- 
criminating patrons of the future stage. 
It is the kindergarten of the playgoer. 

But apart from the functions above de- 
fined, the Children's Theatre offers to its 
youthful attendants that same pleasure 
and entertainment which are enjoyed by 
those of mature estate who patronize the 


ordinary theatre. Modern education has 
lifted childhood from its former estate to 
its present position, and has given it a 
soul, where its every being is sought to 
be understood and appreciated, as is the 
soul of an elder. The child, therefore, 
must have its daily round of life, which 
must be varied and enriched. This the 
Children's Theatre supplies. In its pres- 
ent location on the great East Side of 
the city of New York, it adds a new 
element to lives into which enters little 
of the artistic and beautiful. The chil- 
dren of the tenement-house districts of 
our city have been offered much for their 
bodies. Through gymnasiums, baths and 
playgrounds, every opportunity for such 
activity has been afforded them, but very 
little was done to enrich their mental 
lives until the Children's Theatre devel- 
oped to present to them the ideal through 
the drama. 

Except for private entertainments and 
those given in the public schools, which, 
in the very nature of things are occa- 
sional, child life in New York has failed 
to realize the bright hope which all of 
us have at some time had of seeing a 
living presentation of its cherished ideals : 
of the triumph in the very flesh, of the 
moral over the immoral, of righl over 
wrong, which has been preached and 
dinned into the ears of the child at every 
turn. The Children's Theatre aims to 
play the part of entertainment in the life 
of the child that the opera, the concert 


Charities and The Commons 

and the ordinary theatre play in the life 
of the adult, and to seize upon the interest 
thus awakened to arouse and stimulate 
its moral development. 

Serious work has been necessary to 
make this ideal a reality. The Educa- 
tional Alliance of New York has worked 
for years for the education of the for- 
eign born on the East Side. This it ac- 
complishes through various activities, 
some of which are not at all peculiar to 
it. It has its clubs and its classes, which 
like those of other settlements, have had 
entertainments participated in by the 
members. The character of such enter- 
tainments is probably familiar to all who 
have had experience in the work. Un- 
less directed and wisely controlled, they 
have run towards the sensational, the 
melo-dramatic and the crude. Allow a 
group of young boys or young girls un- 
guided to select a play and they will as 
a rule choose one full of maudlin senti- 
ment and quick with blood and excite- 
ment, or uproarious in crude and knock- 
about humor, with no element of refine- 
ment, no purpose aimed at or achieved. 
This was true of most of the entertain- 
ments at the Alliance as of those at other 
places. The large hall of the building 
was engaged regularly by clubs and kin- 
dred organizations and hundreds of tick- 
ets were sold and distributed, and the 
young performers won the wild applause 
of undiscriminating friends. 

Finally, the vice inherent in this system 
became evident and a change of policy 
was planned. Performers were brought 
from other portions of the city ; volunteer 
musicians and others came downtown \o 
entertain the Alliance audiences. This 
system, too, had obvious evils. The per- 
formers did not understand the audiences, 
coming from a widely different section 
of the community. Yet those who were 
sincere in their work derived such gen- 
uine pleasure from their efforts that »t 
was felt that this same pleasure should 
be given if possible to the very people 
who were entertained. In other words, 
if affording pleasure meant moral stimu- 
lus and moral help to any one, it was a 
force that should not be lost, but should 
be brought to bear on the people them- 
selves. The outcome of this was that the 

people themselves were taken in hand, 
and by education and training and the 
uplifting of their taste were enabled to 
themselves become entertainers, and so 
was evolved the Children's Theatre, 
which has become a moral and social 
force second to none on the East Side of 
New York. 

The theatre has a regular season, start- 
ing in October and lasting through May. 
During this time performances are given 
every Sunday afternoon in the small thea- 
tre of the Educational Alliance. Some 
few evening performances have also been 
given, but the scope of the work has not 
admitted their development. For the first 
three years the price of admission was 
five cents ; in the fourth year it was raised 
to ten cents, without any diminution in 
the size of the audiences. The cost of 
maintenance is treble the receipts. The 
Educational Alliance makes up the deficit. 
Although at nearly every performance 
not only is the auditorium packed to the 
very doors, which means 800 children 
within, but probably as many more times 
that number are frequently turned away. 

If any one visits the vicinity of East 
Broadway and Jefferson Street of a Sun- 
day afternoon, as early as twelve o'clock, 
he will see eager children lining up before 
the box office, trembling between the ex- 
pectation of seeing the play and the possi- 
bility of not being able to procure a tick- 
et. The crowd gradually grows and 
grows until about two o'clock, when the 
doors are opened. The children discuss 
the play with all the seriousness of the 
regular playgoer. They know the cast, 
they have their favorite actors and act- 
resses, they have their favorite plays and 
scenes, they criticize the management and 
express their hopes for the future. Some 
of them have brought their little baby 
sisters, who are not yet initiated into 
theatre ways, but who toddle along, 
knowing that something very nice and 
beautiful is going to happen. At all the 
performances there are the little "green- 
ers," who not only have never been to a 
theatre, but who have never heard of 
one. Just as we invite our country 
cousins to the opera house in the expecta- 
tion of giving them a treat, so, hardly 
has the greener landed when his little 


Americanized cousin tells him of the ex- 
traordinary theatre at the Educational Al- 
liance. After the doors have been closed 
and the word sent forth that nobody else 
is to be admitted, what wails of disap- 
pointment and cries of anguish ! Little 
tragedies are enacted and slowly and piti- 
fully do the disappointed betake them- 
selves to the street to spend their ten 
cents in candy and soda water, by which 
the soul's disappointment may be tem- 
pered. Each one has had some different 
tale to offer the attendant at the door 
whereby to soften his heart, but the often 
repeated assertion that "One more won't 
make no difference" avails not. The East 
Side families are particularly large in 
cousins and cousins' cousins ; they plead 
that it is an outrage that "I cannot see 
my cousin Becky in the play ;" and then 
there are the mothers and the brothers 
and sisters of the players, and their aunts 
and indeed all the grown-ups in the 
family who would not miss the treat for 
anything. As a result the Children's 
Theatre never complains of poor attend- 

This crowd, however, has not been at- 
tracted by chance. The play has been 
selected for very definite reasons. It has 
been put on because it holds up an ideal 


which it is necessary to impress upon the 
neighborhood. Before any thought is 
given to the mere production of the play, 
it is carefully and seriously considered 
not only as to its suitability" for children, 
but as to its relation to the life and the 
needs of the East Side. 

One of the first plays was The Tem- 
pest. At this time the hall in which the 
plays were given was not suitable for 
productions. The stage lacked the neces- 
sary aoparatus, scenery and properties. 
The play was practically mounted on a 
platform. It was, however, the first 
time that a drama had been presented by 
amateurs on the East Side, with scenery 
and costumes made especially for it. This 
meant a distinct advance and showed that 
serious attention was being paid to mat- 
ters which hitherto had been considered 
unimportant. The Tempest was a par- 
ticularly appropriate play with which to 
inaugurate the undertaking upon the East 
Side, for its scene was in nature's own 
abode and contrasted strongly with the 
tall and forbidding tenements of the 
neighborhood. In addition to the rich- 
ness of the costumes and the attractive- 
ness of the scenery and the beauty of the 
successive pictures presented, it taught 
the lesson of the majesty, the simplicity 


Charities and The Commons 

and the nobility of nature. 
It was probably the first 
play of Shakespeare's that 
had been presented in 
English on the East Side 
by east siders, given in 
strict conformity with the 
very best traditions of the 
English stage. It marked 
an era in a way, for it 
was the inauguration of 
the first English theatre, 
south of 14th street and 
east of the Bowery, which 
aimed at the presentation 
of English plays and 
English plays alone of the 
very highest character. It 
was the first protest 
against the cheap and 
vulgar melodrama by 
which other theatres 
strung along the East 
Side were attracting the 
youth of the vicinity. The 
presentation of The Tem- 
pest awakened the people 
to the existence of such 
a play. Almost a thou- 
sand copies of the book 
were sold during the per- 
formance, and The Tem- 
pest really created a tem- 
pest in the neighborhood, 
for it was talked about 
and discussed in every as- 
pect. Said one little girl, 
"I always remember The 
Tempest with great pleas- 
ure because all the people 
in the neighborhood know 
about it — that is, the edu- 
cated ones do, and those 
that isn't educated, I tell 
them about it." This re- 
mark, made to the man- 
ager of the entertain- 
ments, revealed the great 
possibilities of this under- 
taking, for here was the 
missing link as it were 
between the parents and the children. It 
meant that the ideas which were im- 
pressed upon the children through the 
plays could be transmitted to the par- 

ent, and that these ideals might permeate the 
whole family life. The Tempest preached love 
and nobility of character ; it preached toleration 
and other elements the lack of which are destroy- 
ing the understanding between the parents and 
the children of the East Side. 

William de Mille's Forest Ring succeeded The 
Tempest. It humanized the world 
and was the forerunner of the sen- 
timent found so appealing in 
Barrie's Peter Pan. In the Forest 
Ring the situation is saved by the 
finding of a girl who really be- 
ieves in fairies and through whose 
instrumentality a human life is 
pared. This play, with its fine and 
delicate sentiment, was a 
lesson to every child who 
saw it. 

Ingomar, the next play 
that the Children's The- 
atre presented, gripped 
the attention of the au- 
dience for many reasons. 
It was superbly mounted, 
and its atmosphere was 
different from anything 
that the people had ever 
before seen or heard. It 
taught the lesson of the 
evolution of a brute love 
into an ideal affection. It 
set forth that love must 
be something more than 
mere barbaric passion to 
appeal to the truly ideal 
and refined woman. 

That As You Like It 
should have been put in 
the repertoire of the Chil- 
dren's Theatre was nat- 
ural. Its scenery, beau- 
tifully made and painted, 
and its simple yet attrac- 
tive costumes, its poetry, 
and its sweet wholesome 
love story all combined to 
make fitting appeal. As 
You Like It was read and 
studied throughout the 
whole section of the city in settlements, 
in schools and in classes, and many 
who saw it frequently thus learned to 
know the play and to catch its deepest 


"And I thank you for coming to my party. 

and most hidden meaning. Those who 
had seen The Tempest and As Yo*u Like 
It went deeper and deeper into the study 
of Shakespeare, so that these two dramas 
may be said to have introduced the Eng- 
lish classic poet to the children of the 
East Side. 

The Little Princess marked a new de- 
velopment in the Children's Theatre. 
The plays previously given, with the pos- 
sible exception of the Forest Ring, ap- 
pealed more to the youth of the East Side 
than to the child ranging from eight to 
fifteen years, and it was this latter class 
especially that the Children's Theatre 
wished to serve. Its success was instan- 
taneous and lasting. It ran for two suc- 
cessive seasons, and only was withdrawn 
to make way for other plays. The play 
had been produced with great success by 
a well known actress at one of the Broad- 
way theatres. But how stiff and cold and 

formal was that success compared to the 
impression it made upon the child life 
on the East Side. The children never 
seemed to tire of this story of the trans- 
formation of the princess into the pauper 
and the delightful change again from the 
pauper into the princess; and invariably 
did they express their disapproval of the 
harsh school mistress, to whom the little 
princess was everything while in pros- 
perity and nothing while in poverty. It 
spelled hope for them, and meant that the 
tenement house apartment in which each 
of them lived could after all be made to 
seem like a palace, just as the garret had 
been to the little princess when she "pre- 
tended" her party. 

However one may feel towards the 
problems of the East Side, there can 
hardly be any question that the only brave 
and courageous attitude to urge upon 
those who must live there is the de- 

The interrupted party in Sarah Crew's garret. 


The Children's Theatre 


termination to overcome by high ideal 
and noble deed the conditions which seem 
to weaken character and lessen the joy of 
life. The Little Princess preached that 
attitude. It was like food to the children. 
In fact the United Hebrew Charities was 
often asked to procure tickets for children 
who were more in need of food or rai- 
ment than of a play, but to whom the 
play meant as much and more than did 
those material necessities of life. 

Little Lord Fauntleroy was the next 
production. The rights to this as in the 
case of the Little Princess had been given 
by the author, Mrs. Frances Hodgson 
Burnett, who herself had the great pleas- 
ure of seeing her plays produced in this 
theatre, and who expressed herself as 
delighted and astonished at the perform- 
ance. Fauntleroy was particularly ap- 
pealing to the children. It was put on 
last year and is running throughout this 
season to never failing audiences. 

After the production of these plays, the 
success of the Children's Theatre was be- 
yond all question. The promoters and 
the friends of the movement felt that it 
was time that instead of choosing plays, 
plays especially adapted to the needs of 
the theatre and its neighborhood should 
be written. To this end Miss Marguerite 

Merington, the author of "Captain Letter- 
blair," adapted the German fairy tale of 
Schneewittchen and made practically a 
new play, which was put on at the Al- 
liance last winter. Snow-White was the 
most ambitious scenic thing that the Chil- 
dren's Theatre had attempted. It offered 
a beautiful story, rich in sentiment, and 
affording an opportunity for costuming 
and scenery of which the Children's 
Theatre did not fail to take advantage. 
Any one who attends a few performances 
of this play will notice that certain scenes 
are punctuated regularly by outbursts 
of approval or disapproval, and never has 
the wicked Queen thrown the poisoned 
apple to Snow-White without eliciting 
cries of warning from the audience not 
to eat it, "It's poisoned." These are the 
touches that give gladness to the hearts 
of those who are working for this move- 
ment. The writer at one of the per- 
formances of this play asked a young 
street urchin why he did not go over to 
the Bowery theatre where The White 
Slaves of New York was played instead 
of coming here. He said, "Well, you get 
your money's worth here ; and get a fine 
seat for ten cents and the play seems like 
real. They don't give you nothing of 
that stuff that they hand you over there. 

"Let me introduce you to my friends Dick and Mr. Hobbs. 


Charities and The Commons 

It is just as if the people were real, and 
they ain't that on the Bowery." 

The Prince and the Pauper, the rights 
to which have been kindly given by Sam- 
uel Clemmens and Daniel Frohman (who, 
by the way, has never failed to lend a 
helping hand), is now in course of prepa- 
ration. Its scenic features will make a 
distinct advance, as in fact each produc- 
tion has made over the preceding one. 

Of course the mere presentation of 
these plays is not the chief end. The 
question is how are they produced. Any 
group of young men and women can get 
together and by learning the lines and 
procuring the proper scenery, give a pro- 
duction of any play that was ever written. 
The announcement that amateurs will 
perform generally evokes a sneer, and it 
at once conjures up those moments when 
we were inveigled into attending per- 
formances, in which a buxom lady took 
the part of the heroine and the least co- 
quettish of all our friends played the part 


of the soubrette. We have all sat through 
those hours, and the readers of this 
article probably imagine that the Chil- 
dren's Theatre merely means just such 
work. Nothing could be further from 
the mark. In connection with the Chil- 
dren's Theatre there is maintained what 
might be called a school of preparation, 
a speech and action class. All who take 
part in productions are trained for 
months and months, and finally, when a 
play is produced, it is the result of hard 
labor, careful study, assiduous attention 
to duty and striking self-sacrifice on the 
part of everybody concerned. None of 
those who take part in the work is paid. 
Each applicant for a role must first be 
passed upon by the general coach and 
class director, Mrs. Emma Sheridan Fry, 
herself an actress, producer and teacher 
of wide experience, and Jacob Heniger, 
the stage director, and must be approved 
by the general manager of the Children's 
Theatre. The one upon whom the whole 
burden of the work has fallen, who pri- 
marily planned and formulated the 
scheme is Miss A. Minnie Herts, who is 
the fount and source of the inspiration 
that has gone out to all those interested. 
The applicants for parts in any single 
play are formed into a class and for 
months the play is studied and examined 
in its every feature and detail. Mrs. 
Fry not only points out its dramatic ele- 
ments, but encourages the discussion of 
the problems involved. Dramatic and 
artistic development is always subor- 
dinated to the training of character and 
the inculcation of moral ideals. After 
a play has been studied in general, read- 
ings of the various parts are begun, and 
finally the class itself votes as to who is 
most fitted for each particular part. This 
self-government displays the character of 
the work which has been done by the 
players themselves (who, by the way, are 
almost all young men and women of the 
neighborhood, sons and daughters of 
immigrant parents), who earn" their liv- 
ing in the day time as stenographers, 
clerks, seamstresses, etc. After the 
parts have been assigned come regular re- 
hearsals and month after month of care- 
ful training. This training means much 
to the young men and women who learn 

From Ingomar. 

From Fngomar. 


Charities and The Commons 

through it English speech and physical 
control, and who have been transformed 
from awkwardness to grace, from gauch- 
erie to fine bearing. 

Every play has several casts, so that 
as many as possible may take advantage 
of the opportunities afforded, and re- 
sponsibilities of frequent performance 
weigh unduly on no one. Almost ioo 
persons take part in some capacity or 
other. Thus by the close of the year, 
when three plays have been produced, 
300 children, young men and young wo- 
men have come under the direct discipline 
of the work, not to speak of the 50,000 
people who in the' course of the season 
have derived pleasure and profit as spec- 

Not only is the acting done by these 
young men and women, but they attend 
to every detail of stage shifting and stage 
management. Each play has its complete 

The testimonials as to the value of this 
work have been numerous. The prin- 
cipals of the schools of the neighborhood 
are particularly enthusiastic. Miss Julia 
Richman, the local district superintendent 
of schools, says : 

I cannot commend this work too highly. 
It has been a distinct educational and moral 
force in the lives of many of the children 
of the neighborhood. It has deserved its 
success because this success is the result of 
merit alone. 

In view of the recent charges that the 
foreign element in America is a corrupter 
of our language, Miss Brady, principal 
of Public School 177, who saw the pro- 
duction of Snow-White, was especially 
delighted with the clean and flexible de- 
livery of the English. She writes : 

For the educative value of that alone, I 
shall welcome every opportunity that per- 
mits our children to witness the plays. I 
believe these plays are a strong factor in 
shaping the moral and intellectual life of 
that part of our population that the Alliance 

Another enthusiastic visitor was 
George C. Chase, president of Bates Col- 
lege, who saw a number of the perform- 
ances. He says : 

I could not have believed that a children's 
theatre in such an unpropitious and repress- 

ing environment could even under the most 
careful training have developed the literary 
appreciation and the power of interpretation 
and expression that were in such evidence at 
that Sunday afternoon performance which 
we were permitted to attend. Nor could I 
have believed that from such an East Side 
population could be gathered a youthful au- 
dience so intelligent and responsive. 

Dr. James J. Walsh writes as follows : 

Your method of giving some of the good 
plays for children seems to me the best way 
for us to redeem the theatre, from its pres- 
ent slavery. From the time when St. Fran- 
cis gave the first nativity play of which 
we have any record, Catholics have always 
thought that the drama might be used with 
excellent effects for educational purposes. 
We are persuaded that the way to do this 
is to have young folks as active participants 
as well as passive spectators. There are 
some of us who are beginning to think that 
the unconscious educational factors such as 
social influences and discipline are more 
important than the well springs of informa- 
tion that are usually supposed to be the only 
raison d'etre of educational institutions. My 
opinion with regard to the Children's Thea- 
tre then is very clear. I commend it highly 
in both its aspects, as well because it is a 
provider of amusement of great educational 
value, as because it is an awakener of in- 
spiring thoughts and purposes in those who 
try to put themselves in the mood to act 
characters that are the fruit of a great 
thinker's outlook upon this world of ours 
and the relations of men to one another. 

Other valuations of the educational 
potency of this work have been received 
from President E. Stanley Hall of Clark 
University, Professor Brander Matthews, 
Daniel Frohman, Richard Mansfield, 
Henry Arthur Jones and Harrison Grey 

This Children's Theatre will grow 
from more to more. In its very nature 
it is not a local institution or a mere ad- 
junct of settlement work. It should 
reach children of all classes and con- 
ditions. Through it the future educa- 
tional drama may be shaped, and this 
drama of course is not to be confined to 
one section or to any one class. There 
should be a true children's theatre, housed 
in a building of its own, especially built 
and equipped for this purpose. The chil- 
dren's theatre of the future should have 
in its corps those who would write chil- 
dren's plays, just as certain authors have 
devoted themselves to children's books. 


Charities and The Commons 

The theatre should be endowed so as to 
be forever free from the necessity of 
playing and pampering to mere popular 
taste, and it should have a guarantee 
fund to provide for the engagement for 
special performances of all the most dis- 
tinguished actors and actresses residents 
of and visitors to this city. It primarily 
should be a general educational and social 
force just as it is now on the East Side. 
It should emphasize high art and high 

dramatic ideals. It should have its own 
training school in which those who 
desire to serve for the sake of the 
service and those who desire to make 
of the stage a higher calling may 
obtain the proper education and training. 
If the Children's Theatre can achieve 
what it has in its present unfavorable 
surrounding, who can say to what it may 
expand with adequate means at its dis- 

The line extended from Jefferson to Clinton Street. 

THe Religious Basis of tKe 
Social Movement' 

"William Adams Brown 

If, in a single phrase, one wished to 
characterize the temper of the age in 
which we live, I do not know how one 
could do it better than by the three 
words : "Wanted, a religion." On all 
sides we find expressions of dissatisfac- 
tion with the existing forms of ecclesias- 
tical organization and of theological dog- 
ma. Everywhere men are telling us that 
the church is hopelessly out of touch with 
the times and that the remedy for our 
present spiritual necessities is no longer 
to be found in her. Yet, at the same 
time, we find the conviction expressed 
in the most varied quarters that religion 
is necessary if we are to fulfil our high- 
est function, and the question is con- 
stantly being asked, since the old re- 

iAn address delivered at the Union Theological 
Seminary, February 12, 1907. 

ligion seems no longer satisfying, where 
we are to look for the new. From Ox- 
ford we hear Mr. Garrod declaring that 
Christianity no longer meets the ethical 
necessities of the present age, and point- 
ing us back to the Germanic ideals of 
chivalry for that "religion of all good 
men" which is our supreme necessity. 

Lowes Dickinson, of Cambridge, one 
of the most acute critics of existing re- 
ligious forms, is equally persuaded that 
religion of some kind we must have if 
we arc to be true to our deepest selves, 
and in his suggestive little book, Re- 
ligion, a Criticism and a Forecast, he 
tries to sketch the lines which in an 
agnostic age like the present such a re- 
ligion may be expected to take. Felix 
Adler, long our honored teacher in all 
that concerns the moral life, finds ethical 

The Religious Basis of the Social Movement 


language alone inadequate to contain his 
full message and has entitled a recent 
work, The Religion of Duty. And only 
a few weeks ago at Columbia University, 
before a great audience of men and 
women which overflowed the accommo- 
dations which had been provided for 
them, Professor James, delivering his 
long-awaited lectures on Pragmatism, 
declared explicitly that their purpose was 
to make possible a new form of religion 
for the increasing company of persons 
who find each of the several alterna- 
tives now offered to them equally un- 

The writer of this article is not so 
presumptuous as to think that he 
can answer the great question as 
to the future of religion in a form 
to be satisfactory to "all good men." 
But he ventures to hope that something 
may be done toward clarifying and deep- 
ening the fundamental convictions of 
that particular class of good men whose 
virtue takes the form of devotion to the 
social welfare of their fellows. Surely, 
if any man needs a religion, most of all 
it is he whose daily tasks bring him 
face to face with the crushing facts of 
human misery and helplessness ; with the 
baffling problems of human cruelty and 
greed. If any man should desire that 
clear vision of the goal which religion 
professes to give, it is he who is trying 
to help his fellows to find the better way. 

For the man who is in search of a 
religion, two paths are open. He may 
seek to construct a priori a conception 
of what religion ought to be, and then 
ask himself how he may bring this flaw- 
less structure of his imagination into 
practical contact with the living realities 
of life. Or he may inquire whether 
among the existing forces and ideals of 
his life there are not some which are 
already religious in nature, and be 
content- to let his search for a 
religion take the form of a fuller in- 
terpretation of the significance of that 
which already exists rather than the 
more difficult task of attempting to cre- 
ate a substitute. 

It is the latter of these methods that 
I would follow in the present article. 
True religion is always born, not made. 
It is discovered, not created. If I hope 

to enlist interest in the question of a re- 
ligious basis for the social movement it 
is because I believe profoundly that that 
movement already has a religious basis, 
and that all that we need to do is to 
have our eyes opened to see it. The 
work of theology, so far as it has been 
fruitful, has always been a work of in- 
terpretation, a discovery of existing reali- 
ties, an unfolding of implicit meanings ; 
and it is such an interpretation which I 
desire to attempt. 

There are three convictions which are 
widely held by modern social workers, 
all of which are distinctly religious in 
nature. First, the conviction that there 
is an imminent purpose in history, a law 
of right which is not only ideally true, 
but which is actively efficient in the lives 
of individuals and of society. , In the 
second place, the conviction that there is 
a definite goal toward which this pur- 
pose tends, namely, the creation of an 
ideal social order, in which brotherhood 
shall be the law of life and the only 
rivalry be that of friendly co-operation. 
And, thirdly, the conviction that in this 
social order each individual has his ap- 
pointed place, so that no one can per- 
fectly realize his own ideal until every 
other has come to his full development. 
More or less consciously held, more or 
less clearly expressed, these appear to 
be the fundamental convictions which 
underlie and inspire the more important 
forms which the social movement has 
assumed in our times ; and each one of 
these, I repeat, is a conviction distinctly 
religious in its nature. 

And first, of the ideal meaning of the 
social process. There is no surer test of 
a man's religion than his view of history. 
Tf he see in the story of the past simply 
a record of folly and iniquity ; if he look 
upon the world of the present as an 
alien territory without the power to 
minister to his own highest interests, he 
may indeed have a religion, but it will 
be a religion of some other world than 
this. His God will be a transcendent 
being, remote, inaccessible by the ordi- 
nary avenues of human experience, onlv 
to be reached through renunciation of 
those things which give value and mean- 
ing to our ordinary life. Heaven may be 
verv real to him, but he will have no 


Charities and The Commons 

religious message to the men for whom 
earth is real and near and precious. 

If, on the other hand, a man regard 
the meaning of the world as completely 
expressible in terms of the series of its 
passing experiences; if he look upon it 
simply as a place where men may eat and 
drink and get gain and love and marry 
and enjoy; if there be in the world for 
him no ideal meaning still unexpressed, 
no unseen purpose still unrealized, then 
whatever he may profess with the lips, 
it is true of such a man that he has 
no religion at all ; for religion means 
just this discovery of the ideal within 
the real, this laying hold of meanings 
that have not yet perfectly expressed 
themselves in a world of objective real- 
ity, this vision of faith of a better still 
to be. When one has come to feel that 
all of life has a moral meaning and 
that all history serves a moral end ; and 
has so actively identified himself with 
that unseen end as to draw from its 
contemplation the enthusiasm which sup- 
ports him in hours of darkness and fail- 
ure, such a one has learned what it 
means to be religious. He has entered 
into communion with God. 

I think I am not mistaken in saying 
that it is just this ideal interpretation 
of life which characterizes the leaders 
of the modern social movement and gives 
them their power over their followers. 
They attack the present organization of 
industry, not simply on the ground that 
it is economically unsatisfactory, but that 
it is ethically wrong. The conception of 
society as an arena on which competing 
individuals may . carry on their private 
war, and of government as a kind of 
gigantic referee whose only duty it is 
to see that the contestants fight fair, or, 
at most, as a physician ready with his 
knife and his drugs to minister to the 
necessities of the defeated when they 
are no longer able to continue the strug- 
gle — this conception, made so familiar to 
us by the old laissez faire economy, is 
no longer satisfying. We are revolted 
by the selfishness and the injustice which 
it involves. A system which permits to 
one man the unrestrained control of the 
natural resources upon which the life of 
other men depends seems to us a viola- 
tion of the eternal proprieties ; an offence 

against the nature of man. It is in vain 
that we are pointed to the enormous in- 
crease of wealth which the present eco- 
nomic system has made possible. Grant- 
ing the fact, we feel that there are some 
things too precious for money to buy. 
No increase of material possessions can 
compensate for the loss of the democratic 
ideal ; that sense of kinship which makes 
a man feel himself his brother's keeper 
and assures him that the welfare of each 
is the welfare of all. 

We have already anticipated the sec- 
ond characteristic of the modern social 
movement, namely, its view of the goal 
to which the social process tends. Wide- 
ly as men differ as to the steps by which 
the end is to be reached, all are agreed 
in this, that it is to be a better social 
order. It is to be an order in which 
the selfish rivalries of our present com- 
petitive system shall no longer obtain ; 
when the tyranny- of the weak over the 
strong shall cease; when justice shall be 
done between nation and nation, and be- 
tween man and man, and the brotherhood 
of which we now dream shall be a real- 
ized experience. 

The belief in a future age of brother- 
hood and peace is indeed no new ideal. 
What is new is the seriousness with 
which we find men contemplating it as 
a practical possibility. Our modern 
students of society have made clear to 
us, as never before, the largeness of the 
place held by man's altruistic impulses. 
They have taught us that no small part 
of the struggle for life is a struggle 
for the life of others. Powerful as are 
the selfish instincts, they are not the only 
ones of which we are conscious. There 
is a law of self-sacrifice which impels us 
to share, just as truly as there is a law 
of self-seeking which impels us to gain, 
and we are impatient of any theory 
which does not take adequate account of 
the outgoing side of human nature. 

Some months ago a leading French 
journal made a canvass of its readers in 
order to determine who, in their judg- 
ment, was the greatest Frenchman. One 
would have supposed that among a 
glory-loving people like the French, there 
could have been but one answer pos- 
sible. But it was not the conqueror of 
Wagram and of Austerlitz, the great. 

The Religious Basis of the Social Movement 


general who brought all Europe to the 
feet of France and wrote his name be- 
side those of Caesar and of Alexander, 
whose name appeared at the head of the 
poll, but a modest student whose days 
and nights were spent in the laboratory 
and in the hospital, whose only enemy 
was disease and whose goal was the heal- 
ing of the nations. It is Louis Pasteur 
and not Napoleon who, in the judgment 
of contemporary Frenchmen, is their 
country's worthiest representative in the 
world's hall of fame. 

The change is symptomatic of the new 
standard of values which the modern so- 
cial movement has introduced. The so- 
ciety for which we look is the society 
of Pasteur rather than of Napoleon. It 
is a society united by the consciousness 
of common ties and common interests, a 
state whose ideals are the ideals of peace 
and not those of war. 

We are not now concerned with the 
economic practicability of the various 
programs which are set forth by the dif- 
ferent parties who offer themselves as 
our guides to this desired goal. It is not 
hard, for example, to find reasons for 
questioning whether the socialist's pro- 
posal of collective ownership will ac- 
tually produce the results which he pic- 
tures. The experience of man's selfish- 
ness and incapacity in the past may dis- 
courage us from accepting any form of 
social organization which would put the 
supreme control of all the instruments of 
production into the hands of a single 
group of men who might conceivably 
prove false to their trust. The important 
thing is that those who advocate this 
scheme believe, in spite of these difficul- 
ties, that the result is possible. Their 
faith that the final outcome of the social 
process must be ideal in its nature is so 
strong that no arguments based upon past 
experience of human nature are sufficient 
to shake it. And this faith in the ideal 
end, undismayed by the failures and dis- 
appointments of the past, is what we 
mean by religion. Everywhere and al- 
ways religion has had this power to lift 
men above the present into the future ; 
to make the thing devoutly hoped for 
seem possible, to translate the ideal into 
the real. 

But we have not completely expressed 

the spirit of the new movement until we 
have recognized the place which the in- 
dividual holds in its catalog of values. 
It is sometimes charged against the mod- 
ern social ideal that it does not ade- 
quately recognize the worth of the indi- 
vidual ; and I think it may fairly be 
said that many forms of stating that 
ideal have not adequately recognized the 
difference in the capacities of men, or 
the necessity of providing conditions un- 
der which those of greater capacity shall 
receive a training in proportion to their 
gifts. There has been too often a ten- 
dency to level down instead of to raise 
up ; and yet I think no one can rightly 
understand the moral forces which im- 
part momentum to the great engine 
which we call the modern social move- 
ment who does not recognize in it a 
reaffirmation of the worth of the indi- 
vidual man. The old truth which Jesus 
expressed so many centuries ago on the 
hill-slopes of Galilee, that man as man 
has a divine meaning ; that there is no 
member of the human family, however 
ignorant or unfortunate, who is not 
worth saving and capable of salvation — 
this old truth which gave its dynamic to 
the new religion, and explains its con- 
quering power over forces which seemed 
too securely entrenched to be over- 
thrown—this old truth, I repeat, ob- 
scured by centuries of tradition and 
prejudice, is finding renewed expression 
in our own day. The child at work in 
the factory, the mother toiling long hours 
in the sweat-shop, the wage-earner dis- 
abled before his time by the unhygienic 
conditions of his work, or, worse still, 
forced through no fault of his own to an 
idleness which carries within it the seeds 
of moral as well as of physical deteriora- 
tion ; all these children of the one Father 
who, religion has told us, are precious 
in His sight, but whose lives somehow 
it seems impossible for us here, at least, 
to conserve and develop into the full 
flower of ripe manhood and womanhood 
— these children of earth, for whom there 
seems no hope here, no salvation that is 
not other-worldly, are coming in our 
own day to new self-consciousness 
through the faith of those who believe 
that for them too there is hope even 
here and now. And if here too it seems 


Charities and The Commons 

to us often, measuring in the light of 
our own experience the difficulty and 
the cost of moral education — if it seems 
to us, I say, that those who hold the 
new faith, underestimate the difficulties 
in the path, and paint the goal as too 
easy and too near, that is all the more 
proof that that with which we have to 
do is not a philosophy, but a religion, not 
a theory, but a faith. 

These three great convictions, then, 
form the religious basis of the social 
movement, the conviction that all history 
has a moral meaning, that the outcome 
to which it tends is the establishment 
of a just and stable social order, and 
that in that order each individual soul 
has a place and a value of its own. Is 
this a basis broad and firm enough to 
give us the religion which we need to- 

In answering this question let us ask 
what has been the vital content of true 
religion in all the ages? We find it in 
three great ideas : God, the soul, the 
Kingdom of God. God, "a power not 
ourselves that makes for righteousness" ; 
the soul, the ideal principle in man whose 
aims are inspired and whose activities 
are influenced by this power ; the King- 
dom of God, the new social order which 
from the time of Jesus to our own, has 
been the dream and the inspiration of 
noble minds. 

From the ceaseless flow of event and 
circumstance which surrounds him, 
never resting long enough to afford a 
foothold for his highest achievement, 
man has slowly risen to a faith in the 
eternal reality which religion knows as 
God. He has conceived it in different 
ways ; he has called it by different names, 
but most persistently he has represented 
it as a moral purpose running through 
history and guiding the course of events 
to an appointed goal. God has meant to 
man an all-controlling mind, a loving 
will, with which one might hold com- 
munion, to whom one might cry: "Abba, 

Within his own being man has found 
meanings which cannot be perfectly ex- 
pressed in terms of time and sense. He 
has been conscious of ideals surpassing 
present achievement, of high instincts 
before which his "mortal nature" has 

"trembled like a guilty thing surprised." 
He has conceived tasks impossible of 
accomplishment within the limits of three 
score years and ten ; he has felt himself 
akin to that unseen spirit from whom 
he has come forth and to whom he be- 
lieves he shall return, and that sense of 
kinship has lent an inestimable value to 
his brief earthly existence and to his 
ceaseless struggles toward an ever-re- 
ceding goal. 

This double faith in God and in the 
human soul has given all life a larger 
and a more sacred meaning. It has made 
the world a stage on which momentous 
issues are being decided, and history the 
story of mankind's progressive training 
in brotherhood and mutual helpfulness. 
Conscious of his own divine calling and 
high destiny, the religious man has dis- 
covered in the weakest and most ignorant 
of his fellows like capacities, has be- 
lieved for them too in a like destiny ; and, 
with the enthusiasm of an unconquerable 
faith, he has given himself to the effort to 
bring in that better time when these 
capacities shall be developed, and this 
destiny realized. The name which re- 
ligion gives to the new social order which 
this better time is to introduce is the 
Kingdom of God. 

It is, then, no new religion to which 
our analysis has led, but only a reinter- 
pretation in forms adapted to the con- 
ditions and needs of our own day, of 
the great ideals which in every age have 
been the inspiration of those who have 
sought to serve their fellow-men. The 
form of the religious life varies from age 
to age ; its spirit remains ever the same. 
Everywhere and always it is a spirit of 
faith, a spirit of hope, a spirit of love. 
Of faith in the right, of hope for human- 
ity, and of love for the individuals who 
compose it. The man, or the woman, 
who today in college or settlement, in 
hospital or factory or labor union, is 
giving his life to make the world a bet- 
ter place to live in, is treading in the 
footsteps of Livingston and Wesley and 
Francis and Saint Paul and the great 
teacher of them all, whose prayer, ut- 
tered nineteen centuries ago amid the 
quiet of the Galilean hills, all lovers of 
mankind can make their own, "Thy 
Kingdom come, Thy will be done on 
earth as it is in Heaven." 

TKe Chicago Industrial HxHibit 

Graham Romeyn Taylor 

Have you a consumptive cooK? 

Or Has your seamstress the scarlet fever? 

Not in your hitchen, of course, or in your sewing room. 

But do you know about the basement baheries and sweat shops where 
your bread and clothes may come from? The good and the bad — which 
you should Know apart— are shown at 

the: industrial exhibit 


Chicago Chicago's street car strap- 
industrial hangers — and as many as 
Exhibit. had the distinction of being 

sitters — took notice. Newspapers and 
the latest breakfast food announcements 
found a new claimant for public atten- 
tion. The big question mark of the pla- 
card printed above was not to be denied. 
It compelled answer. It forced acknowl- 
edgment of ignorance. Before the aver- 
age man had a chance to forget this dis- 
turbing mental confession his eyes met 
another provocative of uneasiness. It 
is printed at the foot of this page. 

Street cars, the elevated, bill boards 
and window posters, to say nothing . of 
newspaper accounts and pictures, con- 
fronted everyone with this same big 
question mark. At the end of the week 
it was found that 10,000 people had come 
to Brooke's Casino for the answer. 

Perhaps the most significant thing 
about the Chicago Industrial Exhibit 
was this crowd of 10,000 people. It was 
an average crowd. It did not consist 
of repeated visits by people identified 
with the various movements for better- 
ing industrial and social conditions. They 
were there, but only as part of the whole. 

Plain folk were the ones who swelled 
the attendance. They showed strikingly 
the seriousness of purpose that animates 
the average man. Here was an exhibit 
with no special appeal to amusement 
There were no souvenir articles to be 
given out from booth to booth as the 
spectator passed by. On the contrary, 
each booth demanded thought — and some 
of them careful study — to bring out the 
full meaning of charts and statistical 
tables. Yet despite the maintenance of 
the twenty-five-cent admission fee the 
crowds increased from day to day until 
the three last evenings and afternoons 
saw the capacities of the hall taxed. The 
crowd meant that working conditions 
and their improvement are a vital and 
fundamental concern to those whose daily 
experience tells them what those condi- 
tions are. 

Probably two-thirds of the visitors 
were trade unionists, due no doubt, to 
the activity of many trade union leaders 
in arranging and demonstrating exhibits. 

The exhibit marks a new era in the 
trade union movement in Chicago. For 
the first time on a comprehensive scale, 
their real aims and activities, and the 

"You'd never suspect— 
what children are made to do in the darh at the bottoms of mines, in glass 
factories and other places. No -wish to arouse your suspicion — only curiosity 
enough for you to come and see for yourself at 

the: industrial exhibit 



Charities and The Commons 

net result of those activities, were dis- 
played to the public. People were made 
to realize the extent to which the inter- 
ests and welfare of wage earners are 
co-incident with the interests and welfare 
of the whole people. And conversely 
the trade unionists learned the value of 
a closer acquaintance with public senti- 
ment — learned its desire to know the 
facts and be fair. 

Practical results were apparent from 
the visits of large manufacturers or their 
representatives. Their especial inter- 
est was attracted by the display of pro- 
tected machinery. This occupied a large 
part of the ground floor, while a section 
of the gallery was given over to some 
of the photographs, charts and models 
from the exhibition of safety devices of 
the American Institute of Social Service, 
New York. Two representatives of one 
of Chicago's largest industrial establish- 
ments found a device which was appli- 

cable to their machinery and immediately 
ordered it for the entire plant. These 
were supplemented by charts and tables 
on industrial accidents, sickness and 
legislation prepared by Professor Charles 
R. Henderson of the University of Chi- 

Tables indicating the extent of 
occupational diseases, particularly tuber- 
culosis, were exhibited by the Chicago 
Tuberculosis Institute. 

Vagrant interest was gripped the mo- 
ment it got past the front doorway and 
found itself staring into the rooms of a 
typical Chicago frame tenement. The 
photographs and accompanying descrip- 
tions speak for themselves. Recent in- 
vestigations of insanitary bakeshops, and 
the consequent agitation, lent especial 
timeliness to the reproduction of a tene- 
ment bake shops where the filthiest of 
conditions were shown. Utensils and 
flour barrel vied in uncleanliness. A 

In a room such as this the factory inspector found a child with 
scarlet fever sleeping on a pile of SAveat shop clothing. The place was 
closed hy the factory inspector and the clothing disinfected by the 
Health Department. 


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4 2 

Charities and The Commons 

pet dog exhibited a dirtiness scarcely less 
tolerable than that of the rats he was 
supposed to chase. And the baker con- 
tented himself with his pipe and tobacco 
as he sat on his old couch and read a 
soiled and crumpled newspaper. Photo- 
graphs exhibited by the Department of 
Health indicated that the reproduction 
of the insanitary bakeshop did not rep- 
resent the worst conditions existing in the 

Contrasted with these "sweated indus- 
try" booths, the reproduction of a sani- 
tary garment factory and bakery were 
a welcome relief. The typographical 
union exhibited a "scab" bedroom print- 
ing shop, and showed beside it a well 
appointed union establishment. The lat- 
ter was kept busy much of the time 
printing the literature of the exhibit. 

The exhibits from Chicago and Illinois 
occupied so much space that it was not 
possible to use much of the material 
from the Philadelphia exhibit of Decem- 
ber last. The gallery afforded room, 
however, for three booths showing paint- 
ed scenes from a glass factory, a Penn- 
sylvania coal "breaker," and a mine, 
"three miles from daylight"- — in all of 
which young boys figured prominently. 

Illinois child labor conditions, particu- 
larly in the glass factories, were shown 
by the Illinois Consumers' League, and 
the National Child Labor Committee set 
forth in charts and tables the situation in 
the country at large. A striking contrast 
was brought out between the monotony 
of a simple process, repeated with rapid- 
ity and dexterity, and the interest 
aroused and training afforded through 
giving the worker a chance to use his 
skill in fashioning the complete product. 
This was exemplified by two girls mak- 
ing paper boxes and a couple of boys 
absorbed in the work of a manual train- 
ing school. 

Union cigar and glove factories were 
shown in operation. In the former a 
member of the union explained tables 
and statistics of the remarkable benefit 
features of the Cigarmakers Union. The 
organization of girl glove workers, 
whose leader was in charge of the glove 
factory, recently secured a raise not only 
for girls but for the men in a certain kind 
of work. 

Those interested in factory welfare 
work found an attractively furnished 
model rest room exhibited by the Chicago 
Telephone Company, and sanitary ap- 
pliances and facilities shown by different 

"Every intelligent workman reads his 
trade paper," was the inscription at a 
table where sample copies of several 
score of the trade union journals were 
exhibited. The union label display of 
the Woman's Union Label League im- 
plied a similar motto which might have 
read, "Every intelligent workman's wife 
buys union label goods." 

The most complete exhibit of a given 
phase of the industrial problem, was that 
of the Women's Trade Union League. 
The thoroughness of this survey and the 
clearness with which the historical de- 
velopment of women's participation in 
industry was brought out, are significant 
of the fundamental way in which the 
league is grappling with the problem it 
has faced. "Women have always work- 
ed ; their work has altered neither in 
amount nor intensity; only in character; 
and in character less than is supposed." 
This, shown upon large placards, afford- 
ed a broad enough foundation, surely, 
for a wide range of exhibits. Processes 
of primitive spinning and weaving — with 
accompanying implements, materials and 
products ; modern occupations into which 
woman has entered ; charts showing the 
census reports of the number, average 
youthfulness, and marital status of wo- 
men in industry indicated the extent and 
character of the invasion. More pla- 
cards indicated the effect of marriage on 
quantity and kind of work, the effect of 
woman's employment on child life and 
morals. Remedies for the industrial 
abuse of women are enumerated: — 
legislation to insure a fair bargain and 
remove unnecessary hardships and dan- 
gers, organization, institutions intended 
to increase productivity in occupations 
now open to her, the ballot, and intelli- 
gent buying — the demand for Con- 
sumers' League or trade union label 

The graphic way in which facts may 
be massed to throw into bold outline the 
active meaning of a bandied economic 
phrase was shown by this exhibit. One 


In operation throughout the exhibit, the fresh cake and rolls being sold to visitors. After- 
noon tea was served each day as shown in the illustration. 


The material was furnished by manufacturers of union made clothing, and the workers 
were members of the United Garment Workers of America. 


Charities and The Commons 

such indictment contained seventeen 
counts as follows : 



1. Denial of 8 hour law for women in Illinois;. 

2. Denial of 8 hour law for city labor or for 
mechanics and ordinary laborers. 

3. Denial of 10 hour law for bakers. 

4. Inability to prohibit tenement labor. 

5. Inability to prevent by law employer from 
requiring employe as condition of securing work, 
to assume all risk from injury while at work. 

6. Inability to prohibit employer selling goods 
to employes at greater profit than to non-employes. 

7. Inability to prohibit mine owners screening 
coal which is mined by weight before crediting 
same to employes as basis of wages. 

8. Inability to legislate against employer using 
coercion to prevent employe becoming a member 
of a labor union. 

0. Inability to restrict employer in making de- 
ductions from wages of employes. 

10. Inability to compel by law, weekly or bi- 
weekly payment of wages. 

11. Inability to compel by law payment of 
wages at regular intervals. 

12. Inability to provide by law that laborers 
on public works shall be paid prevailing rate of 

13. Inability to compel by law payment of extra 
compensation for overtime. 

14. Inability to prevent by law employer from 
holding back part of wages. 

15. Inability to compel payment of wages in 
cash ; so that employer may pay in truck or scrip 
not redeemable in lawful money. 

16. Inability to forbid alien labor on munici- 
pal contracts. 

17. Inability to secure by law union label on 
city printing. 

To catalog- and describe the various 
exhibits, however, is quite impossible in 
a limited space. Nor is it necessary. The 
handbook of the exhibit x contains an 
admirable outline of its scope. An "in- 
terpretation" is written by Miss Jane 
Addams, and the 119 pages are given 
over to descriptive articles and stories, 
discussions of various efforts and ways 
to improve social and industrial condi- 
tions, analyses of economic causes and 
effects, arguments in favor of pending- 
industrial legislation, and treatment of 
such allied subjects as The Church and 
Industry. As an educational document 
and an appeal for public support of social 
and industrial movements, the influence 
of the handbook will count far beyond 
the time and place of the exhibit. 

Tableaux of primitive industry turn- 
ed out to be one of the most popular 
features of the week. The rare artistic 
success with which these were produced 
on three of the evenings crowded the 
space of the lecture hall. Under the di- 

a The hand book of the Chicago Industrial Ex- 
hibit may be ordered at 25c a copy through the 
western office of Charities and The Commons, 
1001 Monadnock Building. Chicago. 

rection of Hull House residents, and 
through the participation of their neigh- 
bors, there were illustrated the grinding 
and preparing of food by the Indians, the 
manufacturing of cloth — processes from 
sheep shearing to the finished fabric — by 
Greeks ; pottery by Japanese ; tool mak- 
ing in stone, bone and wood, by Esqui- 
maux ; barter in an Arab market place, 
and character writing — the forerunner of 
printing — by Egyptians. 

Conferences on the two Sunday after- 
noons of the exhibit week, and on each 
week day morning and three evenings, 
were perhaps more significant because of 
the discussions engendered, the people 
and interests brought together, and the 
effect on pending Illinois legislation, than 
for the set speeches on the program. In 
fact, the free and easy character of these 
meetings is shown by the last afternoon, 
when, entirely unexpectedly, William J. 
Bryan came into the hall and was pre- 
vailed upon to make an address in which 
he told of his regard for trade union 
endeavor and its educational influence. 

Industrial legislation was the subject 
of the first Sunday afternoon conference. 
Bills under consideration in the Illinois 
legislature were given enthusiastic sup- 
port rendered doubly effective by the 
Presence of Governor Deneen as presid- 
ing officer. Through his recommenda- 
tions, backed up by personal interest, the 
state factory inspector has introduced far 
reaching regulations "for the health, 
safety and comfort of emoloyes in fac- 
tories, mercantile establishments, mills 
and workshops." Governor Deneen pro- 
poses to change conditions which warrant 
his statement that "although Illinois 
ranks third as an industrial state, it ranks 
absolutelv last on the record it has made 
in securing appropriate legal measures 
properly to protect its working classes." 

Safeguards against hazardous ma- 
chinery, hot and corrosive liquids and 
molten metals ; fences for elevator and 
stairway wells ; shop ventilation, heat and 
cleanliness ; decent toilet accommoda- 
tions, safe and sanitary conditions ; and 
precaution against overcrowding and 
unnecessary risk from fire and panic — 
all these are demanded. It is sought, 
moreover, to have all sweatshops licens- 
ed by the factory inspector, giving him 

The Chicago Industrial Exhibit 


sweeping powers to prevent the sale of 
unclean goods, revoke licenses, refuse 
transportation into the state of goods 
manufactured under unwholesome con- 
ditions, and mark "unsanitary" or "tene- 
ment made" on goods made under certain 

A bill providing for "the establishment 
of the Illinois department of industries" 
is also urged. It authorizes the gov- 
ernor to appoint a commissioner of in- 
dustries to enforce all laws relating to 
the inspection of buildings, factories, 
mercantile establishments, mills and 
workshops and commercial institutions 
and to perform the duties now imposed 
noon the factory inspector. It furnishes 
the commissioner with five assistants, 
one to be a sanitary engineer, one an 
electrical engineer, one a practical ma- 
chinist, one an architect or draughts- 
man, and one a practical builder experi- 
enced in the erection of structural iron, 
each of whom shall have thorough 
knowledge and practical experience in 
his respective trade or profession. It is 
argued that industrial protection could 
thus be more intelligently, justly and 
evenly secured throughout the state. 

Large results are to be expected from 
this first conference, and of others in 
which the Illinois situation was discussed. 
In addition to Miss Addams, Governor 
Deneen, and State Factory Inspector E. 
T. Davies, the list of speakers included 
Pres. John Walker, of the Illinois Mine 
Workers, Miss Mary McArthur, secre- 
tary of the British Women's Trade 
Union League, and Professor Edward 
O. Ross, of the University of Wisconsin. 

The topics of other conferences were 
The Church and Industry, The Child in 
Industry, Risks in Industry, The Power 
of the Consumer over Industrial Condi- 
tions, Women in Industry, The Immi- 
grant in Industry, and Industrial Edu- 

While the Chicago Industrial Exhibit 
was fair to existing conditions, two criti- 
cisms may be and have been urged 
against it, both of which are entitled to 
consideration, and one of which is ac- 

knowledged in some degree to be just 
by the people identified with the exhibit. 
It is doubtless true that the impression 
was a little too strongly made that all 
trade union shops and conditions are 
ipso facto clean, sanitary, and favorable 
to the worker, while all non-union shops 
and conditions are the reverse. 

The absence of manufacturers' and 
employers' names from the lists of com- 
mittees and programs of conferences was 
regarded by superficial observers as an 
indication that the exhibit was ex parte. 
The fact itself may perhaps have been 
unfortunate. But the criticism is scarce- 
ly fair. Among the exhibitors, manu- 
facturers were represented as well as the 
unions. They were given space to show 
protected machinery. In the reproduc- 
tions of union shops, their names, their 
machines and their goods were shown 
just as were the union workers. But 
the essential fact is that the exhibit was 
originated by those representing the pub- 
lic. Neither "side" had anything to do 
with starting it. This was the fact here 
in Chicago as it was in New York, 
Philadelphia, London and Berlin, and as 
it will be in the exhibit about to be held 
in Boston. 

Public-spirited people, face to face 
with ill-health, poverty, misery, economic 
loss, human waste and public burdens 
imposed thereby, were moved to show 
the industrial relation of these things. 
Their only aim was the public gain 
at as little loss to any interests involved 
as can be prevented by just laws. The 
press saw this point. The Chicago news- 
papers, one and all, took and gave just 
this impression of the exhibits. It was 
not merely a device for agitation and edu- 
cation. It was the expression of a rapid- 
ly growing and insistent public opinion 
that industrial conditions must be im- 
proved. It is this spirit which made the 
Chicago Industrial Exhibit a success, and 
which is behind the determination to 
provide a permanent Chicago committee 
for the organization of future exhibits 
and a permanent museum to set forth the 
facts of city, industrial and social condi- 

Mary MacArtKxir and tKe Women's Trade 
Union Movement 

Alice Henry 
Secretary, Illinois "Women's Trade Union League 

The visit of Miss Mary R. MacArthur, 
representing the British Women's Trade 
Union League is an occurrence that is 
likely to have far-reaching results in the 
trade union movement in this country. 
It is due to Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin, na- 
tional president of the Women's Trade 
Union League of America that working 
women here are afforded the oppor- 
tunity of being brought into touch with 
Miss MacArthur. 

The difficulties that stand in the way 
of organizing women workers are not 
to be denied. The important point em- 
phasized in Great Britain has been the 
advantage derivable not only from 
sporadic unionism but from a federation 
of women's unions. Such a body draws 
its strength from its unit members but 
uses that strength with marvelous effect- 
iveness to organize women workers too 
unskilled to unionize without initial help. 
It further uses its power to support the 
feeble union or the individual member, 
where either, however just its cause, 
is at a disadvantage at some crisis in 
the struggle for fair terms and conditions 
of living. By its educational force, help- 
ing the worker to discriminate between 
real hardship and frivolous complainings, 
it has helped to give to women inexperi- 
enced in life outside their own little circle, 
more just standards of comparison, a 
larger conception of the life and of the 
importance of the worker in the commu- 

Miss MacArthur's brief visit to the 
United States was fitly timed to include 
both the week of the industrial exhibit 
in Chicago and the open annual meeting 
of the Women's Trade Union League of 
New York. She is of the young gene- 
ration of enthusiastic workers who are 
the best legacy the older generation can 
leave to the world. The daughter of a 
Scotch manufacturer, she was drawn in- 
to the trade-union movement as a very 
young girl. Organizing ability marked 

4 6 


her from the first, and at the age of 
twenty she was appointed general secre- 
tary of the British Women's Trade 
Union League, a body which though 
somewhat different in its organization, is 
identical in its objects with the body of 
the same name in this country of which 
Mrs. Henrotin is the head. There are 
in Great Britain 140,000 organized wom- 
en workers and of these 100,000 belong 
to the league through their unions: 1 

1 For an account of the activities of the British 
organization see Mrs. Henrotin's article in Chari- 
ties and The Commons, March 2, 1907. 

Mary MacArthur and the Women's Trade Union Movement 47 

It is too early yet to be able to point 
out any very definite results of Miss 
MacArthur's efforts in this country but 
that she has been an awakening and 
stimulating influence those who have 
been at all intimately associated with her 
here are satisfied. Through her inti- 
mate knowledge of the whole trade union 
movement, by her ability to deal with 
widely different phases of the subject 
and by the atmosphere of sincerity and 
courage which surrounds her, she has 
given to working women here a fuller 
conception of their own capabilities as 
united working women and among men 
has impressed the union leaders with the 
importance even to their own interests 
of co-operation and united action be- 
tween men and women workers. Many 
were astonished to learn that men trade- 
unionists in Great Britain not only lend 
their active support to women organizers 
but give large sums out of their own 
funds towards extending the movement 
among women, whereas here, as Luke 
Grant pointed out: 

Though men unionists deplore the fact 
that they are being supplanted by women 
who are satisfied to work for much less 
wages, they make no real effort to organise 
the women and place them on an equal foot- 

The importance of the trade-union 
movement as an ethical and uplifting 
force, as an advance forward to be reck- 
oned with, and guided, was brought 
clearly before the public. Trade union- 
ism in America, unfortunately stands 
very much where it did in England more 
than fifty years ago. It is looked upon 
as a mere class movement, and a selfish 
class movement at that, and as one, gen- 
erally speaking, in oppositien to the gen- 
eral interests of the community. Con- 
sidering the very short space of time 
which Miss MacArthur has been able to 
spend in this country it is matter for con- 
gratulation that she has reached so many 
different classes of hearers. In her 
opening address at Fullerton Hall, Chi- 
cago, she presented the history of labor 

legislation in England to a crowded 
house. In the audience were several 
public men not at all in sympathy with 
labor; before these she was able to place 
labor's claims in a fresh light. Else- 
where the investigators were addressed 
and noteworthy instances were given of 
the results that follow the educational 
work of such a large organized body. 
Executive ability is developed, the women 
become interested in the theory of the 
subject, begin to attend meetings and 
hence as an indirect result of being drawn 
into the labor movement, they are led 
to take an intellectual interest in the 
general history of their country. On the 
concluding Sunday the audience was 
largely composed of working men. 

Besides giving these public addresses 
Miss MacArthur had opportunities of 
meeting and talking with settlement 
workers, clergymen, doctors and poli- 
ticians. She spoke with others who 
have lived in the still waters of affluence 
and to whom the stories of miserable 
lives made less miserable, of whole class- 
es and whole communities raised to a 
higher scale of physical comfort and 
moral independence by the results of 
simple, loyal, organized co-operation of 
fellow-workers, told by this over-the-sea 
worker came as something of a revela- 

The English visitor expressed herself 
as greatly struck with the intelligence, 
readiness and resource of the American 
working woman, and also with the great- 
er hopefulness of view among all classes, 
the hopefulness natural to a new country, 
where there is less of the dead weight 
of past mistakes to carry. 

Her message might be summed up in 
a verse from the Koran which she 
quoted more than once, and which if it 
warns us against too materialistic an 
interpretation of the industrial situation, 
points also the direction our hopes may 

"If thou hast two loaves of bread, sell one 
and buy flowers, for bread is food for the 
body, but flowers are food for the mind." 

Some BooKs of the Year 

Studies in Social Conditions 


What the visiting foreigner takes away 
from America will always bear a fixed pro- 
portion to what he brings. "I felt instinc- 
tively," says Mr. Wells, 1 "that Boston could 
never possibly understand the light travel- 
ing of a philosophical carpet-bagger." He 
makes no secret, indeed, of his conviction 
that the Bostonians do not know what to 
forget. We find him impatient of pilgrim- 
ages to Mount Vernon and Concord and other 
shrines, excusing himself on the ground that 
the English are such a young people. 

This is in sharp contrast, of course, to 
the mood of Mr. Bryce, but it may be doubted 
whether any book written about us since 
the appearance of the "American Common- 
wealth" has been quite so well worth while. 
Mr. Bryce remembered everything; Mr. 
Wells contrives to forget everything save his 
consuming interest in the future of mankind 
upon this planet, and in America's probable 
part in the shaping of that future. Divested 
to a wonderful degree of national prejudice, 
of literary preoccupation, of leisure even 
(for he was here only seven weeks), our 
visitor brought with him a very keen pair 
of eyes and the gift, moreover, of picturesque 
and effective presentation. His book is a 
bold, strongly drawn cartoon, in which the 
lines, though not always right perhaps, are 
at least consistent and inspiring. 

To the European eye, our continent is still 
unpopulated, despite its urban congestion. 
Our people are roughly prosperous, not yet 
consciously defeated in the economic strug- 
gle, and childishly delighted with growth — 
not with mere having, as some observers 
think, but with growing bigger and bigger. 

A sight in Alderman Kenna's saloon of the 
base and coarse faces of those who have no 
ideals and yet have votes has brought viv- 
idly home to our author the alternative 
with us for private ownership. "If public 
services are to be taken out of the hands 
of such associations of financiers as the 
Standard Oil group they have to be put in 
the hands of politicians resting at last upon 
this sort of basis. Therein resides the im- 
possibility of socialism in America — as the 
case for socialism is put at present." Wise 
socialist to see it! 

Is the future in America, as Mr. Wells 
forecasts it, hopeful or the reverse? He sees 
dangers in our plutocracy and in our immi- 
gration. We might stagnate like China or 
decay like Rome. "An illiterate, short- 
sighted America would be America doomed." 

ir The Future in America ; a Search After Reali- 
ties. By H. G. Wells. New York. Harper and 
Bros. 1906. 

4 8 

But we are not illiterate. Our ten cent 
magazines are so far superior to those sold 
in England for six-pence that he has hopes 
of us. "It is these millions of readers who 
make the American problem, and the prob- 
lem of Europe and the world to-day, unique 
and incalculable, who provide a cohesive and 
reasonable and pacifying medium the Old 
World did not know." 

Mary E. Richmond. 


What is needed more than anything else 
for our help in getting some clear vision of 
the problems thrust upon us in every phase 
of social work to-day by the constantly in- 
creasing mass of foreign immigration, is 
the clear cold light of fact, in the shape of 
detailed, first hand, accurate studies of the 
different peoples coming to us, to dispel the 
lurid glow of imagination cast by our fears 
and ignorance combined, which is, up to 
date, about the only light we have had and 
under which these unfamiliar figures appear 
fraught with strange and undefined powers 
for evil. 

One such study we might have expected to 
find in Mrs. Baskerville's The Polish Jew, 1 
but the opening sentences of the book, giving 
its keynote, make us fear that this author 
too is to a great extent under the old spell. 
She says: 

"To those whose impression of the Polish 
Jew is derived from the pauper alien, who 
see him shuddering, half-starved and weary, 
in the slums of European cities, hustled from 
pillar to post, gesticulating and gibbering 
in a strange, uncouth tongue, always in 
groups but ever forlorn, with noise on his 
lips and patience in his face, he appears to 
be nothing more than an unwelcome 
stranger, an economic burden, too loathsome 
to be likeable, too ubiquitous to be interest- 
ing. And yet behind those strongly-marked 
features and restless eyes, behind that un- 
wholesome countenance and strange jargon, 
lie the mystery of a great influence and the 
shadow of a great peril; for the outcasts 
who crowd the emigrant ships represent a 
race that, hated and despised though it be, 
holds a sway in the Russian Empire it does 
not wield elsewhere; a sway which is the 
more powerful because it is silent, more 
dangerous because it is unfelt, more deadly 
because it has eaten into the very sap of 
the community, into every detail of life and 
every action of the Slavonic race." 

x The Polish Jew : His Social and Economic Value. 
By Beatrice C. Baskerville. The Macmillan Com- 
pany, 1906. 

Studies in Social Conditions 


This influence (whether it be also a peril 
or not), is to be found in the economic de- 
pendence of the Slav upon the Jew. In this 
book is given a close and vivid analysis of 
this relation, taking Polish conditions as 
their example, which is eminently worth 
reading. On the one hand is shown the 
Polish population, made up of an unintelli- 
gent peasantry, too stupid and too poor to 
work their farms properly, or to market 
their produce, a skilled working class, and 
a "nobility," which embraces practically 
everyone not a mechanic or peasant, who is 
too proud and too indolent to pay proper 
attention to his business affairs. On the 
other hand is shown the Jew, ready to fill 
up the gap. 

"What the Pole lacks in business capacity 
and moral courage, the Jew possesses to an 
extraordinary degree — rich or poor, he is 
both of the least account and of the greatest 
power, for he has crept into every Polish 
household from the palace to the manor, 
from the farmhouse to the cabin — were he 
to make a mark on all his hands have 
touched, not a field or pasture, not a brick 
or stone, not even a beast of burden but 
would bear the trace of the despised son 
of Israel." 

It is probably not altogether owing to a 
sense of this economic dependence upon the 
Jew that he has been treated in Poland with 
a toleration not known in other parts of 
Eastern Europe. Possibly it is to be ex- 
plained by the more easy-going, tolerant na- 
ture of the Poles themselves. But, accord- 
ing to this book, there is a growing friction 
between Jew and non-Jew which is likely to 
lead to a more definite anti-Semitism in the 
near future. 

It is impossible in the present space to do 
more than indicate the leading topics of 
the book. In the discussion of the economic 
position of the Jews it is plainly shown that 
their economic superiority lies almost wholly 
in trading in its various aspects. They are 
distinctly inferior as cultivators of the soil, 
and even as skilled workmen. In both of 
these lines the Jew, of course, is greatly 
handicapped: in agriculture by political re- 
striction, and in the skilled trades by pov- 
erty and a consequent lack of opportunity 
for training. 

As a side light upon race-psychology, it 
is interesting to learn that one employer, 
himself a Jew, said the Jewish men under 
him "had three grave faults — they shirked 
their work, interfered with things which did 
not concern them, and were too indifferent or 
conceited to compete with better workmen." 

Another Jewish employer, with over 6,000 
hands, employs few Jews because "he did 
not want to have 6,000 partners." And in 
general it is said that "they dislike factory 
discipline and prefer to work under much 
harder conditions at home rather than sub- 
mit to it." 

In other chapters the social stratification 
of the Jowish population of Poland is de- 
scribed, with its small upper class of pluto- 
crats and "intelligentia," modernized, edu- 

cated and prosperous, and its eighty per cent 
proletariat, some touched with the revolu- 
tionary spirit but the majority under the 
bondage not only of poverty and political 
oppression but of their own religious and so- 
cial traditions. Quite fully are described 
the educational and communal organizations 
which are peculiar and interesting features 
of eastern Jewish communities, and the 
various political organizations, Zionites of 
various kinds, the Bund, and other revolu- 
tionary parties. There is also a historical 
sketch of the past of the Polish Jew — his 
surroundings, organization, character, and 
culture, and a curious account of some sec- 
tarian leaders, notably the notorious Frank 
and his followers. We also find a chapter 
on religious conservatism, and a forecast of 
the future, which, however, seems indefinite 
and inconclusive, by no means bearing 
out the promise of the opening words, — 
either to warrant or set at rest the fear of 
evil influence there foreshadowed. 

Notwithstanding the bulk of the book, its 
full detail, and its limitation to a restricted 
field, the impression given by the opening 
paragraph is borne out at its close. 

This is not, after all, the adequate study 
that we might look for. It gives the enter- 
taining aspects of the social physiognomy 
that might be expected from an acute and 
industrious reporter, but it fails to penetrate 
deeply to the inner forces, psychological, bio- 
logical, or social, at work to produce these. 
The whole question of race, for instance, is 
utterly ignored, although with this question 
it would seem any study of a people, and 
especially of a Jewish people, should start. 

Kate Holladay Glaghobx. 


The popular interest in the strangers who 
come to us from other lands is evinced by 
new editions just issued of Howard B. 
Grose's The Incoming Millions and Edward 
A. Steiner's On the Trail of the Immigrant. 1 
Both books are sympathetic with the 
stranger; both call upon us to whom he 
comes to do what we can to help him. 


The subjects of these short stories 2 are 
the Aztecs, half castes, and degraded Mexi- 
cans who come flooding up from the south- 
ern part of our own continent to fill the 
box cars and mud huts of Sonoratown, "de- 
tested by the citizens of Los Angeles as the 
last outpost against progress and adored by 
tourists as the last melting remnant of 

Miss Matthews's attitude is that of one 
personally interested rather than of the 
critical observer, and she has given us an 
appreciation rather than a thorough study 

iPublished by the Fleming II. Revell Co., New 

■Hieroglyphics of Love. By Amanda Matthews. 
The Arroyo Press, Los Angeles, Cal. 


Charities and The Commons 

of the inhabitants of Sonoratown. The 
book is a succession of lovingly illustrative 
glimpses of the picturesqueness and simple 
beauty to be found among them. The 
stories, mostly love stories, are along rather 
general and usual lines and the character- 
ization not particularly close, so that we 
seem to have seen rather than known the 
"tall, handsome" Aztecs and "slender, 
brownskinned" girls. Occasionally there is 
a more complete and tragically sordid pic- 
ture, but it is quickly passed over. The 
prevailing atmosphere is one of loving hu- 
man interest which brings into prominence 
what is sweetest and most appealing in 
these primitive foreign lives. It is a little 
glimpse into one of the other worlds that is 
quite worth having. 

Ruth M. Underbill. 


The Next Street But One 1 gives a picture 
of life problems of the poor as viewed from 
the personal standpoint of a district nurse in 
London. The book is made up of a series of 
unconnected sketches, evidently taken from 
the note-book of the writer and recording her 
impressions of the working class in England, 
as she found them while engaged in her la- 
bors as a nurse. There is no effort at fine 
writing or polishing of the style of the sev- 
eral stories that serve to show the culture 
and good breeding of those whom we are apt 
to call "the lower classes," and of their 
ethical standards as manifested in their 
homes and places of daily toil. A chapter 
about an extraordinarily ill-bred little Amer- 
ican in a Paris pension is introduced, appar- 
ently for purposes of contrast. There is no 
attempt on the part of the writer to go into 
any grave discussion of the rights, or 
wrongs, of the poor. She just jots down 
things that she has seen, leaving to the 
reader the task of drawing inferences. 

E. E. K. 


Under this attractive title is a disappoint- 
ing book. 2 A brief review of the history of 
statistics, a chapter on statistical theory 
which should be of value to many 
people who find themselves charged with 
the duty of statistical report; and a 
final chapter on the growth of population, 
are the parts of this book which are of gen- 
eral interest. To the patient statistician 
with a passion for delving amid figures, the 
two hundred and sixty-eight tables, each 
with its few lines to half a page of inter- 
pretative text, may also be interesting. The 
tables are gathered from a wide area. Great 
Britain, England and Wales, United King- 
dom, Great Britain and Ireland, England (so 

J The Next Street But One. By M. Loane. Lon- 
don. Edward Arnold. 

2 Modern Social Conditions : A Statistical Study 
of birth, marriage, divorce, death, disease, suicide, 
immigration, etc., with special reference to the 
United States. By William B. Bailey. The Cen- 
tury Co., New York. 

in different tables), Belgium, France, New 
South Wales, Australia, Italy, Austria-Hun- 
gary, Austria, United States, and many 
others, furnish the figures. They are (orig- 
inally) from census returns, vital statistics, 
state reports, and so forth, but most of them, 
as they appear here, are copied from other 
books (and acknowledged). Much of the 
interpretation also appears to have been 
copied. The figures have the effect of being 
gathered together rather because they were 
accessible than because they cover their re- 
spective subjects. 

The interpretative text is in some cases 
founded on what seems like an inadequate 
number of instances, and once or twice sums 
that are absurdly disparate are compared. 
Occasionally the author is betrayed into a 
trite reflection for which his tables give 
him no authority. But such lapses are, pos- 
sibly, inevitable in a book largely composed 
of tables and conclusions drawn from them. 

The pages devoted to the theory of sta- 
tistics contain many valuable hints and 
warnings against the more frequent causes 
of statistical error. These are, in many 
cases, usefully illustrated by concrete ex- 

The final chapter on growth of population, 
though it has nothing that strikes one as 
original, is decidedly interesting. The rela- 
tion between growth of transportation facili- 
ties and increase of cities is well worked 
out. The advance in European population 
made possible first by the discovery of Amer- 
ica and then by the invention of steam ma- 
chinery has often been described. The 
author points out that only within a few 
years has sanitary science led to the balance 
in cities between the birth and death rates, 
so that at last the great city is to cease to 
be a man devourer. 1 

Alexander Johnson. 


Professor Wolfe has made a distinct con- 
tribution to the literature on housing con- 
ditions. 2 A difference in terminology leads 
New Yorkers to anticipate a treatment of 
"common lodging houses," which indeed 
need treatment, both in books and in 
methods that several thousand years ago 
cleaned out the Augean stables. But Pro- 
fessor Wolfe studies the dismal swamp of 
the "rooming houses," a region most of us 
have had to travel in, have pondered over, 
but never written about. 

Space allows us but a brief summary of 
his conclusions. There will always be a 

1 Prof. Walter F. Willcox, after six pages of 
illustration in the current number of The Political 
Science Quarterly, gives this severe estimate of 
the book : "I am compelled to conclude that the 
book is not based upon the best authorities, that 
the authorities followed have not been used criti- 
cally, and that it is not an adequate presentation 
of the present condition of American vital statis- 

2 The Lodging House Problem in Boston. By 
Albert B. Wolfe. Vol. IT of Harvard Economic 
Studies. Houghton, Mifflin and Co., Boston and 
New York. 1906. 200 pp. 

Social Theory and Philosophy 


lodging house problem, for our American 
roving spirit, and occupations calling workers 
in a thousand directions, cannot be helped. 
Marriage is undertaken late, delayed by 
economic necessity or attractive irrespon- 
sibility. Tho South End lodging house dis- 
trict of Boston is the product of the flow of 
people to the city, interurban migration, and 
the desire of widows, thrifty couples, and 
persons in broken financial circumstances 
to turn a penny. The lodging house, with 
the aid of the cheap cafe and restaurant, 
displaces the boarding house. Landladies, 
finding their rents and cost of living press- 
ing, are forced frequently into tolerance or 
studied ignorance of loose morality among 
tneir lodgers, who, nomadic, isolated, rela- 
tively poor, yet gregarious, and from their 
surroundings peculiarly irresponsible, not 
only delay marriage but too often hasten 
prostitution and vice. 

The solution? The cure? Education! That 
is almost inevitably the answer, when social 
ills are pondered over. This lodging house 
question is a moral problem. The general 
public therefore should be taught about 
conditions. The State Labor Bureau 
should compile accurate statistics, fol- 
lowing, an exhaustive investigation. The 
landladies of the district should be grouped 

into improvement leagues. A reliable room 
registry, increased cheeriness in house fur- 
nishings, and, above all, a public parlor are 
advocated. The public must not remain 
apathetic in the presence of proved prostitu- 
tion in the district. The social opportunities 
of the lodgers should be increased, and they 
should be better informed of the chances for 
recreation, rest, and worship in the city. 
Though it is not suggested by Mr. Wolfe, 
such a system as the evening free public 
lectures in New York city might be de- 
veloped. The lodger should have a chance 
at more of the personal element in life. 

Mills Hotels for Boston are recommended. 
We believe it advisable to note that our 
experience indicates that, along with the 
evident advantages of such great sanitary 
shelters for the homeless, the very fact of 
homelessness is conceded, emphasized, and 
made attractive, while home-making influ- 
ences are absent. It occurs to us to ask 
if furnished-room houses could not be main- 
tained in Boston exclusively for men or for 

It would be well if settlement workers in 
other cities should follow Mr. Wolfe's ex- 
ample and publish studies of their own fur- 
nished room districts. 

0. P. Lewis. 

Social Theory and PHilosopKy 


The persistency of the Family in its ulti- 
mate form, persisting throughout all econ- 
omic conditions without exception, is the 
thesis of Mrs. Bosanquet's latest book. 1 
She follows Le Play in having a con- 
trolling faith in the good organization 
of the Family as "the one essential factor 
in the prosperity and content of a people." 
In contrast to the stable family, which 
through long discipline and close co-opera- 
tion maintains an attachment to its home 
combined with fidelity to traditions and a 
capacity for change, she holds up to censure 
the characteristic weaknesses of the unstable 
family. The latter families are, she writes, 
"like baskets with holes in them; they let 
the old people drop out at one end, and the 
children at the other, to be picked up by the 
state, or take their chance of passing charity. 
And not infrequently the basket falls to 
pieces altogether, and the whole Family 
has to be sorted out into workhouses, asy- 
lums and prisons." 

Those of us who learned to recognize the 
soundness and saneness of Helen Dendy's 
teaching when fifteen years ago she began, 
rich through her experience of life in East 
London, to write of the methods of true 
charity and the industrial residuum, have 
since watched eagerly for her publications. 

ir The Family. By Helen Bosanquet. London. 
^Macmillan & Co. Pp. 344. 

Whether in The London Charity Organisa- 
tion Review, or in the three separate volumes, 
Rich and Poor, Standard of Life, and 
Strength of the People, we have had from 
her the same clearness and charm of state- 
ment and the same definiteness of policy, in 
spite of the agitation which has carried along 
on the current of clamor for state aid so 
many of the social workers in London. Now, 
as her latest contribution, she offers her esti- 
mate of the importance and meaning of the 
Family as an institution in society. She 
claims no originality of method and, in the 
historical chapter, considers that she has 
given but in crude outline what its part has 
been. But she has given a justification for 
the faith that is in her by the study of the 
Family in its historic relation to industry, 
to property, and to the state. By observation, 
by criticism, by theory, through these past 
fifteen years Mrs. Posanquet has worked to 
impress upon her public, as her husband 
wrote in 1895 in the preface to Aspects of 
the Social Problem, that "character is the 
condition of conditions." The touchstone 
applied to every scheme that has been 
brought to her attention has been whether 
the character of individuals will be affected 
adversely or not by the particular scheme 

As M. Edmond Demolins, the disciple 
of Le Play, has stood in France for the par- 
ticularist formation of society, so in England 
has Mrs. Bosanquet worked shoulder to 


Charities and The Commons 

shoulder with a select group, led by Mr. C. 
S. Loch, for a similar recognition. In deal- 
ing with the wreckage of the towns she 
would have us bear in mind that "it is 
family life alone, with its claims and respon- 
sibilities, its continuity of interests and 
sympathies, which can recognize these drift- 
ing atoms of humanity, and bring them back 
into the main current of social life; and 
fortunately for humanity, the Family is an 
institution with an inveterate power of re- 
asserting itself in the absence of unwise 

In the review of The Family in The Spec- 
tator of November 24, 1906, the reviewer 
mentions a suggestion made by a corre- 
spondent who after reading the series of 
articles published in that weekly in The 
Manufacture of Paupers, felt that criticisms 
which had seemed to be mainly destructive 
should be followed by "some exposition of 
the forces which work, have worked, and 
presumably will continue to work for the 
construction of a true civilization." This 
book comes, The Spectator acknowledges, 
opportunely to its aid. It is to be hoped 
that in America The Family will be widely 
read, for we need no less than do our cousins 
across the water to be given a steadying faith 
in the greatest institution in human society, 
and to work with it as a force rather than 
to endeavor to strike at its foundation in 
our feverish desire to reach results by short- 
cuts. Surely the history of the race has 
shown that the idealist who has blessed us 
with his dreams of Utopia has had in every 
instance to be followed by those who have 
been brought to realize that the approaches 
to Utopia are only along the hard paths 
which are the product of character building. 
Mary Willcox Glenn. 


Mrs. Commander 1 discusses the question of 
small families in its relation to "race sui- 
cide." Her thesis is, "Does the national ten- 
dency toward a small family point to race 
suicide or race development?" As far as the 
book is concerned no conclusion is reached, 
the contents being merely a massing of evi- 
dence to show that the small family is an 
American ideal, and a discussion of the 
many causes — economic conditions being the 
most important one. The fact that a woman 
must ordinarily, during her child's infancy, 
give up whatever active part she has been 
taking in the work of the world, and the in- 
creasing importance attached by both men 
and women to the question of their ability 
to educate their children to their own, or a 
higher, standard of living, are pointed out 
as the chief considerations responsible for 
the tendency. 

There are two chapters devoted to immi- 
gration and its effect on the native popula- 
tion; also a discussion of population statis- 
tics of other countries which show that it is 
not always the most numerous peoples which 

a The American Idea. By Lydia Kingswill Com- 
mander. New York. 1907. A. S. Barnes & Co. 

accomplish the greatest things. The child- 
labor situation is mentioned, with its bearing 
on the subject under discussion. An appen- 
dix at the end of the book contains references 
and something of a bibliography. To those 
who have not thought about the question of 
race-suicide the book may prove helpful, but 
to anyone who has studied the subject no 
new ideas or material is presented. 

E. D. Wilcox. 


This 1 is a series of seventeen essays and 
addresses covering a wide range of Ideals, 
Sociological Problems, and Education, — to 
take the headings of the three main divi- 
sions of the book. Sociology, Professor 
Baker believes, is "the coming study", and 
the socializing of Christianity and the or- 
ganizing of charity point the way to a new 
heaven and a new earth. 


For a clearly presented exposition of just 
what kind of conclusions are being reached 
by the school of physiological psychologists, 
Mr. Fitch 2 must certainly be accredited. The 
reduction of all material phenomena by evo- 
lutionists to matter and motion, with a pos- 
sible synthesis of these into one fundamental 
is here applied to mental processes. One 
might say indeed that Mr. Fitch has attempt- 
ed to demonstrate, with even more remorse- 
lessness than Guyot in his Non Religion of 
the Future, the inevitable physical boundar- 
ies of all mentality. Nevertheless there are 
many weak points in the armor. The ideal- 
ist, for instance, could find much to amuse 
himself with in a purely theoretical discus- 
sion of "cosmic energy." In fact no reason- 
able materialistic philosophy is possible 
without some conceptions which are physi- 
cally not embodied in the "see-able." No, it 
is not in this direction that Mr. Fitch and 
the others of this school render their great 
service. At the best they can never bar out 
pantheistic conceptions, by any system of 
demonstrations. A perfect reasoning from 
cause to effect, based upon the physical ac- 
tion of every atom of the nervous system, 
can never by a process of elimination rule 
out of existence a non-physical universe per- 
meating the physical. But in presenting to 
us the laws governing mental processes, the 
physical basis of mind and morals, the order- 
liness of the mental universe as being a part 
of the orderliness of the whole physical uni- 
verse, in this direction Mr. Fitch's book has 
given us much of fascinating value. 

In Better World Philosophy 3 Mr. Moore has 

1 American Problems. By James H. Baker. Pp. 
222. New York. Longmans, Green & Company. 

2 The Physical Basis of Mind and Matter. M. H. 
Fitch. International Library of Social Science. 
Chicago. 1906. Chas. H. Kerr & Co. Pp. 266. 

3 Better World Philosophy ; a Sociological Syn- 
thesis. J. Howard Moore. International Library 
of Social Science, Chicago. 1906. Chas. H. Kerr 
& Co. Pp. 275. 

Social Theory and Philosophy 

made a most striking plea for the conscious 
development of altruism, especially among 
children. This is the chief message of his 
work. There is very much to criticize in it. 
There is at times a certain intemperance of 
speech which may be necessary in highly 
spiced magazine articles, but is singularly 
out of place in a volume whose central theme 
is of such sterling worth. For instance, it 
is not true that most criminals are so be- 
cause, being without the means of subsist- 
ence, they fight for life rather than lie down 
to die. It is not true that most of the world 
labors only because it is compelled to do so. 
Indeed the instinct for work among the vast 
mass of civilized men has long replaced the 
old savage instinct of laziness. So there 
might be other illustrations. But, despite 
all its imperfections — among others its to- 
tally unnecessary combat with the ideals of 
religion — the work rings truly in its indict- 
ment of crass egotism. It shows how Still, 
despite his smattering of altruism, man is 
the most blood-thirsty among the animal 
species. No other animal kills for the lust 
of killing simply. It appeals for that gra- 
cious form of altruism which will consider 
the whole sentient cosmos as its environ- 
ment and not simply the limited cosmos of 
the human species. It denies that the young 
must be considered simply as young savages. 
It shows how all the training of the young, 
in school and out of it, is based upon prin- 
ciples of competition and combat, the pri- 
mary egoistic principles leading on to the 
satisfaction of ambition, the crowing upon 
the shoulders of our fellow men. Are com- 
petition and combat necessary to right devel- 
opment? Not at all. In the child there are 
other instincts than the desire to be superior 
to one's companions. "The desire for appro- 
bation is almost as strong and perhaps as 
prevalent as the instincts of honor, of self- 
respect, of curiosity, of fear, of sympathy, 
etc., are found almost everywhere, and may 
be appealed to successfully by anyone with 
tact and analysis enough to undertake the 
development of human young." 

Francis H. McLean. 


The principles of socialism, and Jaures's 
conservative but active position in the ranks 
of French socialists, are summarized in the 
translator's introduction, for the benefit of 
the American public to whom the book 1 is 
addressed. There are sixteen of the essays, 
taken from UHumanite and other French 
socialist papers. Their only unity seems to 
consist in the one great point that Jaures 
dwells upon insistently and always: So- 
cialism is coming through evolution; we 
help it along by working in consonance with 
economic laws, not by devising artificial 

studies in Socialism. By Jean Jaures. Trans- 
lated, with an introduction, by Mildred Minturn. 
New York. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 

means (constructive or destructive) of creat- 
ing Utopia. 

The first four essays deal with socialism 
and life. In The Socialist's Aim, by a logi- 
cal course of deductive reasoning, we are 
brought to these conclusions: 1, There 
are two unequal classes, a labor class pay- 
ing a ransom to a capitalistic class for the 
privilege of living; 2, Members of the labor 
class (socialists) conceive of giving capital 
to the power that controls both and all 
classes — the state; 3, As the state controls 
all, the state can enfranchise all individuals; 
4, therefore the socialist's aim is the good 
of the individual, not the good of a class. 

The chapter Rough Outlines presents a 
conservative program for the Socialist party. 

Nine essays deal with revolutionary evo- 
lution. Jaures is cautious almost to the 
point of losing his forcefulness and incur- 
ring the opprobrium of encouraging laissez 
faire; he is also, however, remarkably in- 
genious and unusually sane. It is impos- 
sible to review these articles, for their fas- 
cination lies in the intricacy of the argu- 

Faith in evolution, — Jaures's star of hope, 
stands out in the three essays at the end 
of the volume. He changes from the prac- 
tical conservative to a mystic idealist and 
discourses dreams of national concord and 
the harmony of all nature with humanity. 
"Humanity will raise itself insensibly to- 
ward fraternal justice, just as the earth 
that bears us rises with a silent motion in 
the starry spaces." 

Ruth McNaughton. 


This is a thoughtful criticism 1 of Marxian 
socialism and aims to oppose the view that 
such a socialism is a science. To Prof. Le 
Rossignol "socialism is a faith, a religion," 
and its creed needs sharp examination in the 
light of facts. The author opposes to the 
socialistic "theory of value" the theory of 
"social service as the test of value"; to the 
"iron law of wages" his belief, gained from 
study of economic conditions, that "the rem- 
edy for low wages is not less but more cap- 
italism." He opposes to the Marxian theory 
of "surplus value as capitalistic robbery," 
certain indications that the capitalistic ex- 
ploitation of our time is the "progressive 
expression" of tendencies by which the ex- 
ploitation shall itself be curbed, leaving a 
"useful, economic function, controlled (not 
extirpated) in the interest of justice." Ma- 
chinery is to this author not, as the Marx- 
ian theory indicates, "a means of lengthen- 
ing the working day," but of ultimately 
shortening it through the more economic 
systems of manufacture and distribution 
toward which it tends. Industrial crises 
seem to him the "growing pains" of econ- 

J Orthodox Socialism, a Criticism. By James Ed- 
ward Le Rossignol, Ph. D., professor of economics 
in the University of Denver, and author of Mon- 
opolies Past and Present. Thomas Y. Crowell 
and Co.. New York. 


Charities and The Commons 

omic progress, already proving their tend- 
ency toward evolutionary and not revolution- 
ary change in a civilization in which "80 
per cent of machine-made goods are con- 
sumed by the wage-earning class." Prof. Le 
Rossignol points out the fact that "no class 
is a solid unit" and that the laboring class 
especially cannot be viewed as one "united 
by perfect community of interests," the 
"propertyless class," not being in this coun- 
try as large as the "property class," and 
interchange of social function occurring con- 
stantly between the majority of workers of 
all sorts. The "efficiency of the industrial 
system" is in the opinion of the author the 
great social need, and it remains for any 
system advocating public rather than pri- 
vate service to prove the greater efficiency of 
the former. To any one deeply imbued with 
the spirit of the age, the spirit of revolt 
against hideous extremes of selfish luxury 
and crushing poverty, this book must seem 
too optimistic in tone, too little darkened by 
the shadow of child-labor and the exploit- 
ation of womanhood, by the dangers of city 
congestion, and the weakness of the single 
worker, under capitalized and machine-domi- 
nated industry. Many considerations pre- 
sented, however, are of value as qualifying 
extreme statements on the other side, and the 
tone of the book is not unsympathetic or 
indifferent to social ills. 

Anna Garlin Spencer. 


This is a vigorous and cleverly condensed 
statement 1 of American history, drawn from 
numerous sources, and interpreted by one 
autocratic formula, — viz., that all social 
movements and political crises can be ex- 
plained by the theory of class struggles on 
an economic basis. The fatal fallacy of a 
simple dogma of human growth is clearly 
displayed in this text-book. For example, 
to assert that the labor movement of the 
early part of the nineteenth century was the 
"chief factor in the development of the pub- 
lic school system of the United States"; and 
that the "transcendental movement in New 
England" with its flowering in the first 
truly American literature of Hawthorne, 
Emerson, Thoreau, Channing, Lowell, and 
the other great writers of the time, was "a 
blaze of intellectual fireworks, accompanying 
the dying out of the commercial class in New 
England," is so partial a statement as to be 
absurd. So also of the claim that the civil 
war was "a fight for supremacy" between a 
"class using chattel slaves and one using 
wage slaves." To ignore such mighty forces 
of moral conviction as were involved in 
"state rights and devotion to the Union" 
and fail even to see the idealistic elements 
that made it impossible for that Union to 
"exist half-slave and half-free" is to manu- 

^lass Struggles in America. By A. M. Simons, 
editor of the International Socialist Review. One 
of the Standard Socialist Series, intended for 
general propaganda. Charles H. Kerr and Co., 

facture a theory blind to facts and therefore 
wholly misleading. The economic interpre- 
tation of history, held as one of the illumin- 
ating elements of sociological study, has 
proved of great use both in understanding 
and guidance. Taken as the sole explanation 
of the complex processes of human develop- 
ment it leads to sterile bigotry. 

Anna Garlin Spencer. 


This third edition, 1 revised and enlarged, 
of a book already well known to thoughtful 
students of social problems, comes in its 
newer form to a large class of readers al- 
ready interested in any contribution which 
the author may make to current discussion. 
With the exception of Albert Schaffle stu- 
dents are indebted, perhaps, to no one more 
than to Mr. Kirkup for aid to critical study 
of the principles and history of socialism; 
and the English author happily escaping the 
"excessive love of system which is charac- 
teristic of the German specialists" gives the 
American reader the more direct and service- 
able clue. Friendly, even allied, to the so- 
cialistic cause, Mr. Kirkup applies the 
"higher criticism" to the "bible of socialism" 
and to all its accepted tenets, in a way to 
show how one can be a socialist and not a 
bigot. No greater service can be rendered 
to the present discussion of social evils and 
methods of lessening them than to carry 
the debate to such high ground. "Socialism 
rightly interpreted" is to Mr. Kirkup "sim- 
ply a movement for uniting labor and capital 
through the principle of association." It 
presents the ideal of industry like govern- 
ment, "of the people, for the people, and by 
the people." But socialism must win if at 
all not by mechanical introduction; it must 
be a growth, he tells us, an organic change, 
"external circumstances co-operating with an 
inward moral spirit in society." As a "new 
phase in the discipline of humanity" the 
author believes socialism will be also a "pro- 
cess of social selection, which while inviting 
all, will attract the most worthy, and thus 
carry on the process of social-economic evo- 
lution" of the race. The chapter on "Recent 
Progress in Socialism" shows the great ad- 
vance in the political strength of socialists 
and also gives encouraging signs of the 
newer protestant spirit within its ranks, 
which revolts at making socialism a "sect." 
The chapter gives also a useful analysis of 
differences in development in the several 
European countries and the United States, 
along with a clarifying discussion of the 
trust phenomena in this country and the 
especial needs of industrial progress here. 
To the author "purified socialism" seems the 
"consummation of other forms of human 
progress, applying to the use of man all fac- 
tors of scientific, mechanical, and artistic 
development in harmony with prevailing 
political and ethical ideals." Of such a so- 

1 A History of Socialism. By Thomas Kirkup. 
Adam and Charles Black, London. 

Social Theory and Philosophy 


cialism even the most timid need not be 
afraid, and all elements of race education 
now at work to discipline and improve the 
common life must lead, if not to this more 
technical reform in the industrial order, at 
least to some condition in which all shall 
share more justly in the fruits of labor. 

Anna Garlin Spencee. 


Under the auspices of the Public Lecture 
Bureau of the National Civic Federation 
W. H. Mallock of England is now delivering 
at various American universities and before 
popular audiences elsewhere, a series of lec- 
tures which are attracting a considerable 
degree of attention in the daily press and 
in the magazines. The topic of those given 
at Columbia University was Socialism. 1 
Starting with the proposition that popular 
socialism to-day rests essentially on the doc- 
trine that all wealth is produced by manual 
labor, Mr. Mallock lays emphasis on the fact 
that this view overlooks the part played by 
men of ability who organize and direct the 
manual labor of others. "It is to this direc- 
tion of labor on the part of exceptional 
men," Mr. Mallock says, "and not to labor 
itself, that all the augmented wealth of the 
modern world is due." "Capital is itself the 
result of ability directing labor." Posses- 
sion of capital means "the control by one 
man of the necessaries required by many; 
and it enables such a man, by thus making 
the distribution of these necessaries condi- 
tional, to impcse the industrial guidance of 
his own knowledge and intellect on the 
manual operations of those amongst whom 
he distributes them." These notions having 
been established to Mr. Mallock's satisfac- 
tion the further argument is that no form 
of society can succeed unless sufficient in- 
ducements be given to insure the activity 
of these men of ability upon whom so much 
hangs. "Society as a whole," says Mr. Mal- 
lock, "if it is to secure and retain their 
services must concede to them by its con- 
stitution the terms that these men desire; 
and what these terms shall be must prac* 
tically be decided not by society as a whole 
but by the exceptional men themselves." 
The terms proposed by socialism, in Mr. Mal- 
lock's view, would be wholly inadequate to 
secure the services of the indispensable men 
of ability. 

This is not the only line of argument 
adopted by Mr. Mallock against socialism, 
but it is the basic element in his position. 
Certain socialists are inclined to charge that 
in this argument Mr. Mallock has set up a 
man of straw in whose demolition they have 
no interest. They fully admit the produc- 
tiveness of ability. What they wish to know 
is whether some men are not unjustly en- 

1 Lectures on Socialism, delivered at Columbia 
University by W. H. Mallock. Abstract furnished 
by the National Civic Federation. 

joying the fruits of other men's labor and 
ability; whether, for instance, the public 
receives a fair return for franchises or, as 
a matter of fact, is conferring undue privi- 
leges upon the few. They question whether 
possession of capital is always due to 
ability; whether inherited wealth is gener- 
ally put to the best use. They question too 
the wisdom of giving absolute free play to 
those motives whose activity Mr. Mallock 
regards with such undisguised approval. 

And these are fair questions. Mr. Mal- 
lock has wholly misconceived the socialistic 
movement in this country if he thinks it is 
essentially doctrinaire and to be combatted 
by argument equally doctrinaire. American 
socialistic spirit in its practical aspects is 
fundamentally the determination on the part 
of the people at large to see to it that spe- 
cial privilege is abolished. In spite of the 
fact that Mr. Mallock has thus misconstrued 
the matter thanks are nevertheless due the 
Civic Federation for his efforts. They are 
stimulating to discussion. 

A. A. T. 



"Only them as likes things as they be," 
it has been said, are non-socialists now-a- 
days. To-day you are, theoretically, an in- 
dividualist. To-morrow you complain of 
over-capitalization, child labor, monopoly, or 
some other ill that yesterday you did not 
feel. You wish "somebody would do some- 
thing" about the particular thing you don't 
like. Behold, you are a socialist! At least 
you can find Mr. Mallock or someone else 
willing to call your attitude socialistic — 
which amounts to the same thing. 

But each of us likes his own brand of this 
article. Mr. Martin's is warranted not to 
explode. Mr. Sinclair wants a social revolu- 
tion. Mayor Jones gets three cent fares. Mrs. 
Gilman has Utopian ideas. Mr. Carnegie de- 
sires a progressive income tax. Mr. London 
denounces the competitive regime entire. 
Socialism is to be a religion — it is purely 
economic. It will change the family — it will 
do nothing of the sort. It is all things to 
all men by all means to save some — to 

These diversities in things socialistic do 
not daunt Mr. Wilshire. 1 His is the "au- 
thoritative" brand — at least so say his pub- 
lishers, the Wilshire Book Company, who 
are surely in a position to give an unbiased 
judgment. An "industrial cataclysm" is 
coming. Over-production is doing its work. 
The competitive system is the root of all 
evil. "Snap but one link in any country 
and at the same moment the proletariat of 
the world are free." Co-operation will bring 
the millennium. 

It is well to know there are such seduc- 
tively singing sirens, for their influence on 
the thought and actions of many in the body 
politic is by no means negligible. The Edi- 

*WIlshire Editorials. The Wilshire Book Co., 
New York. Pp. 410. 


Charities and The Commons 

torials should therefore not be overlooked 
by those who wish to understand all phases 
of this powerful but somewhat miscellaneous 
"socialistic" spirit everywhere manifest in 
the United States to-day. 

A. A. T. 


This remarkable book 1 is perhaps the best 
example of what we may term, with the 
permission of Professor William James, the 
method of social pragmatism. The ration- 
alistic note in dealing with democratic theo- 
ries and problems is happily totally lacking, 
and we are made to see things as they are 
in the light of what they may be if we 
grasp the present with an entire abandon- 
ment of formularies suited to a political and 
industrial era quite other than the period 
in which the present generation's lot is 
cast. That the book is colored by Miss 
Addams's own particular personal note of 
mysticism, and that its perusal raises the 
reader's own hopes and social faith, in no 
way negatives its pragmatic character. A 
social philosopher cannot divorce his work 
from his personality. We can only ask for 
objectivity in the method adopted. We do 
not expect a uniformity of opinion as to 
practical measures as a result of the appli- 
cation of that method. 

The plea for peace which is the keynote 
of the book is based on quite other grounds 
than those which are most popular. Her 
pages "hope. . . to make clear the conten- 
tion that these forces within society are so 
dynamic and vigorous that the impulses to 
war seem by comparison cumbersome and 
mechanical." There is no confidence in the 
dogma of peace, nor even in the vision of 
peace, but rather the insight into the social 
elements now making for peace whose de- 
velopment is possible, desirable, and prob- 

War is to Miss Addams a juvenile per- 
formance, useful historically, possibly use- 
ful in years to come, but whose day is doom- 
ed by the inherent capacities of developing 
social and industrial life. 

The kindliness of simple people, their 
readiness in mutual helpfulness, the well 
founded belief, in industrial quarters of 
great cities where immigrants crowd to- 
gether, that good government is not so much 
a well ordered business mechanism as it is 
a taking hold on the part of society of the 
life needs of the citizens, an enrichment and 
enlargement of the daily life of those who 
really constitute society — this it is that 
makes one perceive the unreality of the mil- 
itary ideal and its corollaries in the political 
and industrial field. 

To those who are most deeply concerned 
with the discovery of "a new religious bond 
adequate to the modern situation" the sug- 
gestion is most significant that "perhaps, at 

a Newer Ideals of Peace. Bv Jane Addams of 
Hull House. Published by the Macmillan Co., 1007, 
in the Citizens' Library series, edited by Richard 
T. Ely. Pp. 238. 

this moment, we need to find that which will 
secure the health, the peace of mind, and 
the opportunity for normal occupation and 
spiritual growth to the humblest industrial 
worker, as the foundation for a rational 
conduct of life adapted to an industrial and 
cosmopolitan era." 

As the chief elements in undermining the 
need of war as a means to heroic conduct 
is instanced "the new heroism" which "man- 
ifests itself at the present moment in a uni- 
versal determination to abolish poverty and 
disease." The international quality of this 
new kind of heroism is emphasized. The 
thought that lies at the bottom of Miss 
Addams's latest message is well indicated 
in the introduction. "It appears that our 
only hope for a genuine adjustment of our 
morality and courage to our present social 
and industrial developments, lies in a pa- 
tient effort to work it out by daily experi- 
ence. We must be willing to surrender 
ourselves to those ideals of the humble, 
which all religious teachers unite in declar- 
ing to be the foundation of a sincere moral 

The introductory chapter, with this indi- 
cation of the method to which the matter of 
the succeeding chapters is subjected, is fol- 
lowed by six chapters dealing with the sur- 
vival of the military ideal as it is mani- 
fested in city government, in industrial legis- 
lation, in the labor movement, in the atti- 
tude of society toward the child in his re- 
lation to industry, and in the relation of 
women to municipal activities. A final chap- 
ter deals with the passing of the war virtues 
in the true spirit of the historical student 
who sees the virtues of one period deterior- 
ate into the mistake or sins of another era.. 
The valor of the present needs quite a dif- 
ferent spur from that which could flourish 
alone on the battlefield. It is the plea of 
this final chapter that industrialism affords 
ample opportunities for the development of 
substitutes for the war virtues which were 
attained in too clumsy a way to suit the 
imagination of our constructive age. We 
are increasingly unwilling to "refer the pos- 
sibilities of all social and industrial advance 
to the consent of the owners of the Maxim 
guns." In some way we must "develop the 
large sense of justice which is becoming 
world-wide and is lying in ambush, as it 
were, to manifest itself in governmental 

In the chapter on militarism in city gov- 
ernment one gets an especially forceful im- 
pression of the book's freedom from dogma.. 
"Our early democracy has a moral roman- 
ticism, rather than a well grounded belief in 
social capacity and in the efficiency of the 
popular will"; "in spite of the fine phrases 
of the founders, the government became an 
entity by itself 1 away from the daily life 
of the people." 

The author goes on to show how we have 
so largely failed "to treat our growing re- 
public in the spirit of a progressive and de- 

The italics are ours. 

Social Theory and Philosophy 


veloping democracy." "It is easy to demon- 
strate that we consider our social and politi- 
cal problems almost wholly in the light of 
one wise group whom we call native Amer- 
icans, legislating for the members of hum- 
bler groups whom we call immigrants." 
"We have no method by which to discover 
men, to spiritualize, to understand, to hold 
intercourse with aliens and to receive of 
what they bring." "As children who are 
allowed to amuse themselves with poker 
chips pay no attention to the real game 
which their elders play with the genuine 
cards in their hands, so we shut our eyes 
to the exploitation and industrial debase- 
ment of the immigrant, and say with placid 
contentment, that he has been given the 
rights of an American citizen, and that, 
therefore, all our obligations have been ful- 
filled. It is as if we should undertake to 
cure the contemporary political corruption 
founded upon a disregard of the interstate 
commerce acts, by requiring the recreant 
citizens to repeat the constitution of the 
United States." In continuing to speak of 
the immigrant in his new environment, Miss 
Addams rightly insists that the larger share 
of the alienation between parent and child 
so frequently seen among immigrants is due 
to the fact that "the Americanized child 
has copied the contemptuous attitude to- 
wards the foreigner which he sees all about 

The emphasis which is so often laid upon 
reform in our large cities, the suppression 
of the criminal forces of society, the ef- 
forts to bring about honest business admin- 
istration, are all seen in this chapter in 
their true light as the repressive elements 
of society which desire to dominate the sit- 
uation. How different from "a normal dem- 
ocratic government" which "would naturally 
have to do with the great majority of the 
population in their normal relations to each 

In the chapter entitled Failure to Utilize 
Immigrants in City Government, occurs a 
sentence which might truly be used to de- 
scribe Miss Addams's own peculiar contribu- 
tion to American life. "The statesman who 
would fill his countrymen with enthusiasm 
for democratic government must not only 
possess a genuine understanding of the 
needs of the simplest citizens, but he must 
know how to reveal their capacities and 
powers." The suggestions of this chapter 
as to combining community life with agri- 
cultural occupation as suitable to a large 
class of our immigrants are worth serious 
consideration. Not less trenchant is the 
indicated need of a drastic change in our 
educational method to meet the demands of 
an industrial age. The plea of this chapter 
is that the normal needs of the normal man 
be recognized rather than that the function 
of government be understood to deal alone 
with the abnormal in morals or economic 
station. This idea is employed in different 
form in the succeeding chapter that deals 
with industrial legislation where the facts 

of industrial strife are seen again (as is 
the way with war), to obscure the normal 
issues involved. 

The chapter on group morality in the la- 
bor movement shows that although "success 
has become the sole standard in regard to 
business enterprises and political parties — 
it is evident that the public intends to call 
a halt before it is willing to apply the same 
standard to labor organizations." 

An interesting analysis of the growth of 
unionism and its moral strength and weak- 
nesses follows: 

"In a sense it is fair to hold every insti- 
tution responsible for the type of man whom 
it tends to bring to the front, and the type 
of organization which clings to war methods 
must, of course, consider it nobler to yield 
to force than to justice. The earlier strug- 
gle of democracy was for its recognition as 
a possible form of government and the 
struggle is now on to prove democracy an 
efficient form of government. So the earlier 
struggles of trade unions were for mere ex- 
istence, and the struggle has now passed 
into one for a recognition of contractual re- 
lations and collective bargaining which will 
make trades unions an effective industrial 
instrument." "Certain it is that the indus- 
trial problems engendered by the industrial 
revolutions of the last century, and flung 
upon this century for solution, can never 
be solved by class warfare nor yet by ig- 
noring their existence in the optimism of ig- 

A valuable consideration of the relation 
of the child to industry is followed by a 
plea for the utilization of women in city 
government, on the somewhat novel but en- 
tirely evolutionary ground of their interest 
in housekeeping. We may describe this 
point of view as the larger domesticity, in 
distinction from that attitude of revolt 
which characterized the early movement in 
behalf of granting the franchise to women. 

Minor criticisms may be offered to this very 
valuable book, with its precious volume of 
experience illuminated by a faith in human 
beings quite different from an abstract love 
of humanity. Thus it may be objected that 
the mir from which the author expected to 
be able to draw democratic inferences and 
hopes was itself an artificial and political 
creation and is undoubtedly doomed to ex- 
tinction as a democratic economic unit. Nor 
were the trades unions established by the 
Russian government in the first year of the 
Japanese war a genuine attempt to protect 
labor. They were rather a means for dis- 
covering the actual leaders that they might 
be dealt with. 

Such minor errors can in no way however 
mar the beauty, the appeal, and the virility 
of this volume of interpretation of the lives 
of the humble, nor dim the legitimate hopes 
which the author as a social philosopher 
dares to base on this experience, and with 
which she cannot fail to inspire the reader. 

Maby K. Simkhovitch. 

Industry and Economics 



This admirably clear, brief, and careful 
presentation of a difficult and discouraging 
subject 1 will doubtless become both the au- 
thority for Pennsylvania and the model for 
students of labor legislation in other states. 
It marks an epoch in university work when 
the reformer can turn to the student for 
trustworthy information, available in Feb- 
ruary, 1907, while brought down to Decem- 
ber, 1906, with current statutes and judicial 
decisions painstakingly analyzed, inter- 
preted, and compared with those of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. 

There is crying need of similar contribu- 
tions in every industrially developed state 
in the Republic; and it is cheering that this 
excellent initial attempt comes from the 
state in which conditions are in some re- 
spects the worst to be found, — from the 
state having the largest number of working 
children, the longest legal working day for 
women and children, the widest variety of 
occupations calling for the labor of boys 
and girls, the greatest number of useful 
statutes repealed by the legislature or an- 
nulled by the courts. The publication of 
this enlightened criticism of Pennsylvania's 
most backward branch of public law, is full 
of promise of better things to come in the 
second industrial state in the union. 

Floeence Kelley. 

In observing national traits a foreigner 
has certain advantages over a native. In 
like manner, the effort to describe one's own 
country to a foreign audience conduces to a 
clearness and comprehensiveness that are 
appreciated in the homeland. In the seven 
lectures 2 delivered to German audiences by 
Professor Laughlin, of the University of 
Chicago, these qualities are much in evi- 

The book is not a systematic study of 
American industry in all its phases, but a 
statement and discussion of certain econ- 
omic questions of vital interest to-day. 
American competition with Europe, a sub- 
ject of primary importance to Germany, is 
first considered. The increase in recent 
years in the exports of manufactured articles 
from the United States is attributed to 
America's advantages in natural resources, 

*Factory Legislation in Pennsylvania ; Its His- 
tory and Administration. By J. Lynn Barnard, Ph. 
D. University of Pennsylvania Series in Political 
Economy and Public Law. 1907. Pp. 178. Phil- 
adelphia. John C. Winston Co. 

industrial America. Berlin Lectures of 1906. 
By J. Laurence Laughlin, Ph. D. New York. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1906. Pp. viii., 261. 


in facilities for transportation, in labor 
force, and in managing ability. The protec- 
tive tariff, we are told, by limiting the for- 
eign market for our products, stands in the 
way of the full utilization of these advan- 
tages. Turning to our domestic problems, 
the author deals in succession with the labor 
unions, the "trusts," the railroad question, 
and the banking situation, and concludes 
with a chapter on economic thinking in 

In dealing with these much-disputed ques- 
tions the writer does not conceal his own 
opinions, which, it should be remembered, 
are often sharply opposed to the trend of 
public policy and academic teaching in the 
country where the lectures were delivered. 
Professor Laughlin is known as one of the 
more conservative American economists, and 
his belief in the social efficacy of individual 
freedom and private initiative in industry 
appears in every chapter. The labor unions, 
he thinks, instead of trying to maintain an 
artificial monopoly by restricting output and 
limiting the number of apprentices, should 
base their power on the superior efficiency of 
their members. The rise of large-scale in- 
dustrial corporations has benefited the com- 
munity by the very cheapening of goods that 
has driven the small operator to the wall. 
In railway management also, private own- 
ership has justified itself by making "the 
whole rather than a part of our country rich 
and prosperous." If the pioneer of railway 
construction had dreamed of governmental 
control, few roads would have been built. 
In regard to banknote issues, a more flex- 
ible system is advocated as meeting the 
needs of rural communities, but the inter- 
vention of the Secretary of the Treasury to 
save the large banks from the consequences 
of their own over-expansion of credits is 

Nevertheless it is interesting to note that 
even so thorough-going an individualist as 
Professor Laughlin does not fail to perceive 
that the way to individual freedom must 
sometimes lie through the exercise of collec- 
tive authority. "A free chance and no favor" 
is his interpretation of laissez-faire, but to 
secure this against monopolies "it may be 
necessary to make it a criminal offense for 
a trust to charge different prices to different 
buyers." The railroads, too, must be pre- 
vented in some way from discriminating In 
favor of large shippers, and some form of 
supervision of rates by a commission seems 
to be favored as a means to this end. But 
in direct governmental conduct of industry 
he sees no advantage. Municipal ownership 
is to him the refuge of the discontented, so- 
cialism the philosophy of failure. The intel- 
ligent socialist, whose existence is recognized 
in the book, might demur to the statement 
that the common tenet of all varieties of so- 

Industry and Economics 


cialism is the abolition of private property — 
no specification of kinds of property being 
made. Indeed, it may be questioned whether 
the considerations that lead men to doubt 
the beneficence of unmitigated competition 
are adequately weighed in these lectures. 
Yet those who urge these considerations will 
find abundant food for reflection in the in- 
cisive statement and well-reasoned interpre- 
tation of current issues which the book pre- 
sents. R. C. Chapin. 


Labor federations in the United States 
are divided by Dr. Kirk 1 into two great 
classes, general federations and industrial 
federations, the latter including trades coun- 
cils and industrial unions. In each of these 
fields he briefly outlines the history, struc- 
ture, and functions of the various organiza- 
tions which fall within the definitions. 
Perhaps nothing conduces more to an under- 
standing of the labor movement in America 
than once for all to get clearly in mind the 
various kinds of labor federations and the 
leading examples of these kinds. 

General federations include in their mem- 
bership workmen of all trades; industrial 
federations include several or all the trades 
employed in an industry, the trades council 
differing from the industrial union in sev- 
eral important respects. The trades coun- 
cil is a loosely organized association while 
the industrial union tends towards a high 
degree of centralization; the former does 
not ordinarily aim to include all the work- 
ers in the industry but only the more close- 
ly related trades. The industrial union 
flourishes where organization by industry 
is of more value to the workingman than 
organization by trades. The increasing pro- 
portion of unskilled to skilled workmen in 
many industries is another cause of the 
formation of industrial unions. 

The three greatest examples of the gen- 
eral labor federation are the American 
Federation of Labor, the Knights of Labor, 
and the American Labor Union. Broadly 
speaking the Federation of Labor is a de- 
centralized body, the Knights highly cen- 
tralized. The American Labor Union is 
also highly centralized; its chief field of 
activity is in the West though it has a few 
branches in the East, while the Federation 
of Labor is chiefly active in the East though 
it has a great following in the West also. 
The American Labor Union has actively put 
itself into politics, adopting the socialist 
platform; hitherto the Federation has re- 
fused to enter politics but in the last elec- 
tion it did so, though it has always rejected 
socialism at its annual conventions. 

The three examples of the trades councils 
given are the International Building Trades 
Council, the Metal Trades Federation and 

National Labor Federations in the United 
States. By William Kirk, Ph. D. Pp. 150. Johns 
Hopkins University Studies Series. XXIV, Nos. 
9-10. Baltimore. The Johns Hopkins Press. 

the Structural Building Trades Alliance. 
"The financial weakness of the national 
trades councils makes it impracticable for 
them to control effectively local sympathetic 
strikes." Efforts have been made to 
strengthen the hands of the central execu- 
tive. Politically the International Building 
Trades Council frequently advocates the 
election of candidates known to favor organ- 
ized labor. 

Industrial unions, which seek to include 
under one national organization the auxili- 
ary trades as well as the various branches 
of the principal trade in a single industry, 
are the Brewery Workmen, the Mine Work- 
ers, the Western Federation of Miners, and 
the Brotherhood of Railway Employes. A 
manifesto of industrial unionists says: 
"Separation of craft from craft renders in- 
dustrial and financial solidarity impossible. 
Union men scab upon union men, hatred of 
worker for worker is engendered, and the 
workers are delivered helpless and disinte- 
grated into the hands of the capitalists. 
Craft divisions foster political ignorance 
among the workers, thus dividing their class 
at the ballot box, as well as in the shop, 
mine and factory." To gain effectiveness 
there must be "one great industrial union 
embracing all industries — providing for 
craft autonomy locally, industrial autonomy 
internationally, and working class unity 
generally," wherein final authority shall 
rest with the collective membership. The 
form of an industrial union, Dr. Kirk 
thinks, makes it more effective in bargain- 
ing with employers than trade unions, also 
it lends itself more readily to the use of 
its political power. Arthur B. Reeve. 


Prof. Goldwin Smith's letter to "My La- 
bour Friend," * is a brief treatise on trades- 
unionism and socialism by one who frankly 
states himself in the introduction to be a 
conservative. The book is largely concerned 
with warnings to the workingman of the 
dangers incident on the development of these 
doctrines, but while sound, the arguments 
are not particularly new in the literature of 
the subject. The book moreover, gives 
the impression of having been written by one 
whose viewpoint is that of an outsider and 
who has never come into close contact with 
the tenseness of the industrial struggle. 
More keenly alive to the function of capital 
in the community than to the needs of the 
laborer, he appears to feel that tue work- 
ingman is actuated only by a desire "to 
transfer wealth from the hands of its pres- 
ent possessors to his own," ignoring the so- 
cial and moral issues involved. Nor will his 
advice to the wealthy "to make their pleas- 
ures less invidious — by mingling with the 
cup of pleasure some drops at least of social 
duty," be apt to hasten the healing of that 
breach which he deplores. M. F. B. 

1 Lahour and Capital. By Goldwin Smith, D. C. 
L. New York. The Macmillan Company. 1007 


Charities and The Commons 


In addition to the regular volumes of the 
federal census, the Census Bureau issues 
from time to time important bulletins on 
special subjects. These usually give a more 
detailed analysis and study of the material 
previously published in the regular volumes 
of the census. Sometimes, however, they 
give the results of subsequent statistical in- 

In response to the widespread interest in 
the subject of Child Labor, the Census Bu- 
reau has recently issued two special bulle- 
tins, 1 No. 68, giving an analysis of the cen- 
sus figures of the year 1900 in greater detail 
for the District of Columbia, and No. 69, 
doing the same thing for the question of 
child labor in the United States. Both of 
these bulletins are noteworthy because of 
the excellence of the method employed in 
presenting the rather meagre material and 
information on child labor contained in the 
census volume on Occupations and also by 
reason of the fact that much of the informa- 
tion, although derived from the schedules of 
the twelfth census taken June 30, 1900, and 
therefore seven years old, was hitherto un- 
published. Dr. Joseph A. Hill, under whose 
immediate supervision these bulletins were 
published, has set a good standard for the 
presentation of this material in the future 
and it is to be hoped that the Census Bureau 
will be able to give us a similar presenta- 
tion of the results obtained in the census 
of 1910 before the material is seven years 

One cannot help but be impressed with 
the inadequacy of the statistical enumera- 
tion of child laborers and the uncertainty 
that the general population schedule has 
really given us the best sort of statistical 
inquiry on this subject. The census office 
seems to think that the probability of error 
is in the direction that some child laborers 
have been omitted rather than that duplica- 
tion or other mistakes have swelled the 
total, and yet the figures are startling in 
the facts they reveal. 186,358 children be- 
tween the ages of ten and thirteen inclusive, 
enumerated as employed in the two groups 
of occupations, (1) trade and transportation, 
and (2) manufacturing and mechanical pur- 
suits, constitute, in the opinion of the cen- 
sus authorities, the child labor problem as 
it may be measured by the twelfth census. 
This group includes, to quote the census 
bulletin, "practically all of the child bread 
winners enumerated by the census whose 
employment is justly regarded as a grave 
evil and a menace to the welfare of the na- 
tion, and on the other hand probably in- 
cludes comparatively few whose employment 
is entirely unobjectionable." This is a 
more optimistic view of the child labor 
problem than those who have some expert 
knowledge of the subject are willing to take. 
There are 790,623 children under fourteen 
enumerated as bread winners, and although 

*Census Bulletins. Nos. 68 and 69. 

the majority of these are in agricultural 
pursuits and some of them employed under 
parental supervision, there are probably few 
of them who are not being deprived of the 
normal rights of childhood, and who are 
not the victims, to some extent, of a system 
that is socially wrong. But the evil does 
not stop here. Nearly a million more chil- 
dren of the ages of fourteen and fifteen are 
enumerated as employed in gainful occupa- 
tions, and a very large part of the child 
labor problem consists in how wisely to 
regulate, and in some cases prohibit alto- 
gether, the work of these children in order 
to insure that their physical welfare is not 
impaired and that they receive the necessary 
modicum of education for citizenship in the 
republic. In addition to these general sta- 
tistics, which are carefully analyzed in many 
directions, a very valuable feature of the 
bulletin is the statistics given for special 
occupations, — cotton mills, silk mills, glass 
works, tobacco and cigar factories, miners 
and quarrymen, textile workers, messenger, 
errand and office boys, — all of which are 
separately and comprehensively treated. 
Much valuable information may be obtained 
through consultation of these tables. 

Samuel McCune Lindsay. 


A writer who can see in the escape of the 
children of Israel from Egypt the first great 
labor strike of history, 1 who can see in Spar- 
tacus a great labor leader, in Solon the 
founder of trade unionism and socialism, 
in Lycurgus the lawgiver of the regime of 
the nationalization of the tools of industry — 
a writer who can see these things is bound 
to be interesting, at least if taken in small 

But whatever we may think of Mr. Ward's 
vivid imagination in confusing ancient and 
modern ideas he has discovered enough 
truth to make an interesting study if only 
it could be compressed in half the space and 
the labyrinth of his logic untangled. 

A. B. R. 


Arthur Shadwell's comparative study 2 of 
industrial life in England, Germany, and 
America contains a large amount of ma- 
terial, much of which has considerable value, 
some of which has great value, to the stu- 
dent of economics. Mr. Shadwell has ap- 
parently gone about his task with enthu- 
siasm; he has collected details with infinite 
patience; he has drawn sound and inter- 
esting, if not particularly deep or original, 
conclusions from his observations; and he 
has presented his material in a remarkably 
readable form considering the two royal oc- 

1 The Ancient Lowly : A History of the ancient, 
working people from the earliest known period to 
the adoption of Christianity hy Constantine. By 
C. Osborne Ward, 2 Vols. Pp. 690, 716. Chi- 
cago. Charles H. Kerr & Co. 

'Industrial Efficiency. By Arthur Shadwell, M. 
A. London. Longmans, Green and Company. 

Industry and Economics 


tavo volumes. But his work lacks scholarly 
method both in the selection of material and 
in style of presentation. He has gotten to- 
gether a large number of facts, which he 
presents to us for the most part without 
mention of his authorities, thus depriving 
his own work of the value which it might 
have had by leading to special inquiry along 
the many lines suggested, and by no means 
exhaustively treated. In his introduction 
he tells us that his reason for not quoting 
his authorities is to spare persons who have 
furnished him with valuable information 
from the annoyance of receiving further in- 
quiries. The style is rather that of a trav- 
eler, interested in evervthing that strikes his 
eye, than of a student of a distinctly marked 
line of activity. In dealing with New York 
city, for example, Mr. Shadwell spends sev- 
eral pages upon pleasant gossip about the 
New York accent as compared with the cock- 
ney. These points, however, by no means 
destroy the value of Mr. Shadwell's work 
which is throughout sincere, sympathetic, 
and attractively presented. 

Henrietta Rodman. 


Hutchins Hapgood found in Chicago the 
material for his latest book, The Spirit of 
Labor. 1 There he obtained his inspiration, 
first of all, from the general attitude of the 
workingmen themselves toward labor ques- 
tions, and, secondly, from the attitude of 
advanced thinkers of all classes, including 
settlement workers and professional men. 
Mr. Hapgood started out with the idea of 
recording the life of a typical workingman, 
on much the same plan as he followed in his 
earlier work, The Autobiography of a Thief. 
He was obliged to give up this plan, how- 
ever, in the main, and instead grouped to- 
gether under various headings the ideas and 
ideals of different grades of workingmen 
whom he came to know. 

Anton, his main character, sketched from 
life, was a German, born in the Fatherland 
of a religiously inclined, hard working 
mother and a drinking, improvident father. 
At twelve years of age be became a worker 
in a small western town and at eighteen 
he was "on the road." While a tramp and 
at the same time working occasionally as 
a mechanic he first directed his inborn 
"spirit of protest" against existing condi- 
tions in a workingman's life. At twenty- 
five he married a German girl who became 
his close companion in his advanced think- 
ing, and gave up his wandering ways. 
Tom Paine's writings were the first which 
attracted him as a result of his previous ex- 
periences in tramp life. Anton soon joined 
the Union and called himself a socialist. 
From a socialist he finally became a the- 
oretical anarchist, so strong was his feeling 
of individualism and his critical spirit, di- 
rected against narrowness and intolerance 

x The Spirit of Labor. By Hutchins Hapgood. 
Duffleld & Co., New York. 

of any kind. He became a leader in trades 
union affairs in Chicago, and remained a 
fighter for the rank and file as against both 
the unscrupulous political leader and the 
reformer who uses bad political methods in 
his reforming within the trades unions. An- 
ton's relations with his various employers 
as business agent for his union, and with 
his fellow leaders among the workingmen, 
and his difficulties as labor leader in inter- 
preting and following out the wishes of his 
fellow workingmen, are closely described. 

One point in the book which perhaps calls 
for most immediate discussion, is Mr. Hap- 
good's own belief, expressed in treating the 
subject of the grafting labor leader of the 
Sam Parks type, that "a man who steals 
may still be of human importance and that 
the bulk of his activity may be for good." 

The account which is given of an anar- 
chist salon conducted by a young man and 
woman of the working class, who are being 
supported upon the meagre wages of a cook, 
a mutual acquaintance, is most interesting, 
and puts the finishing touches on Mr. Hap- 
good's experience with the life of the Chi- 
cago workingmen and women who are 
making a religion of their beliefs on social 
questions, and are thinking out for them- 
selves the problem of living. 

F. A. King. 


In his study of the German workman, 1 
Mr. Dawson shows how German imperial 
legislation, German statesmanship and Ger- 
man philanthropy in the last quarter of a 
century, working singly or together, have 
tried to ensure and safeguard the physical 
efficiency of the German workmen. 

If he is without employment there is the 
complete system of Municipal Labor Regis- 
tries, by means of which he can be placed 
in communication with the man who wants 
workers, and which are in close co-operation 
with the educational authorities. Two kinds 
of Labor Houses are maintained for the re- 
lief of destitute wandering workers: the 
Home Lodging Houses, private institutions 
maintained by voluntary funds; and the 
Relief Stations, supported by the adminis- 
trative authorities. These have removed the 
last excuse for itinerant mendicancy and 
have decreased the convictions for vaga- 
bondage. Then there are the thirty-three 
Labor Colonies, chiefly agricultural, to which 
the only conditions of admission are want 
and worklessness. The percentage of resi- 
dents who bring forth visible fruits of bet- 
terment is not higher than twenty-five or 
thirty per cent, but it must be remembered 
that the recruits are for the most part 
physical and moral "breakages." In the case 
of the eight Labor Colonies for women of 
all ages better results have been accom- 

The state also helps the workman to se- 

ir rhe German Workman ; A Study in National 
Efficiency. By William Harbutt Dawson. New 
York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1906. 


Charities and The Commons 

cure cheap and good lodging. Since 1903 
the imperial government has advanced to 
the communes and building societies con- 
ducted on a philanthropic basis loans at a 
low rate for the erection of small houses, 
with the result that many German cities 
have attached to them areas of building 
land where a two roomed dwelling can be 
rented for $100.00 a year. If a workman 
wants to own his home the city advances 
funds to charitable societies, which make it 
possible for him to pay by installment. 
Recently the enormous accumulations of 
insurance contributions have been advanced 
to erect workmen's dwellings. In 1903 $27,- 
383,000 were advanced at a rate of 3 to Zy 2 
per cent. Another interesting development 
along these lines has been the creation of 
Municipal Free Home Registries for workers 
and small employers. The house seeker 
pays neither fee nor deposit. The owner 
pays a deposit and his statements are veri- 
fied by inspection. Shelters for the Home- 
less are provided of two kinds, for families 
evicted by legal process and for penniless 
and homeless individuals. 

In her anti-consumption crusade Germany 
has been very active. Legislation to com- 
pel the compulsory notification of tuber- 
culosis cases is now receiving public atten- 
tion. Insurance funds are being used for the 
erection of convalescent hospitals and sana- 
toria. The Imperial Insurance Bureau has 
valuable data on the results of investigations 
of the consumptive covering a period of five 

The school doctor follows the health of the 
child, from his entry into the school until 
he is called upon to pronounce upon his 
capabilities and limitations and to say for 
what occupation he is fit. 

Municipal pawn shops where money is 
lent upon business terms are regarded with 
great popularity, as are also the industrial 

courts of arbitration, without legal ma- 
chinery or expense, which settle disputes 
between employer and workman. 

Mr. Dawson is least satisfactory in his 
description of the German legislation 
which provides insurance on a national scale 
against sickness, accident, and old age. He 
gives a summary of the laws, describes the 
machinery, the methods employed, and gives 
a few statistics on the number of persons 
insured and the amount of accumulated 
funds, but does not estimate the results. A 
system which has been in operation since 
1884 and has numbered millions of people 
among its beneficiaries is ready to be judged. 

National circumstances have resulted in 
the creation of workmen's "Secretariates," 
supported by all the trade unions, which 
give advice regarding the laws concerning 
the working class, mediate in wage disputes, 
represent the workman before industrial and 
legal tribunals, and collect valuable infor- 
mation on the questions of wages, hours of 
work, health, and vital statistics. 

For those whom all these agencies fail to 
help there is the system of poor relief, in 
many respects a model administered with 
skill and intelligence. 

On the whole Mr. Dawson's book is a most 
comprehensive and readable study of the 
efforts of England's redoubtable competitor 
to reduce the number of incapable and 
heighten the efficiency of those workmen who 
are not at all incapable. While he dwells 
upon the originality and foresight Germany 
has shown Mr. Dawson does not assume that 
a reform which worked well in Germany 
will necessarily operate equally well in 
Great Britain or anywhere else. Yet his 
final verdict is that Great Britain has much 
to learn from Germany's example, and we 
may assume he would think the same of the 
United States. 

Blsa G. Hebzfeld. 

Some Social and Civic Problems 


Secretary Taft 1 discusses the duties of the 
young citizen from the standpoint of (1) a 
recent university graduate, (2) a judge on 
the bench, (3) colonial administration, and 
(4) the national executive. 

The recent graduate of a university is 
warned that he has a step downward to take 
after his exalted position of senior. His 
sense of proportion as to his position in so- 
ciety must first of all be restored. Mr. Taft 
thinks that "political and economic san- 
ity" (expressed in a lack of sympathy with 
socialist doctrines) may be assumed. He 
urges his audience to affiliate themselves 

1 Four Aspects of Civic Duty. By William 
Howard Taft. New York. Charles Scribner's 
Sons, 1906. 

with a political party and to take a deep 
interest, and as active part as may be, in 
local politics. 

From the standpoint of a judge he urges 
them to fulfil their jury duty ungrudgingly; 
to discountenance every manifestation of 
lynch law; to do what they can to influence 
legislatures "to reduce, by a few well drawn 
amendments to the existing procedure, the 
chances of escape of criminals through the 
technical meshes of the law"; to help create 
a public sentiment "in favor of the suprem- 
acy of the law and in favor of the punish- 
ment of wrong-doers." 

The duty of the American citizen who 
lives in the Philippine Islands is "to make 
himself as well acquainted with the Fili- 
pinos as he can"; the duty of the Filipino 
himself is allegiance to the government; the 

Some Social and Civic Problems 


duty of the American citizen in America is 
to do his part in demonstrating "that it is 
possible for people purely tropical to be 
educated and lifted above the temptations 
to idleness and savagery and cruelty and 
torpor that have thus far retarded the races 
born under the equatorial sun." 

The duty of the citizen to the national ex- 
ecutive is briefly but comprehensively stated 
as "to hold up its hands and support all of 
its policies, and be properly tender and 
gentle in dealing with its defects, suspected 
or proven." 

Secretary Taft's advice to the young citi- 
zen is conservative and wholesome, and he 
gives it a solid background of assurance 
that our government is worthy of all the 
loyalty that can be given. It is perhaps as 
valuable for high school boys and boys 
whose higher education is obtained through 
work and tenement-house experience as it 
is for university men. M. B. 


This is a review 1 of what has been called 
the "civic renaissance," by an experienced 
journalist, aiming to give a rapid, truthful 
summary of significant events of recent 
years in our political life and of the men 
who have brought about these changes for 

Passing quickly over the "Graft Among 
the Fathers," the writer carries us to the 
period, ten years ago, when the real awaken- 
ing came. He depicts Roosevelt as the "in- 
spiration," and in succeeding chapters tells 
of La Follette's fight in Wisconsin; of 
Jerome's work for reform in New York 
city; of Folk's war on the machine in Mis- 
souri; and of the campaign in Philadelphia, 
Cleveland, and New Jersey. In spite of the 
sordid revelations of these chapters the au- 
thor believes that America has only been 
suffering a temporary malady and is now 
convalescent. The men he writes of, 
stirred up as by a common impulse, in dif- 
ferent parts of the country, while working 
from different views and with different 
methods, have aimed at the same target. 
All scored: politicians who have defined 
politics as a high and honorable profession 
rather than a rapid, corrupt road to wealth; 
and reformers who have interpreted the 
word as evolution, not revolution. They 
have become the real leaders in the fight 
for honesty, not the "bosses" of their parties. 
And their clean cut, practical, and sincere 
beliefs have been the seed of an abundant 
harvest. They have shown the voters that 
they are men of power and not commodities 
to be bartered by political bosses, and 
the note of independence these men have 
sounded has been echoed and re-echoed in 
the recent successful campaigns against 
bossism and special privilege. 

Grace L. O'Grady. 

America's Awakening ; The Triumph of Right- 
eousness in High Places. By Philip Loring Allen. 
New York, Fleming H. Revel 1 Co. 

the: dangers of 
municipal ownership 

In view of recent utterances by several 
public men, the question of municipal and 
state ownership promises to invite the acute 
attention of every citizen in 1908. Mr. Por- 
ter's book 1 is therefore extremely opportune, 
giving, as it does, the reverse side of a pic- 
ture that has been attractively brought to 
our attention in the past score of years. 

Mr. Porter's object is "to set forth what 
the business man and the municipal official 
are alike silent upon — namely, the inherent 
defects of the whole principle of public trad- 

Russia is held up as an object lesson in 
the destruction of individual initiative; and 
Australasia as showing the hopelessness of 
endeavoring to blend democracy and bureau- 
cracy. Aristotle, Mill, Sir Francis Bacon, 
Balfour, an ex-mayor of Albany, and an 
official of an English railway company are 
brought forward as witnesses against the 
theory. It is shown that at the present time 
municipalism is a power to be reckoned with, 
and that the outcome of the policy is bound 
to be alike in every country where it is in- 
stituted, as evidenced by the results in Great 
Britain, Australia, and Russia. For the re- 
mainder of the book Mr. Porter trains an 
analytical mind on Great Britain. From a 
general consideration of the personnel of the 
local authorities, who are, to say the least, 
not drawn from among the most efficient 
business men, he passes on to a particular 
exposition of the weaknesses involved in 
the process of municipalizing the tramways, 
electric power and housings. Housing he 
finds to be especially unsuitable for state en- 

Mr. Porter thinks, on the one hand, that 
"the inherent weakness of modern munici- 
palization lies in its utter helplessness to 
face private enterprise in the open, and it 
has therefore, to seek the shelter of legalized 
monopoly, and to prop itself up by compul- 
sory subsidies wrung from the tax-payers 
in order to survive"; and that, on the other 
hand, the "best safeguard which we (pri- 
vately owned companies) have against the 
seeming trend of public opinion (toward 
public ownership) is our conduct towards 
the communities we serve, which should 
result from the careful study of the interests 
of the public from the attitude of good citi- 
zenship," substantially the same ground 
recently taken by Mr. Harriman, Mr. Shonts, 
and others. R. G. Paterson. 


Town and City 2 is a very valuable little 
book prepared for the use of the lower 
grades in the public schools, especially of 

^he Dangers of Municipal Ownership. By 
Robert P. Porter. 8 vo. Pp. xi, 349. The Cen- 
tury Company, New York. 

2 Town and City. By Frances Gulick Jewett. 
Book Three in the Gulick Hygiene Series. Ginn 
and Co., Boston. 

6 4 

Charities and The Commons 

New York city. It is based on the soundest 
educational principle of all time — that edu- 
cation shall tend to produce efficiency. The 
tatters of classical and medieval education 
which we are so slow in discarding were 
cut, in their time, after the same pattern. 
Plato's philosopher and Jerome's monk 
would be "public-spirited citizens" in the 
twentieth century, and only that education 
which prepares for such citizenship is in 
harmony with the educational theories of 
Plato and Jerome. Mrs. Jewett knows the 
environment into which our future citizen 
must go. She knows and presents very sim- 
ply and attractively the responsibilities 
which await him there and she prepares him 
for the greater responsibilities of the future 
by pointing out small responsibilities which 
the manly boy and the womanly girl in the 
primary grades may shoulder at once. In 
short, the little book furnishes practical sug- 
gestions toward good citizenship, better than 
I have found in any other supplementary 
reader for the lower grades, and should 
serve as an introduction to more advanced 
work of a similar kind, such as may be found 
in Mr. Jacob Riis's books. 

Henrietta Rodman. 


Three Acres and Liberty 1 is a brief for 
country life, but country close to the city. 
"It is not the growth of the cities that we 
want to check, but the needless want and 
misery in the cities, and this can be done 
by restoring the natural condition of living, 
and among other things, by showing that it 
is easier to live in comfort on the outskirts 
of the city as producers, than in the slums 
as paupers." The argument consists in show- 
ing what can be done with small plots of 
ground if intelligence and personal interest 
are applied. The results of actual experi- 
ments are given, with cost of equipment, 
including housing. The culture of ordinary 
vegetables for home consumption, and of 
flowers, poultry, fruits, drug plants, frogs, 
pheasants, snails, silk worms, dogs, cats, 
and mushrooms, for the market, is discussed. 
The chapter on vacant lot cultivation is 
introduced not primarily in order to advo- 
cate it, but to emphasize what "you" can 
do if "these poor ignorant people, women, 
boys, cripples, old men" have been able to 
get the returns that have been obtained in 
various cities. L. B. 


A plea for developing and "spiritualizing" 
the country schools is made by O. J. Kern, 
superintendent of schools, Winnebago county, 
Illinois, in his recently published book. 2 Mr. 

J Three Acres and Liberty. By Bolton Hall and 
R. F. Powell. The Macmillan Company, New 
York. 1907. Pp. XXII, 435. 

2 Among Country Schools. By O. J. Kern. Ginn 
and Co., Boston and New York. 

Kern refuses to accept for the country school 
the graded system and standards of educa- 
tion employed in the city school, and 
opposes any consolidation of country schools 
which will have as a result the adoption of 
the graded system. He outlines those methods 
of education especially adapted to the coun- 
try boy and his needs. Among these methods 
he advocates the introduction of school gar- 
dens and the carrying on of experimental 
work in agriculture under the advice and 
co-operation of state agricultural colleges 
and farmers' institutes, and also the adop- 
tion of manual training which shall supple- 
ment the training a boy receives on the 
farm. Several lists of agricultural reports 
and books of reference are given, which are 
of value, and in addition detailed informa- 
tion is furnished as to the relative success 
attained by the use of these methods in 
country schools, mainly in the middle west. 

F. A. King. 


"Efficiency is the ideal. To be strenuous 
is no end in itself. . . . The pursuit of 
health is not an end in itself. But to live 
a full, rich, efficient life is an end." 

The foregoing sentences suggest the direct, 
stimulating style, and the motive of Dr. 
Gulick in writing the most serviceable book 1 
on habits of health that I have ever seen. 
The only fair way to review such a book 
would be to select epigrams or telling anec- 
dotes from each chapter and let them give 
the message. 

The book is serviceable because one reads 
it and because it does not set the ideal so 
high that one prefers gout or headache to 
the effort necessary to be healthy. I am 
going to commend it strongly to our relief 
visitors as a text book, not only because it 
will help them in dealing with needy fami- 
lies, but also for its humor and its practical 
life philosophy. 

Dr. Gulick has charge of the physical 
training work of the public schools of 
Greater New York. His opportunity is sec- 
ond only to that of the Superintendent of 
Schools. Within a few weeks he has sug- 
gested the establishment of a special depart- 
ment of school hygiene that should oversee 
the living at school of all children, learn 
their physical needs, correct environment 
that causes or aggravates physical defects, 
emphasize from kindergarten to high school 
the art and the religion of the Efficient Life. 
Social workers will profit not only from his 
book but from a knowledge of his work for 
the schools. 

Chapters of special value to social work- 
ers: States of Mind; Exercise — Its Use and 
Abuse; The Attack on Constipation; Fatigue; 
Stimulants and Other Whips; Vitality; 
Growth in Rest. 

William H. Allen. 

!The Efficient Life. By Luther H. Gulick, M. D. 
Doubleday, Page and Co., New York. 

Some Social and Civic Problems 



the: prisoner at the: bar 


The story of St. George's Church, during 
the years since 1883, is also the story of the 
work of the Rev. William S. Rainsford dur- 
ing the same period, and a detailed account 
of that work is given by Dean Hodges and 
John Reichert in their volume. 1 

The book contains introductory chapters 
by President Roosevelt, Bishop Potter, and 
Dr. Rainsford himself. It is, as its title in- 
dicates, a statement of the way in which the 
needs of a large city parish, located among 
the working classes, are dealt with. The first 
pages deal with the history of the various 
steps by which the church has advanced to 
its present condition, and the succeeding 
chapters show how it is kept in that condi- 
tion, by a system of management that speaks 
well for the business ability and the prac- 
tical, broad-minded Christianity of the man 
who originated it. 

The method of administration is somewhat 
after the fashion of the department store, 
each department meeting some parochial 
need, and being under the control of a com- 
petent head, responsible for its well being, 
and at stated intervals reporting to the rec- 
tor, who by this means is kept in close touch 
with the many avenues of the church's work. 

Following a catalog of the adminis- 
trative staff, with a statement of the duties 
which each member is expected to perform 
and when and how he is to do his task, 
comes a detailed description of the church 
itself, together with its parish buildings, and 
the various purposes for which these build- 
ings are used. The house-keeping problems 
of the clergy-house and the Deaconesses' 
home; the time and place of meeting and 
the work of the various clubs and societies 
existing in the parish; the trade school for 
boys and the several branches of industrial 
education under the supervision of the Girls' 
Friendly Societies; the church itself, its 
floor-plans, its desks, and cupboards, its hos- 
pital room fitted up for the convenience of 
any person who may become ill during 
attendance at any of the services, its cellar 
and clock-tower, — all departments, in fact, 
are thrown open for public inspection. The 
financial management is carefully explained 
and charts are given to demonstrate the 
manipulation of the envelope system, and we 
are told of the times of making special 
appeals, and of the forms in which these 
appeals are presented. Lists of the various 
services are given also, and topics are sug- 
gested for the different seasons of the eccle- 
siastic year. A number of illustrations and 
a full, well-arranged index add to the attract- 
iveness and usefulness of a book that is at 
once interesting and educational. 

E. E. Knubel. 

x The Administration of an Institutional Church. 
By George Hodges and John Reichert. Harper and 
Bros., New York. 

Mr. Train's volume 1 on criminal procedure 
has all the qualities of his magazine stories 
about the New York clubman and his valet- 
double, with the additional recommendation 
that it is true. The reader has the com- 
fortable feeling that he, or still more indu- 
bitably she (for it is the feminine readers 
who are peculiarly indebted to Mr. Train), 
is pleasantly acquiring accurate information 
that could otherwise only be obtained by 
hard work and much digging in dull techni- 
cal tomes. 

The book describes the machinery by 
which the very small proportion of wrong- 
ful acts which are punished are dealt with 
in New York city, from the arrest up to the 
pronouncing of sentence, but not beyond. 
One ends with a feeling of mingled respect 
and impatience for modern society: impati- 
ence that we tolerate a body of criminal 
law so ill-adapted to modern conditions* the 
old system devised for dealing with crude 
crimes having been distorted by additions 
rather than developed into a new harmoni- 
ous system; and respect that we seem to be 
able to get along with so little inconvenience 
under this ludicrous system — that so infin- 
itesimal a number of punishments "serve 
to keep the whole social fabric in order and 
sustain the majesty of the law." 

Mr. Train thinks that our system, framed 
in the reaction against the tyranny and bar- 
barism of the medieval codes, has gone so 
far in sympathy for the prisoner that it fre- 
quently seems devised for his convenience 
rather than for the protection of society. 
"We have unnecessarily fettered ourselves, 
have furnished a multitude of technical ave- 
nues of escape to wrong-doers, and have 
created a popular contempt for courts of 
justice, which shows itself in the senti- 
mental and careless verdicts of juries, in a 
lack of public spirit, and in an indispo- 
sition to prosecute wrong-doers." 

If there are encouragements to the crim- 
inal, in the magistrate who would not hold 
a man for statutory offences because there 
was "no sense in the law" and he "might 
want to do the same thing" himself some 
day; in the extent to which the average jury 
can be managed by clever counsel; in other 
tricks of the trade (to which a chapter is 
devoted); in the probable leniency of judge 
and jury; in the susceptibility of the yellow 
press, which frequently conducts the actual 
trial, to any sensational feature of the pris- 
oner's circumstances, whether or not it has 
anything to do with the fact of his guilt, — 
if there are these and other encouragements 
to commit crime, there are also discourage- 
ments to the victim of petty criminals who 
is inclined to prosecute. The experience of 
Mr. Silas Appleboy in his efforts to bring 
his cook Maria to justice for stealing his sil- 

ir The Trisoner at the Bar. By Arthur Train. 
New York. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1906. Pp. 
XL 349. 


Charities and The Commons 

ver teapot is bound to discourage estimable 
citizens from doing anything in case their 
cooks steal their silver teapots. 

The weak points in our criminal proced- 
ure are admirably emphasized, but not, 
after all, at the expense of a clear and sys- 
tematic account of the administration of 
criminal justice in ordinary cases. 

Lilian Brandt. 

The new edition of Dr. S. A. Knopf's Prize 
Essay on Tuberculosis as a Disease of the 
Masses invites attention to the current ut- 
terances 1 of this indefatigable warrior against 
the Great White Plague. During the last 
year his published addresses in the interests 
of public health have been given before med- 
ical associations, anti-tuberculosis societies, 
the National Prison Association, and the 
teachers of the New York public schools. 

He urges the medical and teaching profes- 
sion to unite in teaching the public that tu- 
berculosis is "chronic, communicable, pre- 
ventable, and curable." In addition to hav- 
ing school children taught the nature of tu- 
berculosis and cautioned against habits 
which tend to communicate the disease, he 
would have their health protected by in- 
creased attention to simple breathing exer- 
cises, a better supply of oxygen in the school 
room, much singing and reciting out of 
doors, and free lunches for the under nour- 
ished. He advocates a thorough physical ex- 
amination of the child on its entering the 
school, daily inspection, and periodical re- 
examination. In addition to this work the 
duty of teaching the children sex physiology 
and hygiene should devolve upon the school 
physician. Dr. Knopf would have the equip- 
ment of schools include swimming tanks, 
commodious playgrounds, and school gar- 
dens. He would establish school sanatoria, 
similar to Sea Breeze, in sufficient numbers 
to accommodate the six thousand tuberculous 
school children of New York and also the 
teachers who contract the disease. Dr. 
Knopf suggests that the government might 
do efficient service by the wide distribution 
of pamphlets on tuberculosis, venereal dis- 
eases, and alcoholism. He suggests also 
some changes in prison management and 
sanitation in order to minimize the increased 
danger of infection to persons in confine- 
ment; he advocates cremation as a sanitary 
measure; he hopes for more stringent mar- 
riage laws; he is in line with the child labor 
movement; he desires to see country life 
made more attractive so as to lessen the 
evils incident upon crowding in cities. In 
fact the remedies he proposes for the tuber- 
culosis evil are almost as varied as the con- 
ditions of life among the people. 

Louise Mark. 

tuberculosis Addresses. By S. A. Knopf. In 
various medical journals. 


The American Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis has begun a series of 
educational pamphlets, 1 designed to meet for 
the case of venereal disease the need that the 
plentiful tuberculosis literature of recent 
years has been meeting in its own province. 
Pamphlet No. 1 consists of answers given by 
a member of the society to thirteen questions 
addressed to him by a group of university 
students and instructors. No. 2, still in 
press, has been prepared especially for teach- 
ers. No. 3 is a reprint of four chapters from 
Dr. Prince A. Morrow's work on Social Dis- 
eases and Marriage. The first of these chap- 
ters gives clearly the biological and medical 
facts which are significant from the social 
point of view; and the others discuss pos- 
sible remedial measures in the way of edu- 
cation and administrative control. This 
pamphlet offers in convenient form the parts 
of Dr. Morrow's book which are of greatest 
value to social workers. 


The community which does not boast a 
well developed and progressive park move- 
ment is indeed behind the times. And the 
larger city which has not already conceived 
the idea of a unified and comprehensive sys- 
tem of parks for the widest use of the met- 
ropolitan population within and surround- 
ing its confines is the exception. To every 
city and town, however, whether a park 
system is already in process of attainment 
or planned or is still restricted to the imag- 
ination of one "visionary", this book 2 of sig- 
nificant title affords much valuable inform- 
ation and suggestion. For it records not 
only the dream of a civic enthusiast, but the 
experience of an able and far-sighted park 
commissioner, whose wise and vigorous in- 
itiative and practical handling of affairs was 
largely instrumental in securing a great 
county park system but a slight distance 
from America's metropolis. Mr. Kelsey saw 
the magnificent possibilities of such a sys- 
tem for his home county, Essex, in New Jer- 
sey, including forest and mountain reser- 
vations of rare beauty. He urged the ac- 
quisition of these tracts so that they might 
always be reserved for the park uses of 
this growing county which includes the city 
of Newark and receives much of New York's 
out-reaching metropolitan population. The 
narrative details Mr. Kelsey's work of agi- 
tation in securing the necessary legislation, 
and his experience in serving on the com- 
missions established to create and maintain 
the enterprise. His final chapter puts in a 
helpful and un-dogmatic way some of Mr. 

1 Copies mav be had from E. L. Keyes, M. D. t 
109 East 34th Street, New York. 

2 The First County Park System : Fred W. Kel- 
sey. 300 pp. $1.25. J. S. Ogilvie Publishing 
Company, New York. 

Books of Reference 

6 7 

Kelsey's recommendations as drawn from 
personal observation of methods. Compari- 
son of different cities and his own experi- 
ence lead him to advocate elective park 
boards, relying upon the great municipal 
political awakening to insure capable com- 
missioners. He favors public sessions of 
the board; funds from public franchises or 
the receipts of public service corporations 
to meet park maintenance charges, and the 
social extension of parks along the lines 
pioneered in Chicago by the South Park 
Commissioners in establishing recreation 


This treatment 1 of the boy vagrant and ju- 
venile offender is an interesting effort to 
outline the progress toward criminality of 

ir rhe Making of the Criminal. Russell and 
Rigby. Macmillan and Co., London. 1906. Pp. 

boys and girls who by force of circumstan- 
ces become outcasts, orphans, or graduates 
of institutionalism. The authors, depicting 
English conditions, show how inadequate is 
the present-day solicitude for boys and girls 
in their most formative years. For the 
youth without home, friends, or ideals the 
descent to Avernus is easy; the wanderer be- 
comes the railway trespasser; the young 
thief, the jail-bird. Not until much too late 
do reformatory methods endeavor to remake 
the young person that society has allowed 
to grow bad through insufficient safeguards. 
Very much of what the English authors say 
of their country's conditions applies to our 
land. As modern methods are then cited 
the Borstal system (resembling the Elmira 
plan), our own probation system and chil- 
dren's courts, which are highly praised. The 
appendix contains a valuable compendium of 
laws of different nations relating to juvenile 
vagrancy and reform. 

O. P. Lewis. 

BooKs of Reference 


The proceedings of the National Confer- 
ence of Charities and Correction have never 
been like those of many similar bodies — 
purely formal publications for purposes of 
record or to satisfy the proclivity of the day 
to commit even the most careless utterance 
to undying print. From the beginning they 
have been recognized as stores of the most 
valuable contemporary literature of the main 
and allied subjects. 

The thirty-third volume 1 is no exception 
and should find its way immediately into use 
in every pastor's study, sociology class room, 
legislative library, and charitable and cor- 
rectional institution in the country. Beyond 
the statement of the organization we have 
the address of the president and a brief re- 
view of present conditions by representatives 
for thirty-six states, two provinces of Can- 
ada and Cuba. We are then given the trans- 
script of the report of each committee to- 
gether with the stated essays. These papers 
are prepared by prominent persons of prac- 
tical experience in the field or of fresh and 
invigorating thought, for direct submission 
to immediate judgment by their confreres. 
This fact serves to insure careful study 
and scholarly preparation and delivery by 
every writer. The reports of the commit- 
tees have, of course, the additional weight 
or authority of each of their members. 

To a larger extent than usual eminent 
people from without the field have contrib- 

^roeeedings of the National Conference of Char- 
ities and Correction. Philadelphia. Edited hy 
Alexander Johnson, Indianapolis. The Conference. 
1907. Tp. XVIII, 687. Copies are sent to those 
who become members of the Conference, or may 
be purchased separately from Alexander Johnson, 
2139 Pennsylvania Street, Indianapolis, Ind. 

uted to the proceedings gathered in this vol- 
ume. The national organizations on Tuber- 
culosis, Child Labor, and Day Nurseries 
used this Conference as a forum. The chap- 
ter subjects are: Children; Child Labor; 
Care of the Sick; Charitable Finance; De- 
fectives; Immigration; Needy Families in 
Their Homes; Neighborhood Work; State 
Supervision and Administration; Statistics; 
Workingmen's Insurance. 

What seems to be an unusual and unfor- 
tunate arrangement for a volume of this 
character is that the minutes and discus- 
sions are separated from the papers to 
which they apply. In other respects the 
book is well organized, and there is a nota- 
ble improvement in making both page cap- 
tions useful. The left hand page is capped 
by the chapter subject, the right by the 
name of the author of the page and his sub- 
ject. The editor is to be further compli- 
mented on having obtained the book-mechan- 
ical qualities — good paper, good print and 
good binding. 

By reason of the influence it had on the 
New York State Conference and the very 
widespread interest and comment roused 
subsequent to the Philadelphia meeting in 
its subject, the tenth chapter may be said 
to be the most noteworthy. The subject: 
Needy Families in Their Homes is not 
exactly descriptive. It embraced in addi- 
tion to Dr. Lee K. Frankel's report for the 
committee, with its bold new outline of the 
causes of poverty, H. S. Braucher's delinea- 
tion and solution of a Problem in Co-opera- 
tion, a most practical paper on The Standard 
of Living, by S. E. Forman, M. D., of Wash- 
ington, D. C, and the attack by E. D. Solen- 
berger of Minneapolis upon The Relief Work 
of the Salvation Army. 

Walter E. Kruesi. 


Charities and The Commons 


Professor Paul S. Reinsch, head of the 
Department of Political Science, Wisconsin 
University, has contributed to the American 
State Series a book 1 of more than ordinary- 
usefulness and interest to social workers. 

More and more, effective social work must 
needs be supplemented by, or have for its 
basis, wise legislation. This is true whether 
or not there is a tendency to rely too much 
upon mere legislative remedies. 

The first three chapters of Prof. Reinsch's 
book describe the workings of the Congress 
of the United States, both theoretically and 
practically, the various stages through 
which legislation must pass, the work of 
standing and special committees and of con- 
ference committees, and the influences which 
get things done or block legislation. All of 
this ground is much more familiar to us 
because of the greater attention given to 
national affairs, and information is readily 
accessible in many books to a degree that is 
not true of the states and the legislative 
methods of state legislatures. It is, there- 
fore, perhaps the greater service that Dr. 
Reinsch has rendered in the next three chap- 
ters in which he discusses the state legis- 
latures, legislative committees, including 
comment on the reason and importance of 
committee hearings, and procedure in state 
legislatures. Of course, where the state 
constitutions and the rules adopted under 
them by forty-six legislative bodies are con- 
sidered in a few short chapters, only the 
significant things can be pointed out. Points 
of concurrence and of difference are noted. 
It might have added to the usefulness of Dr. 
Reinsch's book if he had more frequently 
given us foot notes citing the authorities 
upon which many of his statements are 
based, especially where he refers to judicial 
interpretations, and even where he quotes 
state constitutions without giving the date, 
because changes are so frequent in our forms 
of government. 

In the last four chapters, on Legislative 
Apportionments and Elections, the Perver- 
sion of Legislative Action, Public Forces In- 
fluencing Legislative Action, and the Legis- 
lative Product, Dr. Reinsch contributes much 
to the intelligent appreciation of the gov- 
ernment under which we live, of which we 
are a part, and in which we participate. His 
discussion is sane and logical; optimism and 
pessimism are mixed with fine proportion. 
He is not blind to the great dangers and 
evils that exist to-day, nor to the consider- 
able improvements as we compare the pres- 
ent with the past, nor yet to the increased 
strain we are putting upon much of our gov- 
ernmental machinery. 

Of all the books dealing with this phase 
of social work the greater importance of 
which is due to present day tendencies, Dr. 

American Legislatures and Legislative Methods. 
By Paul S. Reinsch. New York, The Century 
Company. 1907. Pp. x, 338. 

Reinsch has given us the most serviceable 
handbook for the ordinary student and prac- 
tical worker to consult. Several changes 
have taken place since the book went to 
press, as for example the changes in the sal- 
aries of congressmen and many federal offic- 
ials, and it is to be hoped that Dr. Reinsch 
will revise his pages frequently and bring 
the book out in successive editions, thus 
keeping it as accurate a source of reference 
as possible on the structure and content of 
our legislative machinery, both state and 

Samuel McCune Lindsay. 


The primary purpose of this recent addi- 
tion to the American State series 1 is to give 
reliable and specific information as to the 
local government units throughout the na- 
tion. There are comparatively few comments 
on tendencies at work or suggestions of pos- 
sble improvements. It answers adequately 
the question, "What is the machinery of 
local government and how does it work?" 

The opening chapters trace in brief out- 
line the origin of the Anglo-Saxon township, 
hundred, and shire, the development into 
the local units transferred to American soil 
in the Colonial period, and show the more 
important changes brought about by the or- 
ganization into state governments. 

The examination of the general character- 
istics of the county concludes: "There can 
be no doubt that there are too many elective 
county officers. Their very number makes 
a popular election impossible in practice. 
Even the most intelligent voters cannot be- 
come acquainted with the merits and de- 
merits of the numerous candidates and 
perforce must vote on the basis of the party 
ticket or on vague impressions for most of 
the offices. The effective choice is neces- 
sarily made in most cases by party leaders; 
and the attempt to apply the elective prin- 
ciple has the effect of defeating its own 
purpose. Moreover elections for short terms 
promote frequent changes in purely minis- 
terial offices which have no political func- 
tions and where permanency of tenure is 
necessary to efficient administration." 

Under the general heading of "Minor 
Divisions" chapters are devoted to New 
England towns, townships in the Central 
States, minor districts in the South and 
West, and villages and boroughs. 

The strong tendencies now at work toward 
state supervision over local authorities, and 
direct state administration in many fields 
formerly left entirely to local control are 
given consideration in the concluding part 
of the book. State supervision of local ad- 
ministration began in the field of public 
education and has extended over charities 
and corrections, public health, local finance, 
and other fields. The author commends un- 
reservedly its extension over public educa- 

1 Local Government in Counties. Towns and Vil- 
lages. By John A. Fairlie. The Century Co., New 

Biographical Sketches 

6 9 

tioii. In the case of charities and correc- 
tions he thinks it has not been so uniformly 
successful, though beneficial in the main. 

On the question of centralization a com- 
promise is suggested. In the larger states 
the direct administration of groups of re- 
lated institutions might be centralized un- 
der a single salaried official. This would 
secure more efficient administration at less 
expense than with local boards of unpaid 
trustees for each institution. A single un- 
paid board could be given powers of super- 
vision over all charitable and correctional 
institutions, both state and local; while as 
a step toward better organization of state 
administration the board would be made 
responsible to one of the chief executive 
officers of the state. In the smaller states 
one administrative authority for all the state 
institutions would probably be sufficient and 
this authority might exercise supervision 
over the local institutions. 

Otis H. Moore. 


The reference book 1 prepared under the 
direction of the Chicago Charter Convention 
for the convenience of its own members will 
prove of general value. It is a digest of 
the "main provisions of constitutions, char- 
ters and other statutes relating to the struc- 
ture and powers of the governments of a 
number of important cities," made with "as 
much care ... to secure accuracy as 
the time . . . would permit." Balti- 
more, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Den- 
ver, Detroit, New Orleans, New York, 
Philadelphia, St. Louis, and San Fran- 
cisco, in the United States; Toronto, 
in Canada; and London, Manchester, Glas- 
gow, Berlin, Paris, and Vienna, in Eu- 
rope, have been given full consideration. In- 
teresting variations are cited from other 
cities, and the comparatively little informa- 
tion available in the limited time in regard 
to Melbourne and Sydney is included. Most 
of the model corporations act adopted by the 
National Municipal League in 1899 is given, 
in connection with the existing legal provi- 
sions. Apology is made for the lack of an 
index, but there is a table of contents so mi- 
nutely classified that the index will scarcely 
be missed. 

digest of City Charters. Prepared by Augustus 
Raymond Hatton, under the direction of the Chi- 
cago Charter Convention. Printed in Chicago for 
the Chicago Charter Convention, 1906. Pp. XXI, 

The material is divided into four parts: 
the relation of the city to the state; the part 
of the people in municipal government; the 
city council, its composition, method of or- 
ganization and procedure, and powers; the 
city executive, the mayor and the adminis- 
trative officers and departments. Three taj- 
ular statements of interest are introduced, 
showing the facts that can be tabulated in 
regard to the mayor, school administration, 
and the city councils in 1906. T _, 

Li. a. 

Like Mr. Ringwalt's previous volume, 
Briefs for Debate, this collection 1 of debat- 
able topics of our times, with outlines and 
references, should prove especially valuable 
to settlement club leaders whose clubs have 
reached the serious stage of debating. 
Without access to a fairly large library the 
volume would indeed prove of comparatively 
slight use, but most cities contain such li- 
braries. Topics such as woman's suffrage, 
the Negro question, restriction of immigra- 
tion, popular election of senators, ship sub- 
sidies, free trade, government ownership, 
federal divorce laws, government by in- 
junction, and many others grouped under 
the three heads of politics, economics, and 
sociology, are perennially new for debating 


This monumental work 2 grows slowly, but 
surely. It is an epitome of what is known 
about charity for ages, a catalog of 
establishments of all kinds, rather than a 
description of them. The third volume of 
nearly four hundred pages only brings the 
story down to the end of the middle ages. 
It begins with a brief sketch of the wars, the 
pestilences and famines of the times and fol- 
lows with the means established to meet 
the wants created by these calamities, — hos- 
pitals, orphanages, asylums, leper institu- 
tions, fraternal societies, pawnbrokers, and 
many others. These volumes are a mine of 
information for those seeking the beginnings 
of things. Isabel C. Babrows. 

1 Briefs on Public Questions. By Ralph Curtis 
Ringwalt. Pp. 226. New York. Longmans, 
Green & Company. 

2 Histoire de la Charity. By Leon Lallemand, 
correspondent of L'Institut de France. Third 
Volume. The Middle Ages, from the tenth to the 
sixteenth century. Paris, Alphonse PIcard et Fils, 

BiograpKical SKetclies 

THE FIRST AMERICAN ANARCHIST ren the persistent experimenter, Warren's 

aggressively individualistic philosophy, and 

This little red volume 1 is written in a the author's exposition of and argument for 

clear style, well proportioned between War- anarchism. 

._ . . _ miT^-** • * M ,. Warren was a typical reformer; I have 

Mosiah Warren: The First American Anarchist. . ... ,.*' „.„ • „. ' fn ^ n ;„ 

By William Bailie known many like him. His rising fame is 

Charities and The Commons 

due, like that of many another, to his ad- 
mirers; the accident that Tucker, Bailie, 
and others make him a hero and a text. 

I, with many others, agree with Warren 
in commending personal independence and 
initiative. We deprecate the over organi- 
zation of society and the submissiveness of 
most people to its mandates. But we do 
not see its oppressive tyranny. It gives a 
wide liberty to those who will use it. Epic- 
tetus was a free spirit, an anarchist, though 
an actual slave. Owen Ripley, Hayes, War- 
ren and a thousand others have set up model 
communities without substantial hindrance. 
Warren was a modification of Micawber and 
Colonel Sellers, submitting to hardship and 
humiliation, always cheered by the radiant 
daybreak. He had a penchant for patents 
and community making and costless money, 
none of which "panned out." He invented 
printing presses which didn't quite work; he 
started time-cost stores which were short 
lived; he issued labor checks in the place 
of money, which the unregenerate would 
not accept; and planted "free" towns and 
communities in which people had no way 
of earning a living. This much we have 
known of Warren and this we learn from 
the facts related in this story of his life. 

That Warren settled in New Harmony, 
which was socialist and distinctly author- 
itative, and returned there a second time, 
shows clearly enough that he was not a po- 
litical anarchist. That he was a disciple 
of Owen, the father of socialism and social- 
ist co-operative associations, shows him a so- 
cialist, but with the strong individualistic 
personality commonly found in socialists. 
He could not have agreed with his biog- 
rapher that "no plan of government, no 
system of society can reconcile authority 
and equity, political power and social jus- 
tice." Warren like Owen drove at social 
justice by voluntary associations unregard- 
ful of the form of government; a state 
within a state. Democracy and socialism 
assert that the majority can be trusted. An- 
archy asserts that the individual can be 
trusted and that no power can be trusted. 
Neither Owen nor Warren ever took this 
position, according to Jones's life of Owen 
or Bailie's life of Warren. Voluntary self 
help associations within the state and count- 
ing on its protection is not anarchy. 

Warren was heroically devoted to his 
ideas. He was an idealist with a turn for 
practical application but falling short of 
success in any of his experiments because 
he did not take all the elements into ac- 
count. He thought people would see their 
own interest as he saw it and join in to do 
their faithful share. But they didn't; and 
they don't. That is the pitfall of idealists 
when they come down to practice. People 
as they are have to be dealt with. Owen 
and Warren ventured in many schemes and 
ways without success. We may count their 
lives successful, but not their undertakings. 
It was the famous Rochdale weavers who 
after their day's labor devised the co-opera- 

tive plan which has gone on unchanged for 
sixty-three years. It got its inspiration 
from Owen and might even have heard of 
Warren but .they added the common sense, 
uncommon in idealists, which made it un- 
derstood by and acceptable to the common 
people. It uprooted nothing, it took people 
as they were where they were and grafted 
the new equity system on the old. 

Warren ran to printing as other men do 
to gardening, carpentering, painting, etc. In 
primitive fashion he got up his own press, 
did stereotyping in his kitchen, and used 
roller feed twenty-five years before Hoe in- 
vented the cylinder press. 

His days ended peacefully and hopefully 
at a ripe old age in the home of old and 
loving friends. 

The story is not dramatically told, but 
it is a persuasive statement for anarchism 
and one of its canonized saints. 

N. O. Nelson. 


The proportion of bright red covers among 
new books of all classes would be an inter- 
esting subject of inquiry. Heroes of Progress 1 
has one of them, within which are found 
short accounts of forty or fifty "workers for 
good" in the United States. The list includes 
early settlers, inventors, statesmen, educa- 
tors, reformers, philanthropists, scientists, 
and capitalists. "Social workers" in the nar- 
row sense are represented by Dorothea Dix, 
Clara Barton, Booker T. Washington, Fran- 
ces E. Willard; philanthropists by Stephen 
Girard, George Peabody, and Peter Cooper. 
The true servants of society, however, are 
not all labelled. The physicians who dis- 
covered anaesthesia beyond doubt contributed 
more to the diminution of suffering than did 
the founder of the Red Cross Society; the 
men who have brought all the world to- 
gether by means of telegraph and cable, 
those who have developed our industries and 
insured the stability of our government, 
have had as much influence on the life of 
the poor as has Girard College. This is not 
to say that Mr. Morris classifies or estimates 
the services of the men and women he writes 
about — he very emphatically does not — but 
merely to use his book as an illustration 
of the fact that social workers are to be 
found in all occupations. 

Mr. Morris does not announce that he 
writes primarily for boys and girls, but the 
ages from fourteen to sixteen seem to be 
what he has in mind, and the book might 
well be useful in club work. L. B. 

1 Heroes of Progress in America. By Charles 
Morris. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia. 

Competent clerical worher (-woman) 
desires engagement witH prospects 
of permanency and advancement. 
To start, $10.00. Address, Room 
610. 105 East 22d St., New YorK. 


AND The Commons 

Edward T- Oevine. Editor 
Graham Taylor, associate 
Lee K- Frankel, Associate fof 


TKe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 

In a later issue will be 

The Craftsman , « ,, . < . r 

and the taken up the social signin- 

^niclfschooi 1 " cance of the opening of the 
new Carnegie Institute and 
Library on April n, bringing to Pitts- 
burg a group of foreign representatives 
for the dedication, and to the community 
in perpetuity an instrument unique in its 
influence upon the cultural and economic 
life of so great an industrial center. 
Here can be recorded Mr. Carnegie's 
gift announced at a meeting of the board 
of trustees of the institute last week, of 
four million dollars in five per cent bonds 
as an additional endowment to the insti- 
tute ; and one million in cash and one mil- 
lion in bonds for the Carnegie Technical 
Schools. The ironmaster directs that the 
cash gift to the schools be used in erect- 
ing additional buildings (only an initial 
group of the architectural scheme has as 
yet been built), while the bonds are to 
endow these new buildings as soon as 
completed. The gift of two million 
dollars to the technical schools is of 
national as well as local importance, for 
embodied in the working out of this 
technical school in the heart of the great 
steel district are a number of practical 
ideas, the demonstration of which will 
be bound to have far-reaching influence 
on the general educational movement in 
this country — especially in the field of 
technical education. These schools are 
designed to satisfy pre-eminently the 
wants of the modern craftsman. 

A thrilling story will some day be writ- 
ten of the response which has met their 
initial work. They are already reaching a 
much wider group than the engineering 
colleges. Public lectures were given and 
meetings held throughout the steel towns 


the first year in the effort to bring the 
opportunity before the people. Blanks 
were scattered broadcast and working 
men were asked to fill them out in a way 
which would guide the administration in 
organizing courses that would meet large 
popular needs. The demand was imme- 
diate and on the rolls of the day and 
night courses of the Technical Schools 
are the names of hundreds of boys who 
with the breakdown of the apprenticeship 
system would otherwise have had no 
opportunity to learn the first principles 
of a trade, of young mechanics who want 
scientific knowledge of the processes of 
steel or cement or iron; and of working 
men of forty and fifty who, some of them, 
had been half embittered with the idea 
that as boys they were shut out from 
any opportunities of schooling and who 
have grasped eagerly at this new chance. 
It is this work of practically relating 
the technical schools to the educational 
needs of a working community that has 
characterized the administration of Di- 
rector Arthur Hammerschlag. Even 
those who fear most a too materialistic 
development of industrial education may 
well be glad that here an experiment is 
made possible of which it cannot be said 
a fair trial has not been given because 
of lack of funds and the results of which 
will admit of unbiased gauge and judg- 

The New 



in Denver. 

By the sheer insistence of 
Judge Lindsey in the clos- 
ing hours of the session, 
the Colorado legislature passed a bill last 
week providing for the creation of a 
separate juvenile court in Denver. The 
law goes into effect July 1. To accept 

7 2 

Charities and The Commons 

the new court, Judge Lindsey will resign 
from the county bench, the business of 
which has grown to such an extent as 
long since to warrant two judges. The 
division of the work in such a manner 
as to admit of a separate juvenile court 
is of more than local significance. Judge 
Lindsey has done a pioneer work in prov- 
ing feasible certain methods of dealing 
with children and in thinking through 
the statutes which make such methods 
possible — such as the parental responsi- 
bility laws which have been passed by 
a dozen states. Here he will be given 
the opportunity to develop administra- 
tively enduring methods of work, which 
to his mind are more important than the 
mere statutes, in which notable advances 
have already been made, such as along 
the educational side of the work in Chi- 
cago, and the system of volunteer pro- 
bation officers in Indianapolis. Toward 
these ends Judge Lindsey can be expected 
to contribute constructively, both because 
of his initiative and his experience. Along 
this line the further development of the 
International Juvenile Court Society may 
be expected to be of influence. 

The new court has complete and un- 
limited chancery jurisdiction and power 
to hear and determine all cases involving 
children or minors, saving the power, of 
course, to adjudicate the rights of par- 
ents and others in such cases. It also 
has complete and unlimited jurisdiction 
in all criminal cases against minors, and 
in all criminal cases against adults where 
the offence is against the person of a 
child or minor, or in any way involves 
the morals of a child or minor. The 
court over which Judge Lindsey has pre- 
sided for the last seven years has had 
substantially all of this jurisdiction; but 
the trouble has been that because of its 
heavy burdens, as the probate court and 
civil and chancery court in common law 
actions and in performing some other 
county functions, he has found it prac- 
tically impossible to give all the time he 
wished to the juvenile division. The 
judge of the new court will appoint all 
of his own officers, and will control the 
detention school. There are four paid 
probation officers provided for. These 
officers are vested with the powers of 

sheriffs or police. In case the police de- 
partment or the sheriff's department does 
not arrest that class of individuals having 
political pulls, and frequently escaping 
punishment, such as wine-room keepers, 
dive-keepers, dance-hall keepers, etc., 
they may be arrested, regardless of the 
attitude of the police department or the 
sheriff's office. 

To quote from a Denver paper: 

Veiled attacks were made upon the bills 
in the legislature. Keepers of winerooms 
did not welcome the idea of being made to 
answer to a juvenile court instead of hav- 
ing their cases handled by a complacent 
district attorney and lenient district judge, 
who would forget the fact that the county 
supports a jail to hold criminals, when 
the criminal happened to have a political 

The lawmakers were compelled to choose 
between the control of the county court, 
whose opportunities for patronage in the 
appointment of receivers, guardians and ex- 
ecutors would be a valuable cog in a polit- 
ical machine, and the giving to the juvenile 
court this jurisdiction. 

It is an open secret that the judgeship of 
the court will be tendered to Judge Lindsey. 
He plainly told obstreperous legislators that 
he would not relinquish the county court 
over which he presides, unless the law cre- 
ating the new juvenile court was in such 
shape as to give him a free hand in his work 
of saving boys and girls from mistakes. 
The legislators saw the point and were good. 

The new court may have to run the 
gauntlet of the courts as to its constitu- 
tionality. There has been a persistent 
rumor that some of the records in the 
legislature would be doctored, and if the 
court promised trouble or interference 
with the political arrangements that it 
has so often interfered with, that some 
court would be called upon to declare 
the whole thing unconstitutional. 

The passage of the legislation has been 
in the nature of a personal triumph for 
Judge Lindsey. He fought both ma- 
chines as an independent candidate for 
the governorship last fall and lost. But 
the fight has seemed to inspire a certain 
respect for the juvenile court in political 
circles. Of the fifteen bills its judge es- 
poused in the current legislature four- 
teen passed. This is rather a different 
outcome from the prophecy that the judge 
would himself be legislated out of office 
by the men he opposed. 

The Common Welfare 


Snuffing The A. E. Smith anti- 
*.*. 2 ut , cocaine bill has passed the 

the Cocaine ^ 

Fiend. Assembly in New York. 
The bill provides that it shall be unlaw- 
ful for any person to sell, furnish or dis- 
pose of alkaloid, cocaine or its salts, or 
alpha or beta eucaine or their salts or 
any admixture of cocaine or eucaine ex- 
cept upon the written prescription of a 
duly registered physician. As originally 
introduced, the bill included "opium or 
any of its preparations, alkaloids or its 
derivatives, chloral or any of its de- 
rivatives, cocaine or any of its salts, eu- 
caine or any of its salts, acetanolid, or 
any preparation, compound or mixture," 
containing any of these drugs. The 
Smith bill is a step in the right direction, 
a half-loaf, so to speak, with the hope 
that later the whole may be secured. 
There is pending in the committee on 
codes in the Assembly a bill introduced 
by Mr. Wainwright, very carefully drawn, 
that extends the prohibition to the other 
mentioned drugs, yet allows certain com- 
mon remedies like Dover powders and 
Sun cholera mixture to be sold since they 
could not possibly be used as narcotics. 
That some such legislation will be neces- 
sary is shown by the Chicago experience 
where cutting off cocaine, diverted the 
drug fiends to morphine. That cocaine 
snuffing is dangerous and increasing is 
proved by evidence in the possession of 
Clement Driscoll of The Evening Jour- 
nal, who was instrumental in framing the 
Smith bill. Over four thousand letters 
of friends and relatives of cocaine takers 
in New York have been received by Mr. 
Driscoll, who presented to the legislature 
a petition on the subject signed by fifty 
thousand names. On the lower East 
Side the habit is said to be spreading 
rapidly. "Snuffing" is done by the use 
of a bottle having two glass tubes pass- 
ing through the cork. "Catarrh powder" 
or other cocaine mixtures are placed in 
the bottle and the snuffer blows down 
one tube, placing the other in his nose. 
One of the largest wholesale drug deal- 
ers in the city is doing all in his power to 
limit the sale of cocaine, which he says 
is much larger than the legitimate use 
of the drug demands. Alone he is un- 
able to cope with the evil and he has been 

one of the supporters of legislation on 
the subject. According to Samuel Hop- 
kins Adams in his articles in Collier's, 
cocaine is found in Dr. Birney's Catarrh 
Powder, Dr. Cole's Catarrh Cure, Dr. 
Gray's Catarrh Powder, and Crown Ca- 
tarrh Powder. Some contain as high as 
four per cent of cocaine. Legislation, 
says Dr. Arthur Shoemaker of the Henry 
Street Settlement, is all right but: 

through the press and public speech a 
strong sentiment of opposition must be 
aroused, as past experience has shown in 
all reform movements that unless individ- 
uals are thoroughly interested and their 
earnestness sufficiently manifest we can ex- 
pect little or no official action. Two gov- 
ernment agencies at least, which in the 
past have given their sanction to the patent 
medicine evil, should use their power: the 
patent office which issues the convenient but 
erroneous term 'patent medicine' (very few 
of them are patented) and the postoffice de- 
partment which should debar them from the. 

In New York the County Medical So- 
ciety has never been able to take up this 
agitation, but it is one of the things that 
the recently organized Public Health 
Defense League has put down on its 
program, while the New York State 
General Committee for Safeguarding the 
Sale of Narcotics may be trusted not to 
remain inactive should violations of the 
anti-cocaine law come to its notice. 

Pure Food To a PPty the federal pure 
for food act to the state of 

ew or . Ne W York, is the purpose 
of the Tully-Wainwright pure food, 
drugs, and labeling act introduced in the 
legislature through the New York state 
general committee for safeguarding the 
sale of narcotics. The national act ap- 
plies to exports, imports, and interstate 
commerce, but it remains necessary to 
incorporate into New York state law the 
provision of the federal law in order to 
cover all preparations sold in the state. 
Curiously enough it will be found that 
many provisions of the national act have 
been taken verbatim from the New York 
statutes. The Tully-Wainwright bill 
aims to unify the present statutes and 
add to them those provisions necessary 
to make the state law conform to the 


Charities and The Commons 

national act, including provisions for 
labelling. Says the committee: 

"The public has a right to pure foods, 
pure drugs, and to know when prepara- 
tions offered for sale and general use 
contain habit-forming or dangerous 
drugs." The labeling question is an im- 
portant one. The law now lists thirty- 
five drugs by name which if sold must be 
labeled poison. Opium, morphine, co- 
caine, and certain others cannot be sold 
unless in addition to the poison label, 
an entry is made of the date, name and 
address of the purchaser, the name and 
quantity of the poison, the purpose for 
which it is represented by the purchaser 
to be required and the name of the dis- 
penser. But any irresponsible, unlicens- 
ed, unscrupulous person, without educa- 
tion and without learning in medicine or 
pharmacy, may compound a mixture, 
using as ingredients any number of the 
drugs in the poison list and may adver- 
tise it as a cure for any known ill with- 
out restraint, without poison label and 
without giving warning or information 
of its contents. What is true of drugs 
is equally true of foods intended for state 
consumption — and one-tenth of the popu- 
lation of the country is in New York 

Public ^ n ^ e -^ attention was 
Health Defense called to a conference held 
League ' at the Hudson Theatre, 
New York city, which authorized the 
formation of the Public Health Defense 
League, a national society whose avowed 
object was to be the conservation of the 
public health in every aspect. The wide- 
spread interest in the movement then 
inaugurated is best evidenced by the fact 
that there were present at the conference 
delegates from every state in the union, 
representing 150 religious, philanthropic, 
professional and public welfare societies. 
As the first fruits of the conference, 2,000 
applications for charter membership were 
presented to the incorporators of the 
Public Health Defense League, at their 
meeting held Tuesday evening, April 
2, 1907, at the Hotel Royalton, New 
York city. The meeting was organized 
and the charter for the national society 
was presented and adopted. The elec- 

tion of officers resulted as follows: 
Austen G. Fox, president; Eugene 
O'Dunne of Baltimore, secretary; Harry 
Arnold, assistant secretary; Windsor 
Trust Company, treasurer; J. F. Tim- 
mons assistant treasurer. At a meeting 
of the board of directors which immedi- 
ately followed, the appointment of the 
following committees was authorized: 
legislation, extension, official publication, 
publicity and co-operation with other so- 
cieties ; a National Department of Health 
was also organized. 

The personnel of the Board of Direc- 
tors is as follows : 

Dr. Frank Van Fleet, Dr. Silas F. Hallock, 
Albert M. Austin, Champe S. Andrews, John 
S. Cooper, Austen G. Fox, Dr. Wendell C. 
Phillips, Dr. Floyd M. Crandall, Dr. Walter 
Lester Carr, Dr. Ernest J. Lederle, J. M. 
Rice, Dr. Henry S. Stearns, Dr. Livingston 
Farand, Herbert C. Lakin, A. E. Goodridge, 
Rev. J. J. Wynne, Dr. Wm. M. Polk, O. E. 
Edwards, Gaylord S. White, Rev. Thomas R. 
Slicer, Dr. Thomas Darlington, Harry Ar- 
nold, all of New York city. Irving J. Fish- 
er, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.; Dr. 
William L. Browning, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
W. F. C. Tichborne, Mt. Vernon, N. Y.; 
Howard J. Rogers, Albany, N. Y.; Harold 
P. Brown, Montclair, N. J.; Eugene O'Dunne, 
Baltimore, Md.; Robert E. Belcher, Boston, 
Mass.; Dr. Henry W. Cattell, Philadelphia, 

The organization of the various state 
branches will be immediately pushed for- 
ward. Maryland, Massachusetts, Penn- 
sylvania, and New York state are now 
practically in readiness to apply for their 
separate charters and the work of exten- 
sion is being vigorously carried on in 
New Jersey. 

Offices of both the national and 
New York branches will be opened in 
New York in the United Charities build- 
ing, 105 East 22d street. 

The active participation of 
so many governors of the 




o?°chaHties. western states in the an- 
nual conferences of charities and correc- 
tion has been an important feature in the 
success of those conferences. South 
Dakota held its first conference in Ver- 
million last week and the presence of 
Governor Crawford and his insistence at 
the outset that the purpose of the gather- 

The Common Welfare 


ing was to arouse public opinion to good, 
non-partizan administration of the 
charities of the state, gave an impetus 
to the meeting at the outset. President 
Warren of Yankton College, and Dr. 
Meade, superintendent of the hospital for 
the insane, were the leaders in organizing 
the conference. With the governor sus- 
taining them, the Board of State Chari- 
ties urged every institution superintend- 
ent to attend; they all came to every 
meeting and most of them took an active 
part. For a first meeting the attendance 
was very good. The principal speakers 
and topics follow : 

Father Feniler of Parkston, S. D., on 
Culture of Respect for Authority. Super- 
intendent Young of the Boy's Training 
School on Physical and Moral Culture 
for Boys. Superintendent Kutnewsky on 
the Work of the Feeble Minded. The 
members of the State Board of Charities 
and the secretary of the board, told of 
the needs of the public institutions. Dr. 
C. M. Young, dean of the State Uni- 
versity, spoke on Public sentiment in 
Regard to Criminals. Speakers from 
outside the state were, Frank L. Randall, 
superintendent of the Minnesota Re- 
formatory, Dr. M. U. Voldeng, superin- 
tendent of the Hospital for the Insane at 
Cherokee, la., Hastings H. Hart of Chi- 
cago, and Alexander Johnson, secretary 
of the National Conference of Charities 
and Corrections. The next conference 
will be held at Redfield. 

social Legisia- The Legislature of South 
tion in the Carolina, in its first term, 
was largely occupied with 
the discussion of the state dispensary 
system which it finally abolished, because 
of the apparent impossibility of correct- 
ing the opportunities of the system for 
graft which had injured the good name 
of the state. The constitution, however, 
forbids the sale of liquor by the drink, 
its sale after sundown and the drinking 
of liquor on the premises of the place of 
sale. The Legislature adopted a local 
option system by which each county is 
to determine for itself whether it shall 
have a county dispensary or prohibition, 
the probaole outcome being that counties 
containing the larger cities will adopt 

the local dispensary system while rural 
counties will choose prohibition. The 
Legislature passed the ten hour factory 
bill reducing the hours in textile factories 
from sixty-six to sixty a week. The 
South Carolina manufacturers had al- 
ready agreed to this provision to become 
gradually operative by 19 10. It now 
goes into effect at the close of this year. 
Other child labor bills, raising the age 
limit, were postponed until the next term 
of this Legislature which meets in Jan- 
uary, 1908. A compulsory education 
bill failed of passage by one vote, and it 
is believed that a somewhat different bill, 
now on the docket, will be passed next 

The Alabama Legislature distinguished 
itself in the passage of rate regulation 
bills, anti-pass legislation and a rigid 
anti-lobbying measure, which aims to 
guard the legislator as strictly as the 
juryman from private approach and in- 
terested influence. An excellent juvenile 
court bill was passed, under the able ad- 
vocacy of Judge N. B. Feagin, of the 
City Court of Birmingham. The begin- 
ning of factory inspection was made by 
an amendment suggested by Governor 
Comer to a bill providing for jail inspec- 
tion, the amendment including factories. 
The Alabama child labor committee had 
provided for adequate factory inspection 
in a bill which it had endorsed, so it is 
not responsible for this rather uncompli- 
mentary coupling of the jails with the 
factories. The inspector appointed is a 
physician who has given much attention 
to the condition of the jails in Alabama 
and who made a vigorous fight for reform 
in these conditions. Two child labor bills, 
one, lowering the present standard and 
endorsed by the manufacturers and the 
other raising it, endorsed by the child 
labor committee, went over to the second 
term of the Legislature, which will be 
held in July. It is hoped then that a 
considerable advance over the present 
standard can be obtained. 

The first term of the Tennessee Legis- 
lature was largely taken up with the dis- 
cussion of the extension of prohibition 
territory, resulting in a law providing 
local option for the cities of more than 
five thousand population. This action 


Chanties and The Commons 

of the Legislature has been immediately 
followed by successive prohibition cam- 
paigns in several cities, Knoxville, 
Clarksville and Jackson. The Legisla- 
ture took a recess and is now again in 
session in its second term, when a re- 
formatory bill, a compulsory education 
bill, and some needed amendments to the 
child labor law will be pushed to a de- 
cision. The fate of a compulsory educa- 
tion law in the Arkansas Legislature has 
not been learned at this writing. South 
Carolina and Alabama joined North 
Carolina and Georgia in abolishing 
bucket-shops and prohibiting all dealing 
in cotton futures by the cotton exchang- 
es, — measures that will save millions of 
dollars from being spent in this form of 

Aid and This y ear ls tne thirty-fifth 
Shelter for anniversary of the found- 
ing of "Sister Catharine's 
Home," as the Shelter for Respectable 
Girls at 212 East 46th street, New York, 
is best known. The shelter was started 
by Sister Catharine in the upper part of 
a house on Sixth avenue and she has 
carried on the work ever since. The 
"Travelers' Aid," whose representatives 
meet incoming boats and trains, bring 
many to the home which is designed to 
aid and protect girls and young women 
who are strangers in the city or who need 
a temporary dwelling. The only requi- 
sites for admission are good character 
and youth. A small charge is made to 
those who are able to pay, but those 
without money are never sent away. The 
shelter also aids and advises many who 
do not become guests of the house. 
During the past year 687 guests were re- 
ceived, of whom 178 were admitted free; 
2,489 received aid or advice. In leav- 
ing the shelter all are invited to return 
and visit the home. One evening in the 
week a special effort is made to give them 
a pleasant time. They are also en- 
couraged to make appointments with 
their friends to meet at the shelter. 

The News Many philanthropies suffer 
of Kansas through lack of interest be- 
city. j n g taken by their support- 

ing members, many of whom know only 
through the annual reports of the 
scope of the work which their contribu- 
tions make possible. In order to make 
the interest of the contributor more real 
as well as to extend the interest in the 
Jewish charities of Kansas City the 
Council of Jewish Women of that city, 
with the moral and financial support of the 
local United Hebrew Charities, has un- 
dertaken the publication of the bi-month- 
ly News Letter whose object is "to keep 
the Jewish Community in touch with the 
various activities of the philanthropic, 
educational and religious societies" ; a 
copy is to be sent to every family repre- 
sented in any of the societies contributing 
to the support of the central body. Com- 
munications or reports in which the Jew- 
ish community of Kansas City would be 
interested can be sent to Mrs. David 
Benjamin, 3620 McGee street. Vol. 1 
No. 1 of the News Letter reviews the 
current work of the settlement, which is 
under the charge of Miss Mona Brins- 
wanger, the Sunday night lectures 
and concerts at the Educational Institute, 
which has as its special aim the Ameri- 
canization of the immigrant, the Ida M. 
Block Industrial School, conducted by 
the Council of Jewish Women and nu- 
merous other activities in which the 
United Hebrew Charities are interested. 

1 ..♦ 1 «- 1 The fourth and last con- 
Last Local 

charity ference of the season for 
on erence \ oca \ N ew York charity 

workers will be held in the auditorium 
of the United Charities building at 1 1 
A. M. on April 16. George B. Mark- 
ham, principal of Public School No. 147, 
Henry and Gouverneur streets, will ad- 
dress the conference on "Recreation Cen- 
tres in the Public Schools." The second 
formal address will be made by Mrs. 
Annie D. Farnum, on furnishing penny 
lunches to public school children. Mrs. 
Farnum is familiar with the successful 
introduction of this system in Milwaukee. 

One THing tHe Sage Foundation Can Do for 

New YorK 

Jacob A. Riis 

A week ago a number of settlement 
workers met to talk over the conditions 
of tenement house crowding in New 
York. It has been apparent to even a 
casual observer for some time that the 
means devised for scattering the popula- 
tion to the suburbs, the elevated rail- 
roads, the trolley cars, subway, bridges, 
have not kept their promise of affording 
relief. The crowd in the tenement dis- 
tricts is greater than ever, and growing 
constantly. There are certain perils in 
such a situation with which the settle- 
ments are naturally concerned. Hence 
the meeting. Out of the discussion four 
facts emerged and were made clear: 

1. That the pressure of population in 
lower New York, in fact throughout the city, 
is constantly and rapidly increasing, 
whether from the sediment of foreign immi- 
gration that settles at the port of entry, 
or otherwise. 

2. That rents have been, and are, rising 
in consequence. The safe margin of one- 
fourth of a wage-earner's income for this 
purpose was long since passed; it is nearer 
one-third, if not over, to-day. 

3. That wages have not risen proportion- 

4. That, as a result, the poor have to take 
in lodgers, in consequence of which the "one 
room family" is becoming common in New 
York; that is to say, where a flat of three 
rooms should hold one family, it is made to 
hold three, so that together they may make 
the rent. 

The meeting adjourned to meet again 
for further discussion after agreeing that 
upon this showing of facts the metropolis 
is face to face with a condition pregnant 
with mischief. It is idle to trust in the 
enforcement of a law requiring 400 cubic 
feet of air space for each sleeper in a 
tenement, with this double pressure of 
a swelling population and rising rents. 
The original requirement of 600 feet 
was forced down one-third a score of 
years ago by this very condition, or 
rather the entering wedge of it, before 
which the health officials confessed them- 
selves helpless. There is no occasion for 


hysteria, but there is every occasion for 
the gravest concern over the present 
showing. When, seventeen years ago, 
I wrote How the Other Half Lives, I 
was able to boast that we had no such 
problem in New York as this one- 
room-to-a-family evil too sadly familiar 
from England and the continent of Eu- 
rope. If in New York we are heading 
in the same direction as they, we shall 
have to take sharp measures and be quick 
about it. The conditions of our tene- 
ment house life have been arraigned offi- 
cially as "making all for unrighteous- 
ness ;" but that way of housing a city 
population makes for murder, pure and 

Anyone who doubts this has only to 
turn to pages 356 and 357 of Albert 
Shaw's Municipal Government In Conti- 
nental Europe and read there what it 
meant to Berlin. In the year 1885 a 
census of that city showed 73,000 per- 
sons living "in the condition of families 
occupying a single room in tenement 
houses," 382,000 were living in two- 
room apartments, 432,000 in three-room 
apartments, and 398,000 in apartments 
of four rooms or more. It was found 

Although the one-room dwellers were 
only one-sixth as numerous as the three- 
room dwellers, their rate of mortality was 
about twenty-three times as high, and the 
actual number of deaths among them was 
four times as great. Compared with the 
dwellers in houses of more than four rooms, 
the mortality of the one-room dwellers was 
at a thirty times greater rate. In a total 
population at that time of 1,315,000, the 
73,000 people who lived in one-room tene- 
ment quarters suffered nearly half the en- 
tire number of deaths. Their death rate 
per thousand for the year was 163.5, or 
about one-sixth their entire number, while 
the two-room dwellers sustained a death 
rate of only 22.5; the three-room dwellers 
escaped with the marvelously low rate of 
7.5, and the well-to-do people, who had four 
or more rooms for their household, suffered 
by death' only at the rate of 5.4 per thousand 
of the population. 


Charities and The Commons 

Berlin is not the only great city that 
has evidence to offer upon this point, 
but its showing is sufficient. Nor will 
it mend matters much to say that other 
factors than the housing entered into 
this showing — poverty in all its aspects 
and effects. Granted, but the fact re- 
mains that the crowding was a chief 
factor, as all our sanitary laws and pre- 
cautions admit. One might, if it came 
to that, point out that the death rates 
do not sound the depths of the 
misery in such a swarm. They do 
not touch the moral side of it, and 
upon the other they record only the es- 
cape of those who were in luck, who got 
out of it by a short cut. 

However, the matter is not one for 
argument. The question is: How are 
we to meet this changed condition of our 
city life that is so prophetic of evil? We 
have let sunlight and air into our tene- 
ments, but if it is only to see the crowds 
there multiplied past safe or decent lim- 
its, we shall have to begin over again. 

Here is where, in my judgment, the 
Sage Fund can render New York a con- 
spicuous service. Let it set on foot at 
once an inquiry that shall ascertain all 
the facts and make them clear. Let 
tenement house rents and tenement house 
crowding be studied until we know not 
only what is amiss, but why it is amiss. 
If it is immigration, we shall know how 
to deal with that when the facts are be- 
fore us. If it is a fact that tenement 
landlords have taken advantage of the 
greater expense of building under the 

new law, and have raised rents through- 
out the old houses , under that pretence, 
we shall find a way to deal with that. 
We shall have to find a way, even if that 
way be to license tenements and fix the 
rents in the license. If such a drastic 
measure were made necessary, only they 
who compelled it would be to blame. 
And after all, if we fix the railroad 
charges on freight to protect the shipper, 
why should we hesitate to extend equal 
protection to the poor tenant, if he be 
in need of it? 

At the meeting of which I spoke, the 
suggestion was made from a responsible 
source that it might be necessary some 
day to license factories and workshops 
with special reference to their location, 
since the worker tends ever to live near 
his work. Let it be ascertained in the 
inquiry, too, what are the obstacles in 
the way of manufacturers moving to 
suburban sites and taking their employes 
with them. Efforts toward that end 
have very generally failed so far, even 
after the factory had been moved out at 
great expense, and various reasons have 
been given, not always convincing. Let 
us have this made clear so that such ef- 
forts may thereafter be directed intelli- 
gently, if it can be done at all. 

Another Tenement House Commission 
is almost due. The Sage Fund can per- 
form a service, the value of which can- 
not be over-estimated, by preparing the 
ground for it through a thorough study 
of these urgent questions. They are 
urgent, indeed, they are all-important to 
our city of four million souls. 

"Will You Help Build the Fence?" 

ArtKvir P. liellog'g 

By a combination of the most advanced 
methods employed in outdoor advertis- 
ing, circular letters, and a follow-up sys- 
tem by telephone, the Maryland Associa- 
tion for the Prevention and Relief of 
Tuberculosis has raised a year's budget 
of $10,000 in twenty-three days and set 
all Baltimore talking of its work and of 
the most ready means by which laymen 
may help to prevent consumption. 

Not long ago a new finance committee 
of the association decided to increase its 
budget from $6,000 to $10,000 for the 
ensuing year. Only one of the members 
of the committee was accustomed to the 
financing of social organizations. His 
suggestion was a circular letter to every 
person listed in the telephone directory 
to be followed by a telephone call. 

Another member suggested that a 

"Will You Help Build the Fence?" 


"psychological impulse" was needed to 
interest the whole city in the work of the 
association and into this niche was fitted 
the old poem of The Fence or The Am- 
bulance. Readers of Charities and 
The Commons are familiar with it — the 
road running - near the edge of the cliff, 
the people falling off, the movement to 
buy an ambulance for picking up the 
dead and maimed at the bottom and the 
"fanatic" who finally secured the build- 
ing of the preventive fence on the crest. 
For three weeks every street car in 
Baltimore carried on its front platform 
a large poster with the words : 





Almost every billboard, blank wall, and 
ash-can in town bore one. For three 
weeks, in spite of the refusal of the news- 
papers to. take up the mystery, Baltimore 
speculated on the fence. The catch 
phrase aroused widespread curiosity. 

On the last day of the month letters 
were sent out to 20,000 individuals and 
firms comprising the classified business 
telephone directory. These had been di- 
vided into three classes. To class A., 
about 350 names, there were sent an 
album of about five by seven inches 
square containing a dozen photographs 
of conditions tending to increase tuber- 
culosis, a return envelope, and a slip 
stating to whom checks should be made 
payable. Only thirty of these books had 
been mailed and they were numbered. 
The persons who received them were 
asked to return them and they were used 
over and over again until all of the 350 
had been reached. In this class each 
person was asked to give $50 or $100. 
The second class, comprising about 1,000 
names, received a folder asking for a 
contribution of an amount not specified. 
To the third class of about 18,000 names 
a printed letter was sent asking for $1. 

All of the letters were headed with the 
catch phrase, "Help Build the Fence." 

In each was inclosed a booklet containing 
a few lines about the tubercle bacilli, of 
fresh air and sunshine, of an alley shack 
in which one case of consumption had 
led to three deaths, the text of the poem 
about the ambulance and the fence, and 
on the cover the explanation of the ad- 
vertising campaign : 






Then send your subscription to 
David Hutzler, Treasurer of 
the Maryland Association for 
the Prevention and Relief of 
Tuberculosis, IOI West Sara- 
toga Street, Baltimore. 

That same morning every paper in 
Baltimore had on its first page a display 
advertisement containing just these 
words, and in the news matter an article 
descriptive of the campaign, the expected 
results, and the work done by the asso- 
ciation. When Secretary H. Wirt 
Steele reached his office that morning 
there was a line of messenger boys wait- 
ing for him with contributions. The 
first one came from a man three miles 
away carrying a donation of $1. Every 
mail brought in stacks of letters and 
extra clerks had to be put on to handle 
the acknowledgments. 

The telephone scheme for following up 
the letters was then put in practice. Two 
special telephones were installed and 
from nine until five an operator sat at 
each, calling up alphabetically the per- 
sons who had received the appeals and 
asking if their contribution could not be 
expected. At the end of two weeks the 
names beginning with A. and B. and 
half of those beginning with C, had been 
called up. By that time most of the 
$10,000 had been received and the tele- 
phoning was discontinued in the belief 
that the catch phrase had somewhat 
worked out. It had been repeated in 
every telephone message, the girl saying, 
"I represent the Maryland Association 
for the Prevention and Relief of Tuber- 
culosis ; will you help build the fence?" 


Charities and The Commons 

Twenty-three days after the mailing of 
the letters the $10,000 was in hand. The 
members of the committee announced 
this to the public saying that if further 
contributions were received they would 
be applied to putting on additional 
nurses. The immediate result of this 
was a contribution of $300, which was 
the largest amount received from one 
person, and several others of $100 each. 
Throughout the twenty-three days the 
newspapers had featured the campaign, 
publishing each day the list of contribut- 
ors, with incidents and stories furnished 
by the association. A typical letter 
would be from some person of small 
means or no means to whom tuberculosis 
was a real fact through the loss of a 
friend or relative, who sent $1 with a 
hearty God bless you. From Texas 
came $5 from a man signing himself 
"Baltimorean," who wrote: "Here's $5 
to help build the fence. I hope it helps 
keep someone from being an exile as 
am I." 

Perhaps the most interesting features 
of the campaign were the fact that not 
in any letter or folder was there a word 
as to what the money was specifically to 
be used for ; it was simply asked on the 
record of the association ; and the wide- 
spread co-operation in the committee's 

plans. A New York street railway ad- 
vertising firm which controls the ad- 
vertising in the Baltimore cars, gave the 
front platform space on these cars with- 
out charge. A printer contributed the 
posters. The National Alliance of Bill 
Posters and Billers of America enthu- 
siastically contributed the services of its 
men in posting the bills in every part of 
town. The newspapers published col- 
umns on the campaign every day. 

The association has now in hand $10,- 
000 for the ensuing year's work without 
a thought to give to money raising for a 
twelve-month. The first direct result of 
the contributions will be the taking over 
of a tuberculosis nurse whose private 
support for this year has been with- 
drawn, and the addition of a new nurse 
so that Baltimore will have four cover- 
ing specified districts. It is expected 
that the city will also pay the salaries of 
two nurses so that there will shortly be 
six at work under the Instructive Visit- 
ing Nurse Association. Two of these 
will be supported by private individuals, 
two by the association and two by the 

The fence is in a fair way of being 
built. At any rate, the post holes are 
dug, and the public knows where the 
dangerous edge of the cliff lies. 


Orlando F. Lewis 

Joint Application Bureau, New YorK 

In an endeavor to learn whether at- 
tempts at suicide are often caused by 
poverty or by despair resulting from 
being "down and out," the Joint Appli- 
cation Bureau of New York arranged 
with Bellevue Hospital in April, 1906, 
that cases of attempted suicide should be 
reported to the bureau, when the person 
who had sought self-destruction had 
been brought to the prison ward of 
Bellevue. It is a curious fact that the 
suicide law makes it a felony to attempt 
suicide and fail. The law makes at- 
tempted suicide "punishable by imprison- 
ment in a state prison not exceeding two 
years, or by a fine not exceeding one 

thousand dollars, or both" [Penal Code, 
State of New York, paragraph 178]. And 
putting a premium on successful attempts 
at self-destruction, paragraph 173 grave- 
ly states that "although suicide is deemed 
a great moral wrong, yet from the impos- 
sibility of reaching the successful per- 
petrator, no forfeiture (penalty) is im- 

After being held in the prison ward 
until able to leave the hospital, would-be 
suicides are taken to court, where they 
are regularly discharged if compos 
mentis, or if insane are committed to the 
psychopathic ward of Bellevue for 
further examination. 


Between April 21 and September 17, 
1906, forty-three cases of attempted sui- 
cide were visited at Bellevue by a repre- 
sentative of the bureau. The physician 
in charge of the ward was first consulted 
by the visitor, the method of self-destruc- 
tion learned, with such other data as the 
hospital authorities had secured. If the 
physical condition of the patient permit- 
ted an interview was held, the patient 
being approached from the standpoint of 
the friendly visitor. While assistance 
from the bureau was always offered, no 
probing into the patient's life was done 
and few details were asked, on account 
of the patient's general physical and 
mental condition. Emphasis was laid 
upon the fact that the visitor was there 
as a friend in a time of need. As a rule 
the patients expressed gratitude for this 
interest, and often said they would be 
glad to call at the bureau after their dis- 
charge. In practically all cases the name 
and address of the bureau were left with 
the patient or the keeper of the ward. 
The visitor became well known to the au- 
thorities in charge of the prison wards ; 
the nurses and keepers showed a personal 
interest in the cases, assuring the visitor 
that upon the patient's dismissal they 
would advise him or her to call at the 

Nevertheless, not one patient of the 
forty-three applied to us for assistance 
or advice after discharge. While this 
may be partly explained by the fact that 
an arraignment at court intervened be- 
tween discharge from the hospital and 
a possible call at the bureau, the fact re- 
mains that in no instance have would-be 
suicides from Bellevue sought the bu- 
reau's help. It may be expected that a 
certain proportion of persons to whom 
invitations are extended will be reluct- 
ant to apply to a charitable society, but 
the proportion, 100 per cent, is altogether 
too large to admit of this as a sufficient 

A more reasonable explanation seems 
to be that the majority of patients were 
from the self-supporting classes; almost 
never, so far as the visitor could ascer- 
tain, were the patients from the class 
known as "down and out." Owing to 
the patient's physical and mental condi- 

tion, and to the frequent removal of the 
patient from the prison ward within two 
or three days from the time of admission, 
it was impossible to learn in all instances 
as to friends or relatives who could help. 
Fifteen patients claimed to have such 
friends or relatives ; not a patient stated 
that he had no friends or relatives on 
whom to call. In fourteen of the fifteen 
instances when friends or relatives were 
cited they were visited, and in every case 
they said they would be solicitous of the 

Destitution seemed to play a very small 
part in leading persons to attempt sui- 
cide. In only two cases was the attempt 
directly traced to poverty; in four cases 
the patient had been out of work or em- 
ployment, but this was not of itself a 
direct cause of the attempt. Melancholia, 
temporary aberration, hysteria, more or 
less violent insanity, and alcoholism 
seemed to cause the attempts in thirteen 
cases ; excessive jealousy in three cases. 
In five cases the patients claimed that 
the attempt was accidental; in one case 
somnambulism was given as cause ; one 
woman was driven to attempt self-de- 
struction by her husband's loose life; ill- 
ness caused two attempts ; four women 
confessed that their immoral life had be- 
come too shameful and difficult to endure. 

Poison seemed to be the favorite 
method, perhaps because easily obtained 
and supposedly quick in its action. 
Thirteen persons sought to end their lives 
in this manner. Ten persons were re- 
ported to have tried gas poisoning, but 
in several instances it was claimed that 
the cause had been accidental, the gas 
being blown out by the opening of a door 
or window while the person was asleep. 
Six persons attempted suicide by sub- 
mersion, four by shooting, four by cut- 
ting throat, head or wrists ; three jumped 
from windows; one threw himself before 
a street car, and in two cases the method 
of attempt was unknown. 

The stay at the hospital was generally 
of short duration, eleven staying but one 
day, six but two days, and the others for 
different periods from three days to sev- 
eral weeks. Seventeen patients were 
sent to court and the bureau lost track 
of them ; five went back to work ; six 


Charities and The Commons 

were sent home ; two were transferred to 
the psychopathic ward of Bellevue for 
further examination as to their sanity; 
five were still at Bellevue when the sta- 
istics were closed. In three instances it 
was not known where they went on leav- 
ing Bellevue. 

These figures are of course unsatis- 
factory, because the patient is taken to 
court or discharged as soon as his 
physical condition will allow it. Often 
the visitor planned to have a lengthy in- 
terview on a second visit, only to find 
that in the interval the patient had been 
sent to court and lost track of. 

This effort to render aid to would-be 
suicides suggests that a much more ex- 
tended study of would-be suicides in the 
various private and public hospitals of 
the city could well be undertaken. While 
certain conclusions are suggested by the 
present investigation, the results are not 
of a nature to justify a final opinion. 
Tentatively we may feel that poverty 
plays little direct part in causing attempts 
at suicide. Would-be suicides give a 
distinct impression of not wanting advice 
or aid from a charitable society after 
leaving the hospital. The attempts at 
suicide reported from Bellevue seem 
largely due to mental derangement, 
temporary or permanent, in which alco- 
hol plays a prominent part. When there 
are relatives or friends in the city, they 
seem ready to aid the patient on leaving 
the hospital. The causes leading up to 
attempted suicide do not seem such that 
a charitable society can generally become 
cognizant of them. 

Of the forty-three persons mentioned, 
none had previously made application 
for aid at the Joint Application Bureau, 
the Association for Improving the Con- 
dition of the Poor or the Charity Or- 
ganization Society. Not one patient 
made the statement that he had attempt- 
ed suicide because he had sought work 
for a considerable period and failed. 

In view of the recently established 
Anti-Suicide Bureau of the Salvation 
Army, which seeks to deter persons from 
self-destruction, the experience of the 
Joint Application Bureau is interesting 

as suggesting another method of en- 
deavoring to reach those who are ready 
to do away with themselves. In all 
charitable work, efforts must be made 
both to prevent and to cure. It is im- 
portant to forestall an attempt at self- 
destruction ; it is important to restore 
the would-be suicide to industrial effi- 
ciency and a normal mental condition. 
Charitable societies often receive appli- 
cations for aid from persons who claim 
that if things do not change, or that if 
immediate relief is not supplied them, 
they will commit suicide. Homeless ap- 
plicants in the Joint Application Bureau 
sometimes threaten suicide in case de- 
mands, not infrequently imperative, shall 
not be met. We must guard against the 
danger of failing to recognize and help 
adequately a particularly morbid condi- 
tion of mind in an applicant, but we must 
also guard against a too wide opening of 
the door to deceivers and chronic appli- 
cants for relief through special treatment, 
on the plea of alleged suicidal impulses. 
Between treatment by a special bureau, 
and treatment after the attempt at self- 
destruction, may not there lie a third 
way, namely, in a further development 
of the willingness and desire on the part 
of charitable societies to visit at once all 
persons who notify the societies that they 
need counsel, sympathy and advice, al- 
though such persons may not be poor 
save in friends or courage? Charity may, 
in a speedy response to such requests, 
aid in preventing not only poverty, but 

Dr. S. T. Armstrong, General Medical 
Superintendent of Bellevue and Allied 
Hospitals, to whom a report upon the 
above-mentioned cases was sent, writes 
as follows upon the conclusions reached: 
"Your conclusion that poverty plays little 
direct part as a cause of attempted sui- 
cide is justified, it being but one of many 
causes. I am not certain that would-be 
suicides do not want aid or advice. Still, 
it may be true that they do not want 
them from a charitable society, but I 
think that aid or advice would possibly 
do considerable to help them. The con- 
ditions that bring people into a suicidal 

The Trend of Things 


frame of mind should of course be 
changed whenever possible. 

"I am not prepared to say that attempts 
at suicide seem largely due to mental de- 
rangement. I think that a certain pro- 
portion will be found to be included 
under other headings. Just what that 
proportion is I am not able to state at 

"I hope you are correct that friends and 
relatives are willing to aid the patient 
on leaving the hospital, but it impresses 

me that the institution should be sure of 
this fact in the case of would-be suicides 
who are admitted for treatment. 

"I think you are correct that the causes 
that lead to attempts at suicide are not 
such generally that a charitable society 
is likely to be cognizant of them. Still, 
I can see, in the cases given, that cer- 
tainly suicides should be reached before 
they come to that frame of mind that 
makes them believe that there is nothing 
further in life/' 

The Trend of TKings 

In the April McClure's George Kibbe 
Turner has written The City of Chicago: 
A Study of the Great Immoralities. The 
criminality which sweeps in waves over 
the city he traces to the liquor business, 
amounting to $100,000,000' a year, to prosti- 
tution costing $20,000,000 a year, to gam- 
bling costing $15,000,000 a year, to the sale 
of drugs, to the cheap lodging houses, and 
all finally to politics. "The fact is that 
under present conditions the financial in- 
terests of dissipation have more direct rep- 
resentation in the administration of the city 
government than the will of the people." 
* * * 

The Diary of an Amateur Waitress by 
Maud Younger in the April McClure's, car- 
ries the amateur waitress to the goal of her 
ambition, a Childs' restaurant. The prob- 
lem of unions for waitresses is presented 
by one of the girls: "If you've got a guar- 
antee that Mr. Childs will live forever, per- 
haps you don't need a union here. But you 
can't tell when conditions may change. 1 
appreciate what he's doing just as much 
as anybody, but if he's done so much for 
us, what about the other girls that ain't 
so well off? We could do something for 
them if we'd all work together. There's 
thousands in New York as don't get paid 
enough to call it a living." 

other industrial establishments, miners, 
lumbermen, sailors, sportsmen and travel- 
ers. There are fifteen illustrations and 
forty-six pages; the book can be slipped into 
a pocket and costs only eight cents. The 
league has already distributed some 85,000 
of its twelve booklets of popular health 

* * * 

Industrial Insurance is the title of a little 
paper-covered booklet issued by the Chicago 
Daily News, a reprint of the various articles 
which have appeared in its columns during 
the last few months. The records of acci- 
dents in dangerous trades are treated by 
Clarence H. Mark in five articles. Eugene 
T. Lies, general district secretary, Chicago 
Bureau of Charities, writes on the employ- 
ment bureau for the handicapped in Chi- 
cago. John Graham Brooks writes On 
Humanizing Insurance four articles, one de- 
scribing very tersely the German system. 
Professor Charles R. Henderson has four 
articles on industrial insurance, describing 
the need, the French system and the spora- 
dic insurance systems of the United States. 
E. P. Bell writes on the British Workmen's 
Compensation Act. Part of the report of 
the Illinois Industrial Insurance Commis- 
sion is reprinted as well as the industrial 
insurance bill it recommended. 

The Health Education League of Boston 
has recently issued the twelfth of its series 
of booklets, Emergencies, by Dr. Marshall 
H. Bailey, resident physician to Harvard 
College. The booklet is written to enable 
any sensible person to render intelligent 
first aid in case of accident and until the 
arrival of a doctor. As it has been esti- 
mated that some 500,000 people suffer more 
or less serious accidents in this country 
every year, this booklet ought to have a 
wide distribution among railroad employes, 
policemen, foremen in manufacturing and 

A new journal, The Psychological Clinic 
has been started by Dr. Lightner Witmer 
of the Psychological Department of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania. It will be de- 
voted to the study and treatment of abnor- 
mal and backward children. Dr. Witmer 
has given much time to this phase of psy- 
chology and is well prepared to conduct such 
a journal. It is a first step in a new field, 
and would seem to be a most promising one. 
In its first issue it says "To provide for an 
adequate report of the results of the scien- 
tific study of these children, primarily cases 

8 4 

Charities and The Commons 

of mental and moral retardation, it has been 
determined to found a new journal. The 
Psychological Clinic will be devoted pri- 
marily to the study and treatment of men- 
tally and morally deficient children, but 
this will not preclude the consideration of 
other types deviating from the normal child, 
nor yet of that hypothetical type, the so- 
called normal child." 

"The future of the wage-earning boy," 
says Our Hospitals and Charities, of Lon- 
don, "should have the attention of all 
thoughtful men and women since he min- 
isters so largely to their comfort, and we 
may surely ask for legislation in a matter 
which so nearly affects the future well-being 
of our country." 

* * * 

The History and Development of the 
Housing Movement in the City of Washing- 
ton, D. C, is the title of an attractive 
pamphlet just issued by Dr. Geo. M. Kober, 
published by the Washington Sanitary Im- 
provement Co. The pamphlet is illustrated 
by pictures of insanitary dwellings and, in 
contrast, with diagrams and photographs of 
the model dwellings erected by the Sanitary 
Improvement Co., and by the Sanitary Hous- 
ing Co. The publication should be definitely 
helpful to persons interested in the erec- 
tion of model houses for working people. 
The methods of the Washington companies 
are described in detail with a copy of the 
by-laws of the older association, the Wash- 
ington Sanitary Improvement Co. The com- 
pany's plan of allowing one month's rent 
yearly for repairs, of controlling the prop- 
erty through resident agents, and of pro- 
viding for a sinking fund to meet the pros- 
pective decrease in the value of the build- 
ings is explained in detail. Both companies 
are conducted by public spirited citizens 
who work without compensation and it is 
at least partly due to this fact that the 
stocks of both companies are regarded as a 
profitable investment. The older company 
is a 5% philanthropy and has accumulated 
such a strong sinking fund that its stock is 
at a premium. It has a surplus of $68,000 
or over thirteen per cent of the amount of 
stock issued. The newer company, com- 
posed of virtually the same individuals and 
known as the Sanitary Housing Company 
was organized in April, 1904. It is limited 
to a profit of 4%, but has already begun to 
accumulate a sinking fund more rapidly 
than the original corporation did. Its stock 
is regarded by leading financial experts of 
the national capital as a very safe 4% in- 
vestment. The former company now has 
400 apartments (200 houses) renting at 
from $13 for four rooms and bath, to $21 
for its most expensive apartments. The 
second company now has in operation eighty 
apartments (forty houses), renting at from 
$7 for three rooms and bath to $8 for four 
rooms, with bath on the ground level, or 

$8.50 for the same on the second floor. At 
these low rates the apartments of both com- 
panies are greatly in demand and both 
have a long waiting list. 

The pamphlet deals with the growth of 
public interest in the neglected neighbor- 
hoods of the national capital. It tells how 
the Associated Charities and its Committee 
on the Improvement of Housing Conditions 
has carried on an investigation and an ac- 
tive campaign for the removal of insanitary 
dwellings, the conversion of alleys into 
minor streets, the development of play- 
grounds and the prevention of tuberculosis. 
These workers are said to be in favor of a 
"special commission on housing and health 
conditions" as proposed by President Roose- 
velt in his message to congress some years 

* * * 

Harold M. Praley's paper on New York's 
Populous and Densest Blocks, in Federation, 
is based on the report of the enumeration 
of the inhabitants of the state of New York, 
1905. According to this report fifty-one 
blocks in the borough of Manhattan contain 
a population of over 3,000 inhabitants each. 
Thirty-seven of these blocks are on the lower 
East Side, below Fourteenth street; six on 
the West Side and one in the middle area. 
New York's most populous block is on the 
West Side (two blocks from Central Park), 
bounded by Sixty-first and Sixty-second 
streets, Amsterdam and West End avenues. 
Its population is 6,173. In 1900 the block 
bounded by Second and Third streets, Ave- 
nues B to C, with a population of 4,105 
was the most populous block. To-day, with 
its 5,036 inhabitants, it holds the second 
place. The most phenomenal growth has 
taken place in Little Italy. The block bound- 
ed by 112th and 113th streets, First and Sec- 
ond avenues, had a population of 822, a den- 
sity of 183 in 1900. In 1905 it has increased 
in population to 4,325, in density to 961. 
Twelve of the fifty-one blocks have densities 
of over 1,100 to the acre. In 1900 there 
were only four blocks with so great a den- 
sity. Eleven of the twelve blocks are situ- 
ated on the lower East Side. Within the 
five years, 1900-1905 the average population 
per block has increased to 3,528, the aver- 
age density to 1,275. This means that there 
are now 339 more people in each of the 
eleven blocks than in 1900. The twelfth 
block with a density of over 1,100 is the 
Sixty-first street block, which has a density 
of 1,145. The other six West Side blocks 
with populations of over 3,000 persons are 
all situated between Forty-eighth and Sixty- 
sixth streets and Tenth and Eleventh ave- 
nues. In 1900 their average density was 
540. It had risen to 694 in 1905. In the 
matter of congestion Mr. Fraley points out 
that the upper East Side is gaining steadily 
upon the West Side. Seven of the 3,000 
population blocks on the upper East Side 
have increased in average density from 520- 
to 767. 


In Defense of Patent Medicines 

To the Editor: 

Will you allow me a few words of pro- 
test against the tone of the article in a 
recent issue of your magazine, entitled A 
Patent Medicine Law That Will Work? 

I happen to be the manager of one of 
the largest so-called "patent medicine" com- 
panies in the country, and I resent the 
reckless willingness of some writers and 
publishers to accept groundless assertions as 
facts and join in a crusade against this busi- 
ness. The chief cause of the agitation ap- 
pears to be that some illiberal physicians, 
jealously desirous of a complete monopoly, 
are taking advantage of the present mania 
for muck-racking and pseudo-reform to serve 
their own selfish purposes. The preparation, 
advertisement and sale to the people with- 
out the intervention of a physician, of these 
household remedies is a great, beneficent and 
practically a necessary business. There are 
incident to it only such abuses as are in- 
separable from almost every business, and 
from the practice of medicine as well as the 
other professions. 

As to the change proposed in the Massa- 
chusetts law, I am in favor of it; and I know 
of no one in the business who objects to it, 
notwithstanding the fling of your corres- 
pondent who says "The 'proprietary' inter- 
ests, in the opposition they will naturally 
raise, are entitled to no consideration." 

The proviso in the act of 1906 was a mean- 
ingless one. If the Pharmacopoea and For- 
mulary contained the necessary information, 
the reference to them as standards would be 
proper; but they do not. The law would be 
far clearer and better, therefore, if it con- 
tained no allusion to them and required 
without qualification or exception a state- 
ment of the percentage of alcohol. For this 
reason, I protested against the insertion of 
the clause while the bill was under consid- 
eration last year, and so wrote the chairman 
of the committee. 

The United States law now clearly re- 
quires a statement on the package of the 
proportion of alcohol contained in every 
medicine subject to interstate commerce reg- 
ulations; consequently, all medicines having 
any considerable sale will bear such state- 
ment whether there is state regulation or 
not. It has caused the makers of these med- 
icines great trouble and expense to provide 
new labels and wrappers for all their prepa- 
rations in order to comply with this law. 
Apart from this trouble and expense, I see 
little objection to the requirement. It is, 
however, unnecessary, and the grounds upon 
which it was demanded were fallacious. 

The reason alleged was that the quantity 


of alcohol in these medicines was excessive, 
and that the use of them leads to intemper- 
ance. To prove this it was said that these 
medicines, taken by the spoonful only, con- 
tained a larger proportion — not quantity — of 
alcohol than fermented beverages, drunk by 
the glass, often a pint or more at a sitting. 
To facilitate this argument our opponents 
wish to be able to point to the statement on 
the bottle and say "See! you are taking a 
larger proportion of alcohol than you would 
if you should drink a glass of beer" to the 
person about to take a spoonful dose of a 
medicine. But the people are too sensible 
to object to taking a trifling amount of alco- 
hol in a commercial medicine, in order to get 
a physician to prescribe an equally alcoholic 
dose for them. 

The whole thing is disingenuous. The 
crusade is a mixture of exaggeration, as- 
sumption and falsehood. A specimen of the 
false assumptions is to be found in your cor- 
respondent's remark, "Here is a chance to 
stop the dealing of death and destruction in 
one other state, at least"; calmly assuming 
death and destruction which do not exist. 
From what cause? The taking three or four 
times a day of a spoonful of medicine con- 
taining, as a necessary solvent and preserva- 
tive, 15 or 20 per cent of alcohol! Physi- 
cians freely prescribe medicines containing 
as large a proportion of alcohol; are they 
privileged to "deal death and destruction"? 

Men and women of common sense! Most 
of you have always used household remedies 
advertised to the public and sold in conve- 
nient form for use. You have found them 
good and regarded them as household neces- 
sities. Why should you be persuaded or 
compelled to give them up now and call a 
physician for every little ailment for which 
you do not need him, or else steep or mix 
your own medicines as our forefathers did? 

Salem, Mass. 

Wm. H. Gove. 

The IVussell Sage Foundation 
To the Editor: 

The unparalleled gift of Mrs. Russell Sage 
for philanthropic purposes should be fruit- 
ful of beneficent results that are quite be- 
yond the power of estimation. 

If I understand the terms and purpose of 
the gift correctly, its revenues should not 
only help to provide succor for the needy 
by strengthening the arms of existing in- 
stitutions that minister to the poor, and by 
the formation of new organizations where 
such are necessary, but they may be used 
to ascertain, if possible, how the multitude 
may be uplifted and in many cases kept 
from the need of charitable relief. 


Charities and The Commons 

Those who are familiar with charitable 
work in New York know to what extent the 
labors of good organizations are halted many- 
times because of insufficient income, and 
how difficult it frequently is because of lack 
of means to carry on research work wisely 
designed to improve the general conditions 
under which the poor are obliged to live. 
No doubt the gift of Mrs. Sage will to a 
considerable extent help to remove these 
obstacles, and so used should be a mighty 
force not only for relief but also for prog- 
ress. Robert W. Hebberd, 

Commissioner Public Charities, 
New York city. 


American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion. — The semi-annual meeting of the Coun- 
cil of the American Association for Labor 
Legislation will be held the afternoon of 
April 16 in New York. Advices from Lon- 
don are to the effect that the translation of 
the first bulletin of the International Associ- 
ation to be printed in English, has been com- 
pleted and the American secretary, Dr. Adna 
F. Weber hopes to be in position to distrib- 
ute the first issue to members within a few 

Dairy Farming for Jewish Settlers. — 
Dairy farming will be tried on a practical 
scale by the Jewish settlers, who will be 
sent to Millville, New Jersey, where the 

Employment Exchange. 

Address all communications to Miss Helen M. Kelsey, 
Editor Employment Exchange of Charities and The 
Commons, Room 535, 156 Fifth Avenue. Kindly enclose 
postage if a reply is desired. 

YOUNG woman who has had practical experience 
in settlement management, but who prefers the 
actual work with people rather than organizing, 
wishes an opening in the Fall as Asst. Head Worker in 
a well-established settlement, where she can gain fur- 
ther experience. 

YOUNG woman with experience in kindergarten 
teaching wishes immediate employment in New 
York City in any line of work where her train- 
ing would be of value. 

YOUNG college woman with some business 
training who intends to do volunteer phil- 
anthropic work wishes a position for next 
year which will give her an insight into the 
methods of organized charity. Living wage only. 

YOUNG woman with medical training, who has 
had some years of general practice wishes 
philanthropic or social work which will 
make use of her special knowledge. 

YOUNG woman who has had several years 
of practical library work wishes non-res- 
dent position as librarian — preferably in a 
social se ttlement not in New York City. 

WANTED— A general secretary in a C. O. S. in a 
small city in Eastern Pennsylvania. Work is 
well established and some one of experience in 
organized charity methods is needed immediately to 
carry it on. 

WANTED— Young woman, who wishes opportun- 
ity to gain an insight into settlement methods, 
who is free to take a position at once for the 
next four months. No salary beyond living expenses. 


ANTED — Woman to do visiting for a Bap- 
tist church in the South. 

Baron de Hirsch Society has recently pur- 
chased the Windmill Dairy Farm and a 
large tract of land. The building lots and 
small farms into which the land will be 
converted, and the government of the colony 
will be on the same plan as Woodbine and 
Carmel in their early days. 

Hebrew Children's Sheltering Association, 
Baltimore. — The Hebrew Children's Shelter- 
ing and Protective Association of Baltimore, 
will have a new home about June 1, which 
will allow the society to care for more than 
the seventy-six children now under its 

Council Educational Alliance, Cleveland. — 
The Council Educational Alliance of Cleve- 
land has just completed its organization for 
1907, by the election of the following officers 
and directors: Rabbi M. J. Gries, president; 
Eugene L. Glismer, vice-president; Solomon 
Renithal, recording secretary; Mrs. A. 
Stearn, treasurer; Mrs. M. Halle, Mrs. A. 
Wiener, Mrs. M. B. Schwab, and Messrs. 
M. Kolinsky, A. A. Benesch, Louis M. Wolf, 
J. Guss, M. A. Black, Isaac Hass and Isidor 

For Wayward Jewish Girls. — A home for 
wayward Jewish girls and unmarried moth- 
ers was established in 1905, under the 
auspices of the New York Section of the 
Council of Jewish Women; it is known as 
the Lakeview Home, and is situated at 
Brighton Heights, Staten Island. It has 
sheltered during fifteen months, forty girls 
and twenty-two infants. The aim of the 
institution consists in the industrial train- 
ing of the girl in such manner as will in- 
crease her earning capacity and enable her 
thus to adapt herself more fittingly to her 
surroundings. The New York section con- 
tributed $5,000 a year for two years in or- 
der that the need of such an institution 
might be demonstrated. The committee in 
charge of the home is as follows: Mrs. 
Charles Henry Israels, chairman; Mrs. 
Joseph Proskauer, Mrs. Simon Dottenheim, 
Mrs. Montague Lessler, Mrs. Walter S. 
Mayer, and Doctor Fanny Conklin. 

The Beth Israel Hospital 


offers a two years' course in the study of nursing to 
women from 21 to 33 years of age, with High School 
education. An allowance of $7.00 and $10.00 
per month is made for uniforms and books. 
For information address. 

Superintendent School of Nurses, 


Cherry Street, New York City. 


Investigates and gathers facts, statistics, etc., for 

By appointment only, 144 East 22d St., N. Y. Tel. 6406 Gramercy 
Memher of Executive Committee of St. Paul's Co- 
operative Club of Business and Professional Women. 
Visitor of Italian Division Calvary Settlement. Active 
Patroness of Clear Pool Camp. 


and THe Commons 

THe New View 

A Foreword FortnigHtly by tKe Hditor 

We begin with the new view of charity. Possibly no other human relation 
depends so much upon the point of view. The mendicant's alms, the pauper's 
maintenance, the imposter's largess, the bitter bread of degrading dependence, 
gifts even to a worthy cause wrung from an uneasy conscience, and that kind of 
charity which is but a sorry substitute for justice denied, are all so many aspects 
of charity which tend to make it a mockery among men. There is another view. 
In an imperfect world, full of adverse conditions which are in large part an evil 
inheritance, the new view makes of charity a type of anticipatory justice. The 
new view is that charity may lighten an unreasonable and intolerable burden, or 
transfer it to broader and stronger shoulders ; that it may bring opportunity to the 
child of an unfavorable heredity and an unfavorable environment ; that it may deal 
not only with individuals who suffer, but with social conditions which tend to per- 
petuate crime, pauperism, and degeneracy. 

Those who have the new view of charity and believe in it are one in spirit 
with those who have the old view and abjure it. Out of the revolt against the 
charity of the old view, the faith in the new charity was born. The new view is 
vital. Perhaps it is not vital that it be called a new view of charity. If there are 
some, as there are, for whom the new view of charity has been the means of 
attaining to new views of other social relations, there are doubtless others to whom 
the word is a stumbling block. 

The new view is a social view, which seeks in all movements, whether of re- 
search or of remedial action, for the common welfare. The new view is many 
sided, for it seeks to "see life sanely and to see it whole." The home, the factory, 
the school, the church, and the playground are all within its range. Disease, 
misery, and crime are seen, but seen in their true proportions, as a dark border 
land into which constantly new streams of light and energy are pouring with 
promise of ultimately taking possession. 

It was the old view, founded upon wisdom and experience, that children 
must early be taught habits of industry. It is the new view that children must 
not be exploited for commercial gain, and that they must be not only taught but 


88 Charities and The Commons April 20 

It was the old view, humane and considerate, that the sick must be tenderly 
cared for, naturally by the nearest of kin. It is the new view that disease must be 
understood and overcome, that hospitals, dispensaries, surgical and medical treat- 
ment, nursing, and preventive measures, must be developed and dovetailed into a 
general social scheme for the elimination of preventable disease and a very sub- 
stantial reduction in the prevalence of such diseases as cannot be classed as pre- 

It was the old view that crime is a constant factor in society resulting from 
natural depravity or from persistent personal causes. It is the new view that 
political, economic, and social institutions, and especially the prevailing method 
of administering justice and the penal system, have much to do with the amount 
and kind of crime. Sixty years ago an English judge, charging the grand jury, 
cited an instance of a boy who at the age of twelve was convicted of a minor of- 
fense ; within the twenty-one months next succeeding he was again convicted 
seven times. The remarkable aspect of the case was that society incurred this 
very considerable expense for no other apparent purpose than to train and confirm 
the youth in a career of crime. After sixty years, so accustomed are we to look 
upon courts and prisons and even reformatories in the old traditional way, it is 
still a new view for the great majority that short terms of imprisonment for petty 
offenses are as pernicious and unnecessary as they are common. 

It was — or, rather, it is necessary to say — it is the old view that a penal code 
and courts of justice can apportion penalties in accordance with the demerit 
of convicted offenders. It is the new view that neither courts nor laws can meas- 
ure penalties and demerit on the same scale and that, while courts may determine 
guilt and innocence, the length and the conditions of detention are questions which, 
under proper restrictions, should be left to competent persons who have had 
nothing to do with prosecution or trial, but who are capable of deciding, as physi- 
cians decide in regard to the insane, when, if at all, the offenders may safely be 
restored to society. 

It is the old view that wages are determined by the law of supply and de- 
mand. It is the new view that the standard of living influences wages and that 
employers may profitable anticipate a possibly violent, deferred readjustment by 
considering from time to time whether forces are at work which have a tendency 
to raise the standard of living above the existing level, imposed, it may be, by 
tradition, by some local or temporary disadvantage under which employes labor, 
or by other adverse conditions which intelligent co-operation between employer 
and employe might remove to their mutual advantage. It is the old view that 
employers are liable for damages resulting from industrial accident, when the 
injured employe can affirmatively prove that there was no contributory negligence 
on his part ; that it was not caused by the fault or negligence of a fellow employe, 

1907 The New View 89 

and that numerous other traditions and fictions cannot be made to apply to his 
particular case. It is the new view that each industry should, from its undivided 
profits, bear the responsibility of its deaths and injuries, rather than the family 
of the killed or disabled workman. It is the new view that on this theory of 
compensation for injuries life-saving appliances will be introduced more promptly, 
greater care exercised in the selection of employes, and the burdens of industry 
more equitably distributed than under a system of limited employer's liability. 

It is the old view that education is the training in letters of a select class — 
a view which has survived the application of many brilliant discoveries in psy- 
chology and in the science of education. It is the new view that education is for 
all men and women one of the permanent interests of human life ; that the school 
period is one of adjustment to the actual occupations and home life of later years ; 
that it must be far more diversified than heretofore, with less of routine drill and 
more of vital interest in the curriculum, with such re-arrangement in the order of 
studies as will bring the growing child in succession to the tasks for which he is 
fitted, and with greatly increased attention to a normal physical development and 
a speedy correction of physical defects which will make possible normal intellec- 
tual and moral growth. It is the old view that truancy, backwardness, and incor- 
rigibility were to be corrected by the rod, or else, if one held with the opposite 
school, by overflowing sympathy and kindness. It is the new view that a physical 
examination will often reveal the cause of backwardness; that truancy is to be 
checked, not indeed without strict discipline, but chiefly by making the school a 
center of interest and attraction; and that incorrigible means only not corrigible 
by such means as we have had the skill and wisdom to apply. Incorrigibility is 
not so much a verdict against the child as a confession of the limitations of the 
parent or teacher. 

It is the old view that those who found a charity or conduct a benevolent in- 
stitution of any kind are from the mere fact of this association with charity to be 
looked upon with a certain degree of deference, their selfishness and eccentrici- 
ties to be excused, their motives to be accepted as sufficient justification for any 
follies and mistakes. It is the new view that effort expended in charity as in any 
other direction is to be judged by its result; that efficiency and common sense are 
essential in the relief of the unfortunate as in any other equally important under- 
taking; that preparation and training and experience have their appropriate place 
in social work as in other serious callings. 

It is the old view that each agency for social betterment is a law unto itself. 
In the new view co-operation is the keynote. The old view emphasized the insti- 
tution, the society, the mechanism by which it was sought to do good. The new 
view is of the end to be accomplished, subordinating the agency, the method, and 

9<D Charities and The Commons 

the worker, to the end in view, to the family in trouble, to the individual who is 
in need, to the condition which is to be remedied. The new view is incompatible 
with institutionalism, with fruitless isolated labor, with working at cross purposes. 
The new view is democratic, co-operative, enthusiastic. The new view looks dif- 
ficulties undauntedly in the face and even insists upon revealing all their magni- 
tude, but it discovers also the facts that are favorable — the elements of success. 
The new view is radical in its desire to get to the root of all social problems, but it 
is conservative in the best sense in that it holds firmly to that which has been 
wrought out for good in the laborious progress of mankind. It has no sympathy 
with destructive radicalism, but even less with that conservatism which is a cloak 
for special privilege and exploitation. 

The new view is that behind every form of degeneration, dependence, and 
injustice there is apt to be some entrenched pecuniary interest which it is desirable 
to discover and with which it is the duty of society to deal. It is the old view that 
the depraved man is the natural man, and that some families are inherently supe- 
rior to others merely because of their better ancestry. It is this new view — first, 
perhaps, adequately expressed in Professsor Patten's program of social work 
published elsewhere in this number — that there are no differences between the poor 
man and his normal neighbors which cannot be rapidly obliterated. He does not 
lack their blood, but their health, their vigor, their good fortune, their culture, and 
their environment. The old view put the emphasis on the defects and weaknesses 
revealed by the family history. The new view puts the emphasis on latent powers, 
new motives, and favorable conditions, on the release and guidance of energy, 
rather than its restraint. 

We conceive the fundamental purpose of this journal to be the more complete 
attainment of the new view. If that appear vague and indefinite, and a sceptical 
reader, notwithstanding all our illustrations, still ask, The new view of what? 
we reply roundly, The new view of life — the new view of the common welfare ; the 
new view of industrial and social forces ; the new view of childhood, of woman- 
hood and manhood; the new view of housing as the basis of domestic life; the 
new view of industrial occupations and the conditions under which they are car- 
ried on; the new view of misery and crime and disease as eradicable; the new 
view of charity, of reformation, of discipline, of human society; the new view of 
work, of recreation, of neighborhood ; and, at last, the new view, prophetic though 
it be, of a social order in which ancient wrongs shall be righted, new corruptions 
foreseen and prevented, the nearest approach to equality of opportunity assured, 
and the individual re-discovered under conditions vastly more favorable for his 
greatest usefulness to his fellows and for the highest development of all his 


AND The Commons 

coward t- devinc, editor 
graham Taylor, associate 
lee K. Frankel. Associate foi 
Jewish Charity 

The Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 

Illinois Th . e fat ? of pending Ilh- 
industriai nois legislation to prevent 

Legislation. industrial accide nts will 

soon demonstrate whether that state, 
ranking third in industries, is to remain 
last of all in its consideration for the 
lives and limbs and health of its workers. 
To urge this legislation was one of the 
prime objects of the Chicago Industrial 
Exhibit. To secure its enactment Gover- 
nor Deneen has thrown and is throwing 
the weight of his personal and political 
power. Every section of the bill as 
drawn by State Factory Inspector Davies 
is based upon carefully tried precedent 
in the statutes of some other state or 
country. Its fair and moderate provisions 
to meet the acknowledged necessity for 
safeguards and regulations have won the 
vigorous support not only of trade unions 
but of large numbers of disinterested 
and broad-minded citizens. It provides 
for effective protection of dangerous ma- 
chinery; safeguards against boiling 
liquids and molten metals; fencing of 
elevator wells and stairways; belt shift- 
ers ; adequate ventilation, heat and 
sanitary arrangements ; seats for women ; 
proper lighting of fire escapes, stairs and 
hallways ; toilet and dressing rooms for 
both sexes; and investigations and rec- 
ords of accidents. Power of enforce- 
ment is placed in the hands of the De- 
partment of Factory Inspection. 

With every sound argument in its 
favor, and in the absence of any specific 
objection there was no apparent reason 
to doubt the passage of the bill. There 
has been growing, however, an opposi- 


tion which suddenly has developed a 
power and influence wholly out of pro- 
portion to its flimsy basis. Its conten- 
tions are npt drawn from an analysis of 
the bill's provisions. Its arguments are 
not specific but are evasive generalities. 
It condemns as impractical certain fea- 
tures of the bill and declares that too 
much power is placed in the hands of 
the factory inspector; yet it suggests no 
"practical" substitute or amendments, 
nor does it explain how factory regula- 
tion can be enforced without giving 
power to the officer of the law. It wast- 
ed its time and withheld its co-operation 
when earnest citizens were working con- 
scientiously upon the detailed provisions 
of the bill, and now it excitedly decries 
"hasty legislation." It appeals for "reas- 
onableness" when its own methods are 
based not upon reason but merely upon 
hidden influence. These tactics, what- 
ever their lingering effectiveness in legis- 
lative halls, are losing any power they 
may have had to hoodwink the average 
citizen. This was demonstrated over- 
whelmingly at a meeting held April 13 
in the City Club of Chicago under the 
auspices of the club's industrial commit- 
tee. The arguments of State Factory 
Inspector Davies and the trade unionists 
dealt with facts. Those of the repre- 
sentative of the Illinois Manufacturer's 
Association scarcely got beyond the 
broadest platitudes, and when they did 
attempt to be specific they were hope- 
lessly inaccurate or beside the point. 
They abounded in assurances that none 
wished more ardently than the manu- 


Chanties and The Commons 

April 20 

facturers to safeguard life and limb. And 
they failed absolutely to contribute a 
single positive suggestion for incorpora- 
tion in the measure. The effect of this 
discussion confirmed the judgment and 
enlisted the sympathy of public spirited 
citizens in urging that the Illinois legis- 
lature rescue the state from the disgrace 
of its shamefully inadequate factory laws. 
The meeting at the Chicago City Club 
gave consideration also to the pending 
bill drawn by the state commission ap- 
pointed two years ago to formulate legis- 
lation for industrial insurance. Three 
members of the commission were pres- 
ent — Harrison F. Jones, attorney for the 
Chicago and Eastern Illinois Railroad, 
Professor Charles R. Henderson, of the 
University of Chicago, and Adolph 
Adeloff, of the cigarmakers' union. The 
bill was discussed at length, especially 
that part which provides for a voluntary 
insurance, maintained half by the em- 
ployers and half by the employes. Ob- 
jections brought by trade union leaders 
to certain provisions are to be met in a 
revision now being prepared. The dis- 
cussion was chiefly notable for the clear 
statement of T. K. Webster, president 
of the Webster Manufacturing Company, 
that he firmly believed that instead of 
being shared equally by the employer 
and employe, the insurance fund should 
be furnished entirely by the employer on 
the basis that the annual cost of human 
"wear and tear" should be charged up 
wholly to the industry just as is now 
the depreciation on plant and tools. 

Hours At the present time the 
fo°r f women New York laws governing 
workers. tfie labor of women and 
children in mercantile establishments are 
far below the standard established in 
factories, with the result that there is 
unfair discrimination against manufac- 
turers and serious difficulty in enforcing 
the factory law. To meet this difficulty, 
a bill (Senate No. 1105 — Davis; As- 
sembly No. 1738 — Hooper), has been 
introduced in the legislature with the 
hearty endorsement of Labor Commis- 
sioner Sherman. It would prevent all 
women in mercantile establishments from 
being compelled to work more than sixty 

hours in any one week. At the present 
time this limitation applies only to wo- 
men under twenty-one years of age. 
Most important of all, this bill would pre- 
vent young girls from being worked until 
one or two o'clock in the morning dur- 
ing the Christmas rush. Under the 
present law there is no restriction of 
hours whatever in force from December 
15 to January 1, at the very period 
of the year when protection is most need- 
ed. This bill would further transfer the 
enforcement of the mercantile law to the 
State Labor Department in cities .of the 
first class. At present the local boards 
of health are responsible for its adminis- 
tration, but it is obvious that they are 
not the appropriate agencies for enforc- 
ing a labor law. In New York city, it 
has proved impossible for the Depart- 
ment of Health, with its manifold other 
duties, to give this law proper attention. 
At the recent legislative hearings on the 
bill, leading retail merchants, from mo- 
tives of self-interest, protested emphatic- 
ally against the measure. It is time that 
the sentiment of the community should 
make itself felt in favor of this moderate 
and humane legislation. 

The newsboy problem is 
Probiem.° y again up for discussion in 
New York, where a bill is 
pending to make effective the present un- 
enforced newsboy law. This law was 
passed four years ago after extensive in- 
vestigation had shown the serious moral 
and physical dangers of unrestricted 
street life. It was meant to accomplish 
two things: to keep off the streets little 
newsboys under ten years of age, and 
to license boys between ten and fourteen 
years to sell papers after school until 10 
p. m. The reason for the failure of this 
measure is obvious. It provides that the 
school authorities shall issue the license 
and badge to boys between ten and four- 
teen years, but it gives to the police the 
authority to enforce this law. A trial 
of four years has shown that the police 
do not arrest small newsboys for selling 
under age or without badges. It is now 
proposed that boys should not be arrested 
for the first offense but that as a proper 
penalty they should be deprived of their 


The Common Welfare 


badges, and that boys without badges 
should be so dealt with, as to make pos- 
session really valuable. Power to issue 
or to withhold the badge, should in the 
future be a valuable reinforcement of the 
teacher's authority; for in the proposed 
law, the principal of the school is to 
recommend the granting, refusing or re- 
voking of licenses, as the case may be. 
Truant officers, specially provided if 
necessary, are to warn offenders on the 
streets, and if need be in the last resort, 
to arrest them. The object of this law is 
not to prohibit boys from selling papers, 
but so wisely to regulate the trade that 
its dangers shall be minimized. 

conference on The fourth national con- 
ant k ^nd rd Deiin"" ference on the education of 
quent children, backward, truant and de- 
linquent children will be held at Minne- 
apolis June 10-12. An excellent pro- 
gram has been prepared and among the 
papers to be presented to the congress 

Social Education in Reformatories, by 
William G. Fairbank, superintendent 
Girls' Industrial School, Middletown, 
Conn. ; Physical Culture as a Factor in 
Reclaiming Juvenile Delinquents, by 
Mrs. Lucy M. Sickels, superintendent, 
Industrial Home for Girls, Adrian, 
Michigan; Discipline, by Frank H. Ni- 
becker, superintendent, House of Refuge, 
Glen Mills, Pa. ; The George Junior Re- 
public in Reformatory Institutions, by 
M. M. Mallary, superintendent, Illinois 
State Reformatory, Pontiac, 111. ; Alco- 
holism as a Cause of Juvenile Delin- 
quency, by Mrs. Ophelia L. Amigh, 
superintendent, State Training School 
for Girls, Geneva, 111. ; Cigarettes and 
Their Relation to Truancy and Juvenile 
Delinquency, by William L. Bodine, 
superintendent, Department of Compul- 
sory Education, Chicago, 111. Other pa- 
pers will be presented by Col. C. B. 
Adams, superintendent, Boys' Industrial 
School, Lancaster, Ohio; F. A. Whittier, 
superintendent, State Training School 
for Boys and Girls, Red Wing, Minn. ; 
and others. On Wednesday, June 12, 
the members of the conference will be 
entertained at the State Training School, 
at Red Wing, Minn. The sessions of the 

first two days of the conference will be 
held at the assembly hall in the city and 
county building, Minneapolis and the ses- 
sion on June 12, will be held at the State 
Training School, Red Wing. 

New Tene- When Mayor Fitzgerald 

ment House • , i i • • 

Law appointed what is in es- 

for Boston, sence the third commission 
to consider the question of housing in 
Boston, a comprehensive report was ex- 
pected. The appointment of the com- 
mission provided an opportunity for the 
improvement of the Boston tenement 
house law which had many points of ad- 
vantage. For some reason, the com- 
mission omitted all but a few minor re- 
quirements of such as are manifestly 
necessary in connection with tenement 
house construction. The commission, 
however, seems satisfied to have these 
small portions stricken out of its bill and 
an entirely separate tenement house law 
passed in their place. The present law 
in Boston needs revision. The provis- 
ions are confusing and difficult to locate, 
being scattered through the building law 
of 1892, and many amendments of the 
past fifteen years. The fire risk and 
plumbing requirements are so drastic 
that but few tenement houses have been 
built since 1897, while in regard to light 
and air, on the other hand, the provisions 
are far too lax, being about the same as 
those existing in New York during the 
period in which the dumb-bell type of 
tenement was evolved. A committee of 
the Massachusetts Civic League has been 
studying this matter for several months, 
and has drawn up a tenement house bill 
based partly upon the excellent report 
made three years ago by the commission 
appointed by Mayor Collins, and partly 
— but with modifications adopted after a 
careful study of conditions both in New 
York and here — upon the law that has 
worked so successfully in New York. 
The most important part of the league's 
bill consists of provisions on the subjects 
of light and air, the essential characteris- 
tic of which is not in any actual increase 
made in the amount of open space which 
every tenement house is required to have, 
but in requiring a better distribution of 
that space; so that, without appreciably 


Charities and The Commons 

April 20 

increasing the cost of land and building, 
the amount of light and air enjoyed by 
each occupant is greatly increased. 

First, it is provided that part of the 
open space required shall lie across the 
rear of every tenement house lot, instead 
of being put in wherever best suits the 
fancy of the owner. The proposed law 
will secure what may be called "team 
play" among open spaces, so that the 
space provided by one landlord serves to 
supplement that provided by another. It 
secures, in fact, a continuous open space 
across the rear of the whole block, open- 
ing at each end on the adjoining street, 
or into a similar space that so opens. 
Thus the wind can blow through, and 
the same amount of space is not subject 
to division into a series of pocket-holes. 
Second, the open space provided in the 
interior of a lot, or between lots, instead 
of being permitted to be a long and nar- 
row slit, of the type familiar in connec- 
tion with the "dumb-bell" structures, the 
so-called air-shaft described by Jacob A. 
Riis as a "culture tube for fire, immoral- 
ity, and disease," is required to be of a 
certain minimum width, and to have an 
intake for fresh air at the bottom, unless 
it opens directly on the street or back 
yard. In general, provision is made for 
the size of rooms, for the size of windows 
in each room, and for what the windows 
shall open on. The object of the law is 
not merely to prevent the erection of un- 
fit dwellings, but to make possible the 
erection of good ones. Cambridge and 
Springfield are studying the draft of the 
Boston law as presented by the commis- 
sion with a view to passing ordinances 
for their own use. If the Boston law is 
thus going to be taken as a model it is 
manifestly important that the tenement 
house part be covered in some satisfac- 
tory manner. 

Tenement- ^ n administration bill, pro- 
House Law viding for general amend- 

Amendment. ments tQ the tenement . 

house law, has been introduced in the 
New York state legislature by Senator 
McCall and Assemblyman Dobbs. 

Tenement House Commissioner Ed- 
mond J. Butler makes the following 
statement with regard to it: 

The bill has been prepared by me in con- 
ference with my deputies and heads of de- 
partment and represents as well my experi- 
ence of two years in administering the law. 
The amendments seem somewhat volumin- 
ous but in reality very few changes in the 
substance of the law are made. The main 
purpose of the bill has been to embody in 
the statute the various rulings and inter- 
pretations of the law that have been in 
vogue in the Tenement House Department 
since its inception. While it is not perhaps 
absolutely necessary to have all these de- 
tails become part of the act itself yet it has 
seemed to me that it will save trouble and 
dispute if what is now departmental prac- 
tice, a practice which has grown out of six 
years' interpretation of the law, could be 
embodied in the statute. In addition sev- 
eral substantial changes are made in the 
law itself. In a number of instances as the 
result of experience it has seemed best to 
strengthen the law in some respects. In 
several cases where the law has been found 
to work undue hardship unnecessarily, it 
has seemed wise to make changes which 
would remove any unnecessary hardship. 

THe National Peace Con- 

Benjamin P. Trueblood 
Secretary American Peace Society 

The National Peace Congress which is 
in session this week in Carnegie Hall, 
New York, the first of its kind ever held 
in this country, has revealed the immense 
hold which the movement for arbitra- 
tion and peace has taken upon the whole 
American people. The leading purpose 
of the congress is to direct and mass 
this public sentiment and make it potent 
at the coming Hague Conference, 
through the distinguished men who are 
to represent .us there, toward carrying 
the work of organizing justice and peace 
among the nations done by the First 
Hague Conference to the highest possible 
degree of completeness. 

The congress is as a matter of course 
arousing the deep interest of all humane 
men throughout the nation. None more 
than charity workers desires to see the 
Hague Conference a conspicuous success. 
They believe, with Charles Sumner, that 
"Peace is the grand Christian charity, 
the fountain and parent of all other char- 

The movement of which the Hague 
Conference is the largest and most prom- 


The Thaw Trial 


ising public expression, is now almost 
universally recognized to be the greatest 
philanthropic movement of the age. For 
war not only loads the peoples of the 
world with enormous fiscal burdens year 
after year ; it also sows broadcast every- 
where the seeds of suffering and misery. 
One or two examples will suffice to make 
this clear. 

According to the report of the special 
government committee appointed to in- 
vestigate the matter, the recent war be- 
tween Russia and Japan has left in Rus- 
sia alone two hundred and twenty thou- 
sand orphans. There must be nearly as 
many in Japan, so many of whose best 
men fell at Port Arthur and on the fields 
of Manchuria. Four hundred thousand 
orphans are, and for a long time will be, 
a great burden on the charity resources 
of the two nations. The Russian govern- 
ment, which has made these orphans of 
Russia, has been able to appropriate to 
the committee for their care only the piti- 
ful sum of seven dollars per child ! 

When General Booth investigated the 
conditions in London, prior to writing In 
Darkest England, he found that one-fifth 
of all the out-of-works in and about the 
city had come to misery through the mili- 
tary system. The situation on the Euro- 
pean continent is of course much worse, 
where the yearly burdens of the "armed 
peace" are very great, and the debt rest- 
ing upon the nations is not less than five 
hundred dollars per family for the whole 
body of the European peoples. 

The charity movement has for its chief 
aim, not to furnish temporary relief sim- 
ply, but to remove the causes of poverty 
and want. This can never be done, ex- 
cept perhaps in the most local and frag- 
mentary way, so long as war and mili- 
tarism continue. These, as in Russia, are 
continually swelling the masses of the 
unfortunate while at the same time they 
reduce to a wretched minimum the power 
to furnish succor. 

All charity workers, therefore, must 
feel that the peace movement is peculiar- 
ly their movement. Many of the fore- 
most of them are already leaders in the 
effort to organize permanent peace 
among the nations, and thus to let loose 
for the material and moral welfare of 

men the colossal sums now every year 
swallowed up in competitive arming. 
They all ought certainly to be earnest and 
active peacemakers, and will as a body 
without doubt contribute the best service 
of which they are capable not only to 
render the National Peace Congress a 
great and memorable success, but also to 
make the Peace Conference at The 
Hague this summer the beginning of the 
end of what has fittingly been described 
as "the greatest of human evils." 

The Thaw Trial 


1 J. Barrows 

There are many social and moral . as- 
pects of the Thaw trial. The evidence 
presented has a direct bearing upon social 
conditions. It is not the purpose of the 
writer to call attention to what seem 
obvious moral lessons from this trial, 
but simply to some of its legal phases. 

Important criminal trials often turn 
on the question whether the defendant 
really committed the act with which he 
was charged. In such cases the rules 
of evidence have great importance both 
in developing the real facts of the case and 
in protecting the prisoner from the vaga- 
ries and guess work of circumstantial 
evidence. In the Thaw trial, the deed 
was admitted from the start, and it took 
but a few minutes to establish the death 
of White by the defendant by direct evi- 

Under the penal code of New York 
homicide is either murder, manslaughter, 
excusable homicide, or justifiable homi- 
cide. Homicide is excusable when it ac- 
cidentally occurs in doing a lawful act. 
It is justifiable when committed by a 
public officer in the execution of the law 
or in self defense. 

Neither of these forms of excuse or 
justification applied to the Thaw case 
nor was even advanced. The de- 
fense attempted to secure acquittal by 
another definition of justifiable homicide 
not found in the code of New York 
and characterized as "the unwritten 
law." It is a tradition which 
long has had vogue in the South and 
under which many murderers have been 
acquitted. The acquittal of General 


Charities and The Commons 

Sickles for the killing of Key is a notable 
instance. It was hard, however, in the 
Thaw case to bring his act in the classi- 
fication of that of the wronged husband, 
and the appeal to the unwritten law 
seems to have had little or no effect upon 
the jury. 

The important question raised was 
whether Thaw was responsible when he 
committed the murder and whether he 
was sane during the trial. Under the code 
of New York as under those of all civi- 
lized countries, if his insanity at the time 
of committing the deed could have been 
established he could not have been de- 
clared guilty or if his insanity during the 
trial had been established he would have 
been committed to an asylum for the 
criminal insane. While the defense un- 
dertook to establish that Thaw was in- 
sane at the time of committing the act, to 
avoid sending him to Matteawan it main- 
tained that he is not insane now. 

The district attorney, on the other 
hand, became convinced that Thaw is an 
irresponsible paranoiac, inspired by de- 
lusions which operated at the time of the 
murder and which still afflict him. In 
the majority of cases the defense in a 
murder trial would have welcomed such 
a conclusion on the part of the prosecut- 
ing attorney, as it would have saved their 
client from the electric chair. Thaw's 
counsel, however, were content with 
nothing but their client's release. The 
effort of the district attorney to secure a 
commission was successful. Para- 
doxical as it seems when considered path- 
ologically, the single question the com- 
mission had to decide was whether 
Thaw at the time of the trial was compe- 
tent to advise counsel and was therefore 
sane. The commission decided that he 
was sane. The district attorney was 
then forced to treat the defendant on the 
hypothesis that he was legally responsi- 
ble. The jury disagreed on the ques- 
tion of responsibility and the trial came 
to naught. 

The trial raises afresh questions which 

have long been discussed by societies of 
medical jurisprudence. 

It is evident that the present definition 
of insanity in the code of New York is 
fundamentally defective, both from the 
standpoint of justice to the prisoner and 
the protection of society. While the 
New York code declares that a person 
cannot be tried or sentenced or punished 
for a crime while he is in a state of 
idiocy, imbecility, lunacy, or insanity, it 
declares that a person is not excused 
from criminal liability unless he was la- 
boring under such a defect of reason as 
either not to know the nature and quality 
of the act he is doing or not to know that 
the act is wrong. It is characteristic of 
the paranoiac that he may know the na- 
ture of the act he is doing and know that 
it is wrong, but he cannot withstand the 
impulse. The whole history of Thaw's 
life tends to show that he was such a 
paranoiac or what is known as a moral 
idiot, who ought long ago to have been 
placed under proper restraint. It is time 
that this seriously defective definition of 
insanity should give place to one which 
is more scientific. Under such a defini- 
tion and under a rational legal proced- 
ure it should have taken not more than 
two or three days at most to show that 
Thaw was a dangerous person to be at 
large. Without any hairsplitting as to 
motives, the simple fact that he killed a 
man, not in self-defense, is presumptive 
evidence that he is dangerous to be at 

The jury could not frame any defini- 
tion of insanity not contained in the law. 
It is a psychological impossibility, how- 
ever, not to be influenced by the punish- 
ment prescribed in the code for the of- 
fense. The electric chair is responsible 
in this as in many other cases for a fail- 
ure to protect society against a danger- 
ous criminal. 

Mr. Jerome deserves great credit for 
his conduct of the case and it is unfortu- 
nate that the law of the state is so de- 
fective that it furnishes the district attor- 
ney no adequate support. 

A Prog'ram of Social WorK 

Simon N. Patten 
Professor of Political E,conomy, University of Pennsylvania 

There can be no permanent progress 
until poverty has been eliminated, for 
then only will the normally evolving man, 
(dominant through numbers and keen 
mental powers, force adjustments, gene- 
ration by generation, which will raise 
the general level of intellect and char- 
acter. And when poverty is gone, the 
last formidable obstacle to the upward 
movement of the race will have disap- 
peared. Our children's children may 
learn with amazement how we thought it 
a natural social phenomenon that men 
should die in their prime, leaving wives 
and children in terror of want ; that acci- 
dents should make an army of maimed 
dependents; that there should not be 
enough houses for workers ; and that epi- 
demics should sweep away multitudes as 
autumn frost sweeps away summer in- 
sects. They will wonder that the uni- 
versal sadness of such a world should 
have appealed to our transient sympa- 
thies but did not absorb our widest in- 
terests. They will ask why there was 
some hope of succor for those whose 
miseries passed for a moment before the 
eyes of the tender-hearted, but none for 
the dwellers beyond the narrow horizon 
within which pity moves. And they will 
be unable to put themselves in our places, 
because the new social philosophy which 
we are this moment framing will have 
so moulded their minds that they cannot 
return to the philosophy that moulds 

It is for us to unite the social activities 
— whose motive forces are charity, re- 
ligion, philanthropy, revolt, and unrest — 
into a philosophy that is social and not 
sectional, in that it gives to them all a 
reorganized rational body of evidence 
upon which to proceed. They will then 
understand each other while doing the 
work that transforms the world into a 

l A chapter from Prof. Patten's forthcoming hook, 
The New Basis of Civilization, embodying his address 
under the Kennedy Lectureship before the New York 
School of Philanthropy. The book comes from the 
press this month. 

Copyright, 1907. 

place worth living in. It was a percep- 
tion that to sympathy and charitable im- 
pulse must be added knowledge and skill 
which founded the school of philan- 
thropy. If the social worker would be 
a social philosopher and the reformer a 
builder as well as a destroyer, he must 
know how to use the matter and the 
spirit that make the philanthropies, the 
trades unions, the settlements, the insti- 
tutional churches, and the theatres. Eco- 
nomists groping among the formula? of 
deficit are surprised and overtaken by 
the new world, and statesmen are be- 
wildered by the surge of the new de- 
mocracy of industrial liberty against the 
barriers of class. But these difficulties 
only prove that the new civilization will 
be ready as soon as social work has 
been made a science and is practised with 
knowledge and ideals which make clear 
to the statesman who directs and the 
workman who produces the treasures in 
health and happiness and safety of the 
new time. 

There still continues, I fear, a feeling 
of impatience on the part of social work- 
ers with the philosophy that lies at the 
basis of their activities. The books they 
read or the lectures they hear start out 
well and often kindle a real enthusiasm, 
but in the end they leave the confused 
worker in a quagmire of contradictions 
far from the points of real interest. 
The hearer may have had a pleasant 
evening, but the morning dawns with no 
new light on the work of the day. Can 
the pleasure of the evening be transform- 
ed into enthusiasm for work? Is there 
any relation between thought and prac- 
tice? A social philosophy should fur- 
nish a hand-book that might be on the 
desk of every worker, however humble, 
and from which might be drawn the 
principles and examples that fit the work 
of the day. Is this true or can it be 
made true of the newer social philosophy 
that is just beginning to gain expound- 
The Macmillan Co. 



Charities and The Commons 

April 20 

ers ? The impulses of the thinker are 
the same as those that inspire the worker, 
and the environment he studies coin- 
cides with that within which the worker 
toils. The gulf between them need not 
exist. It will cease when the thought 
of to-day is so stated that the worker 
may comprehend it. This however is no 
light task, but it is worth a trial even 
if it fails. 

The striking aspect of the recent de- 
velopment of thought is the changing 
concept concerning the part heredity 
plays in life. Men have been trained 
from the earliest times to attach great 
importance to the influence of blood de- 
scent upon racial and individual char- 
acter. Some families and peoples are 
said to be inherently superior to others, 
because they have possessed, generation 
after generation, well-marked qualities 
which others did not have. The differ- 
ences between them were readily ex- 
plained by heredity, so readily, in fact, 
that more influence was soon given to 
ancestry than to the environment into 
which a man was born. This unequal 
division of power seems to be destroyed 
by recent discoveries in biology, which 
are establishing a new equilibrium be- 
tween natural or inherited qualities and 
those acquired after birth. Many quali- 
ties are inherited, but the number is 
smaller than it was thought to be, and 
many of them may be readily suppressed 
by the action of the environment in 
which men live, so that they do not 
show themselves for long periods in a 
particular family or a given race. This 
curtailment of the force of physical he- 
redity gives more power to the acquired 
qualities handed on from generation to 
generation as a social tradition. A 
physical inheritance, simpler than we 
thought, is ours at birth; but there is a 
larger and increasingly important social 
heredity which must be constantly re- 
newed through the conscious efforts of 
parents and teachers. 

The recognition of man's power over 
heredity is equalled by the perception of 
his power over nature as it is shown by 
his achievements in industry. Food is 
abundant, income grows, the machines 
do the old drudgeries. That work is 

pleasant, the environment is good, and 
human nature is a group of ennobling 
qualities, are now axioms that contrast 
the new thought with the old philosophy 
of deficit so long taught and so ardently 
defended. The depraved man is not the 
natural man; for in him the natural is 
suppressed beneath a crushing load 
of misfortunes, superstitions, and ill- 
fitting social conventions. But in spite 
of the good hope that follows, elation is 
replaced by dejection as soon as we re- 
member that poverty is scarcely miti- 
gated by prosperity. The normal quali- 
ties of human nature are modified so 
slowly and under such complex condi- 
tions that the reformer often believes 
himself helpless to make the improve- 
ments he longs for. The biologists do 
not encourage him, if he looks to them 
for help, for they say it is a matter of 
ages to engraft a new characteristic up- 
on humanity. If this indeed is true we 
can create neither virtues nor heroes nor 
genius. We can be no more than watch- 
ers of changes as slow and inevitable as 
the subsidences and elevations of the 
earth's surfaces. 

Now look at the brighter side. It is, 
without doubt, more difficult than was 
once believed to lift a man with normal 
faculties to a higher plane of existence ; 
but it is far easier than we have thought 
to raise a man below the general level 
of humanity up to it. There are no dif- 
ferences between him and his normal 
neighbors which cannot be rapidly ob- 
literated. He does not lack their blood, 
but their health, their vigor, their good 
fortune, their culture, and their environ- 
ment. The doctrine which teaches that 
evolution is the slowest of moving forces 
also teaches that the distinctions between 
men on the two sides of the line of pov- 
erty are frailer than we have been led to 
believe. The faculties and social quali- 
ties of human nature were implanted in 
it before the beginnings of history; but 
health, vigor, and good fortune are de- 
termined by to-day's environment. Pov- 
erty is not rooted in a debased heredity 
nor in a world-wide lack of work. The 
motives of the unfortunate have weak- 
ened while the inclinations of standard 
men to labor have remained strong 


A Program of Social Work 


enough to lead them to efficient activity. 
The men in whom energy is sapped, or 
who have been the victims of misfor- 
tune, are a class in which the normal 
race stimuli are failing to act. The loaf 
of bread, the cigar, the theater ticket 
held before men as rewards to work 
remain inducements only until they have 
been consumed. Zeal wanes as they are 
used up, and will not steadily flow again 
except from a fund of surplus energy 
that in its exit sharpens imagination and 
revives the drooping faculties. Give 
rain and crops grow ; give surplus energy 
and men become spontaneously efficient. 
Land is the slow accumulation of past 
ages as the faculties of men are the sum 
of the slow changes in heredity. Both 
are what the past has bequeathed, and 
both are useless unless vitalized by ma- 
terial within the present. Rain is a small 
part of the aggregate of conditions upon 
which crops depend, but all the others 
are valueless in drought. And so is 
energy a small fraction of the powers of 
normal man; lacking it, however, his 
manifold faculties fail to function. The 
depletion of energy, induced and aggra- 
vated by misfortunes, is the crucial dis- 
tinction between poverty and normal 
men. Upon the heels of misfortune fol- 
low superstitions and ill-fitting social 
conventions, which intensify growing dif- 
ferences by the mental habits they entail. 
And thus it comes about that differences 
which at bottom are wholly objective 
form peculiarities in thought that seem 
to denote a specialized mental heredity in 
the more fortunate of the race. But 
health, vigor, and right conditions would 
soon change all this, and race types would 
fade with the differences between en- 
vironments and the quantities of energy 
within them. When sanitation, good 
housing, and shorter hours of work have 
generated enough energy to release 
starving faculties, poverty men will ad- 
just themselves as capably as normal 
men and will also appreciate culture and 
morality. Poverty men are primitive 
men cowed by hardships, and they must 
be encouraged by methods that stir 
primitive people to deeds that seem to be 
heroic ard marvelous. The opportunity 
to perforin thrilling and dramatic feats 

is taken wherever accidents happen and 
the lazy or incapable passer-by is trans- 
formed into an eager worker. Of such 
a sort was an habitual vagrant, who, 
having persistently refused offers of work 
and evaded his family responsibilities, 
was being taken to court by an officer, 
when flames burst through the windows 
of a house they were passing. He broke 
away from the policeman, dashed into 
the blinding smoke, and came out half 
carrying two stupefied women. He then 
returned to the officer and went on to re- 
ceive a loafer's punishment. Which was 
the fundamental man, the laggard in 
work or the hero in a life-and-death 
struggle? He had "bad habits," but far 
deeper in him lay noble instincts and 
swift, accurate reactions to duties which 
he understood. In common with most 
men, he was instantly responsive and 
energetic in a sudden interesting situa- 
tion. But the indirect action, the round- 
about methods of the industrial world, 
did not stimulate. The imagination that 
vivifies remote deeds and makes their re- 
wards worth while is feeble in men de- 
pleted by physical losses or untrained in 
industrial methods which necessitate ap- 
plication and foresight. A dramatic 
summons is worth more than hours of 
advice to the unawakened man. 

A girl of the streets who had adopted 
crime as a profession, because life in a 
ribbon factory did not interest her, was 
committed to a reformatory and assigned 
to active labor in the gardens and 
grounds. Her enjoyment of it was keen, 
and her work so excellent that she soon 
became boss of an out-of-door squad. At 
the end of her term she said that there 
was no use of being "bad" now that she 
had a chance to live in the country and 
do the things she had always wanted to 
do. Which is the real woman, the vic- 
ious prostitute or the bright worker ris- 
ing on the first opportunity to become 
efficient? What shall we say of the 
governor who vetoed an appropriation 
which would have built hot-houses where 
the market demand for gardeners could 
have been supplied from trained prison- 
ers? Is he right in believing that bad 
girls are always bad and that their resto- 
ration to health and safe surroundings 


Charities and The Commons 

April 20 

by training them to meet the demand for 
employes was not an economy to a great 
state ? 

The poor are not alone in the search 
for vivid inducements to be active. The 
leisure class stimulates its vitality by 
amusements fetched from far and near. 
Hunting, racing, dancing, banqueting, 
and the exercise of power are direct ex- 
citements which make them energetic. 
Danger and dissipation move them as 
their ancestors were moved when they 
fought hand to hand with animals and 
men. The perilous speed of an auto- 
mobile arouses strong emotions that 
normal life fails to waken. These emo- 
tions, expressed through pleasure by the 
well-to-do, are such as poverty men need 
to make them work with enjoyment. It 
is as necessary to educate the rich to an 
appreciation of indirect distant gratifi- 
cations as it is to teach the poor to under- 
stand the values in work at more than 
one remove from the object of desire. 
Efficiency is indirect work; generosity is 
indirect enjoyment. Both are stages in 
the same process of reviving the imagina- 
tion so that it arouses action and emo- 
tion. A rich man who never gives is as 
abnormal as the poor man who never 
works. The shell of self-interest has 
never been pierced by a shaft strong 
enough to free the flood of sympathy 
and good-will beneath it. And most 
forms of organized philanthropy, relig- 
ion, and education fail to sink that shaft 
because they do not use vivid methods 
of appeal to indifferent men. The pub- 
lic is moved to give money to a hospital 
because the rush of the ambulance be- 
tokens swift, full rescue from disaster 
or death. But a charitable society too 
often seems to delay aid until it shall have 
filled its schedules of investigations. The 
man in the street is only touched to quick 
pity and generosity by dramatic appeal 
for the succor of victims of earthquake, 
disease, fire, and horrible accident. The 
road from this spasmodic giving to 
steady systematic relief aimed at the 
sources of poverty must be brightened 
by flashlight pictures of charitable work 
done as promptly as an ambulance corps 
does its work on a battlefield. Society 
needs more emotion and clearer motive 

rather than more income with which to 
regenerate itself. 

It therefore becomes the social work- 
er's first task to discover how faculties 
may be made active, how industry may 
be stimulated, and how men may be sur- 
rounded — rich and poor alike — with con- 
ditions that shall renew energy and after 
every expenditure of it bring it back 
greater than it went out. The measure 
of increase is the freshness of imagina- 
tion and the keenness of motive. There 
is, moreover, another task of equal mag- 
nitude. The social worker must examine 
himself to learn whether or no his own 
motives and emotions are powerful 
enough to break the traditions that bind 
him. Does not he also neglect the dis- 
tant good, and treat superficial symptoms 
of disorder? And, most futile attempt 
of all, does he not struggle to create new 
traits and to construct new social con- 
ventions when he should be striving to 
make men free by removing the pressure 
that stifles feeling and disintegrates 
motive? Let us have more confidence 
in what nature has implanted in heredity 
and less in what we as individuals can 
add to it. Our own forms of culture, 
our own religion, and our own system of 
morality seem to be the embodiment of 
fixed ideals which alone can lift men 
above the commonplace level of their 
fellows. Therefore we are urgent in 
transferring this body of practice to the 
poor in the hope that it will affect their 
lives as it has ours. But have we first 
aroused the imagination and trained it 
so that these ideals will attract and hold 
them? Have they the energy, function- 
ing in a proper environment, which will 
start them toward remote rewards that 
are not at the moment very desirable? 
The means of progress are material; its 
ends are ideal. We will reach the ends 
only when we lose sight of them in the 
struggle for material improvements. 

The truth of this is partially seen by 
social workers, but they do not yet see 
as clearly as they should the distinction 
between the regeneration of the poverty 
class and the progress of normal men. 
The aim of social work is democracy 
rather than culture; energy rather than 
virtue; health rather than income; effi- 


A Program of Social Work 


ciency rather than goodness; and social 
standards for all rather than genius and 
opportunity for the few. It may be 
shocking to put these contrasts so forci- 
bly ; I do it, not to depreciate the old ideals 
closely associated with progress, but to 
make emphatic the means by which they 
are reached. In whatever direction pro- 
gress may seem to lie, an ideal has been 
erected as the prize to be striven for 
which shines forth in our thoughts; but 
the means of reaching it are not also 
made vivid. And therefore we honor 
the herculean toilers who strive to cut 
direct roads toward the goal of the ideal. 
We encourage self-denial when we should 
encourage self-expression. We try to 
suppress vices when we should release 
virtues. We laud country life when we 
should strive for the improvement of 
cities. We judge the poor by their family 
history when we should judge them by 
their latent powers. We impose penal- 
ties when we should offer rewards. We 
ask for the gratitude of the poor when 
we ought to point out their rights to 
them. We dwell too long upon the weak- 
nesses of the man who drinks and too 
little upon why the saloon remains at the 
corner. Too heavy stress is laid on the 
duties of parents to children and too 
little upon the obligations of teachers, 
authors, editors, and doctors, who do, 
in fact, exercise a stronger influence on 
the health and character of a city child 
than its parents can. We also overesti- 
mate the power of the home to mould 
its members, and in consequence neglect 
to utilize the institutions of city life. We 
rely on restraint to shape the characters 
of boys when we should be thinking of 
their recreations. As the city home be- 
comes smaller its unity is interfered 
with. The functions it loses are taken 
over by the growing town, and in their 
exercise is to be found the process of 
character making which was carried on 
in the older form of the isolated home. 
The farmer knew his farm on which his 
sons grew up ; the wife knew the house, 
yard, and garden in which her daughters 
carried on their varied industries. Father 
and mother were then the natural 
guides. But now they may never see the 
parts of the city in which their children 

work or know of their amusements and 
temptations. Social workers should 
idealize and purify the city for this new 
occupation by the young as the moralists 
have long sought to preserve the safety 
of the home. In this transitional period 
we cannot expect as much aid from the 
church and Sunday-school as from the 
newspaper and the political party. They 
are the agencies by which men transform 
local abuses into justice and through 
which men secure the reforms for which 
they ask. 

Character is acquired by example, not 
by blood; by the activities and amuse- 
ments in the shop and street, not by the 
restraints of church and home. The new 
morality does not consist in saving, but 
in expanding consumption ; not in drain- 
ing men of their energy, but in storing 
up a surplus in the weak and young; not 
in the process of hardening, but in ex- 
tending the period of recreation and 
leisure; not in the thought of the 
future, but in the utilization and expan- 
sion of the present. We lack efficiency, 
not capital; pleasures, not goods; keen 
present interests, not solemn warnings of 
future woes; courage to live joyous lives, 
not remorse, sacrifice, and renunciation. 
The morality of restraint comes later 
than the morality of activity; for men 
need restraint only after poverty disap- 
pears. And hence we must return with 
renewed emphasis to the thought that 
social work has to do with the means 
of progress and not with its ends. But 
the ideals of progress have become so in- 
corporated into our thought that we in- 
stinctively place them in the foreground 
and neglect the activity which must open 
the way to them. 

Progress in thought is obtained by a 
change from conventional standards to 
ideal standards. Conventions are a 
weight that the distant past has placed 
on us. Ideals project us into an equally 
distant future. There are ideals but no 
ideal activities, because the ideal is 
thought projected into the future while 
activity is in the present and must always 
go out toward the next thing, not toward 
the distant thing. Activities are either 
self-centred or social. We can have a 
selfish programme or we can have a 


Charities and The Commons 

April 20 

social programme, but we cannot have 
an ideal programme ; for programmes re- 
late to activities and not to thought. 
"Hitch your wagon to a star," is a great 
thought well expressed, but no one can 
work out a programme by which it can 
be done. We often see well-deserving 
movements start out with flying ban- 
ners, happy phrases, and great enthu- 
siasm, only to find the road to the stars 
blocked at the first hillside. To be ef- 
fective ideal constructive thought must 
be transferred into practical social work, 
and hence the need of the contrast be- 
tween ideal ends and the indirect means 
by which they are reached. Many illus- 
trations might be given, but I content 
myself with a table in which some of 
these contrasts are given and by which 
one may judge of his natural inclina- 
tions and the cogency of my criticisms. 

Do you desire the evolution of character? 
Would you help to create new and high- 
er virtues? Are you more zealous for 
new forms of art than for the spread of 
what we have ? Do you believe that prog- 
ress comes through genius and heroes 
or through many slight improvements 
in the lot of the multitudes ? Then prog- 
ress and culture is your goal, and you 
should strive for them by direct means. 
But if you acknowledge kinship with the 
masses, have faith in humanity and 
would strive for its elevation, regenera- 
tion should be your watchword, and you 
should promote the interests of the weak 
rather than to give nurture to the strong. 
When a social worker accepts this creed 
and no longer searches for superman, 
he soon finds that regeneration is pre- 
vented not by defects in personality, but 
by defects in the environment, and that 


The Indirect Means 

National Prosperity 







Pleasurable Work 





Admiration of Power 

Admiration of Results 




Social Control 












City Life 

Woman's Purity 

Woman's Ability 

Support of Women 

Their Work and Energy 

History of Failures 

Chart of Capacity 

A chart like the foregoing helps to 
classify the different kinds of social en- 
deavor and to distinguish the field of the 
social worker from those of the moralist, 
the artist, the idealist, and other advo- 
cates of higher standards. The social 
worker prepares the ground, pulls the 
weeds, and builds shelter for the weak. 
The idealists tend the flowers, cultivate 
the tender fruits, and erect delicate build- 
ings to house art, pleasure, and worship. 
Democracy wins for the masses what evo- 
lution and struggle have given to the few. 

the subjective tests of character to which 
he has been accustomed must be replaced 
by objective standards which test the en- 
vironment. We need not work for re- 
generation; it will of itself flow from 
sources we neither create nor control. 
But we do need to work for the removal 
of external conditions, which by sup- 
pressing and distorting human nature 
give to vice the power that virtue should 

I have laid stress on the self-examina- 
tion that the social worker should im- 


A Program of Social Work 


pose on himself. I want to make it 
equally emphatic that no such test should 
be applied to poverty men. Their mo- 
tives, their vices, and their family history 
should not be made prominent in the 
tests applied to them. They are what 
they are because of their situation, which 
gives them no opportunity to express 
their inherent but suppressed qualities. 
We must establish objective standards of 
efficiency of energy and of living drawn 
from those who have been released from 
poverty. It is not necessary to measure 
the differences in character and virtue 
between normal men and those on the 
verge of poverty; it is enough to deter- 
mine the differences in environment and 
in the social standards surrounding these 
two classes. The virtues, the powers, 
and the energies of the poor will ap- 
proximate those of the prosperous when 
the conditions and social standards of 
the two classes are the same. We must 
go beyond the tests of personality and 
family so often employed and set up the 
standard of each locality as the norm by 
which the defects and shortcomings of 
the poor are to be measured. Without 
such standards social workers cannot de- 
termine how much of the poverty about 
them is due to the ignorance and ineffi- 
ciency of the poor, and how much to 
exploitation by their employers; nor can 
they fix the responsibility of the state in 
caring for the health and welfare of its 
citizens. What wages must a workman 
have in order to be a happy, useful mem- 
ber of his community, and what must 
the state contribute to this end? These 
are not vague questions to be answered 
by some preconceived theory; they de- 
mand an actual investigation in each 
locality and city — which should take pre- 
cedence over all inquiries into problems 
of relief, sympathy, or betterment, for 
no relief or betterment is effective that 
leaves the person aided below the stand- 
ard of his fellows. Each social move- 
ment should be measured by the number 
of independent self-supporting families 

it makes. A failure to reach this ob- 
jective end means a failure everywhere, 
for the work must be done again and 
again until the advantages of independ- 
ence and efficiency are reached. Nor is 
it so difficult as it seems to measure the 
standard of living in a locality; it re- 
quires merely a transference of interest 
from the history and lives of the poor to 
their environment, their food, and their 
work. A case is not completely record- 
ed by the account of their failures and 
woes. Back of them is the crushing 
force of those external conditions which 
should be on our schedules even more 
fully than the items of personal history 
and misfortune. Measure the conditions 
of the poor objectively and relieve them 
fully. Only thus will poverty disappear 
and democracy be created in which every 
one is independent and free. 

The Boston Industrial Exhibit, similar to 
those already held in Philadelphia and Chi- 
cago, closed on April 14, after a successful 
week. A detailed account of the exhibit 
will be published in a later issue. 

At the last of the local monthly conferences 
of New York charity workers on April 16, 
Mrs. A. D. Farnum of Milwaukee spoke on 
the penny lunches for school children in 
that city. Five lunch kitchens were started 
in different parts of the city the first winter. 
Principals of schools reported that there was 
less illness and a carefully compiled report 
showed the decrease in illness during the 
two years of the lunch kitchens below the 
average of the ten years previous. During 
the third and present year the system has 
been extended by establishing three more 
lunch stations. Playgrounds and recreation 
centers were described by George B. Mark- 
ham, principal of one of the New York cen- 
ters. Good manners and respect for author- 
ity are taught through marching for several 
minutes and a talk on some civic subject is 
given. Patriotism is roused through salut- 
ing the flag and singing national songs. 
The children are then divided into groups 
on a self-governing basis. At each center 
there is a traveling library of 100 books and 
a game room. Shower baths have also been 
included for use in the summer months. 
The work costs $70,000, as compared to the 
city's $35,000,000 school budget and the ag- 
gregate attendance for Manhattan is 1,077,000 
at thirty-one centers. 

Treatment of Dependents and Defectives 

Pennsylvania During the past few weeks a 
and meeting of alienists was held 

the Insane. in Philadelphia. It included 
Dr. Lamb, superintendent of the New York 
State Asylum for the Criminal Insane; Dr. 
Flood, an eminent student of epilepsy; Dr. 
Mary Wolfe, chief physician of the women's 
department at the Norristown State Hospi- 
tal for the Insane, and many others. 

The meeting was the result of a desire 
for a change of management in the care of 
the insane. Not only did those present rec- 
ommend to the legislature improvements in 
many of the institutions of the state but 
some, they declared, should be razed and 
new buildings, equipped according to the 
twentieth century ideas, substituted. 

Dr. Fitzsimmons characterized some of 
the institutions such as Danville, and War- 
ren as built upon plans 400 years old when 
the insane were regarded as those punished 
by God. He said: 

"The modern hospital should be a two- 
story building, with plenty of sun parlors 
and well lighted, and hydro-therapeutic 
treatment should be provided in every in- 
stance. This treatment, which consists of 
various kinds of baths, has been found to be 
the best agency for the cure of the insane, 
but none of the old hospitals in the state, ex- 
cept that at Warren, is equipped for it. 
Warren has one of the best-equipped estab- 
lishments of this kind in the country. 

The general trend of the evidence submit- 
ted to the commision was to the effect that, 
Pennsylvania is far behind the times in the 
care of the insane. Old-style asylums, they 
all declared, are unfit for the proper treat- 
ment of insanity. Cottage buildings, with 
small dormitories, instead of great dormito- 
ries and cell-like rooms, they declared to be 
the only proper method of construction. All 
favored regular fire drills for both patients 
and attendants. This seems to be the only 
state where these drills are not given regu- 
larly. All asylums should be of fireproof 
construction, with plenty of exits for the pa- 
tients. In addition to this, the attendants 
should be required regularly to drill them- 
selves and their patients into speedily leav- 
ing a building in case of danger. 

Dr. Spratling gave it as his opinion that 
all persons able to work should have that 
opportunity. In New York State many of 
the patients in public institutions are em- 
ployed, and the excess product made by them 
is sold to other institutions in the state. 
At Sonyea they do everything from making 
bricks to knitting stockings. Their brick 
plant produces 500,000 bricks a year, which 
may be used in the building of additions to 
the institution. Dr. Spratling also favored 
paying patients for the work they perform, 
in order that they might be relieved of the 


feeling of being pauperized by being cared 
for at the expense of the state and being 
unable to contribute anything to the support 
of their families or to their own comfort and 
enjoyment. Any wholesome employment, 
particularly out-of-door work, which tended 
to stimulate the patients with the idea that 
they were, even in a measure, self-suppor- 
ing, he considered an admirable means to- 
ward effecting a cure. 

The greater number of the 
Legislature! recommendations, regarding 

needed legislation, of the 
Indiana Board of State Charities have been 
adopted. Altogether thirty-six bills relat- 
ing to charities passed both houses. Most 
of these have been approved by the gov- 
ernor. Some of these were preventive legis- 
lation dealing largely with children, others 
related to private charities and others to the 
public institutions. In each of these classes 
important measures were passed. In legis- 
lation for children will be noted the bill de- 
fining dependent and neglected children and 
providing for the punishment of those who 
neglect them, also providing that all chil- 
dren who hereafter become public charges 
upon the counties must be so decreed by the 
judge of the Juvenile Court (the judge of 
the Circuit Court is judge of the Juvenile 
Court ex officio in all counties except Mar- 
ion) ; that providing for the trial of those 
who contribute to the delinquency of chil- 
dren in the Juvenile Court; making deser- 
tion of wife and children a felony; extend- 
ing the age of consent to sixteen years; pro- 
viding that the judge may try juvenile de- 
linquents in vacation; providing that the 
judge may try cases before the Board of 
Children's Guardians and where a cir- 
cuit includes two or more counties that 
he may appoint a judge pro tern during his 
absence on official business in another 
county. The per diem allowance to orphans' 
homes for taking care of and finding homes 
for children was increased to thirty-five 

The law providing for uniform boards 
of four members for sixteen state institu- 
tions, is one which is valuable in placing 
them upon a more satisfactory basis. With 
uniform boards, the same salary to all mem- 
bers, uniform authority to the superintend- 
ents, including that of the appointment and 
discharge of all officers and employes, non- 
partisan organization of the institutions, 
their conduct upon the merit system, the 
prohibition of campaign assessments, the re- 
sult should be of much benefit to the state 
institutions as a whole. The law for the 
purchase of land for the establishment of a 
hospital for consumptives is another ad- 

Treatment of Dependents and Defectives 

J o5 

vance upon which the state may well be 

Of this year's laws the most radical are 
the provision that dependent children, in 
order to be chargeable upon the public, must 
be decreed so by the Juvenile Court and 
the law for sterilizing imbeciles and crim- 
inals. The contributory delinquency law 
which brings the adult offender under the 
jurisdiction of the juvenile court, and the 
contributory dependency law which pun- 
ishes those who bring about child depend- 
ence are new and salutary. 

The governor of Ohio has in- 
T ?n Ohio" 6 structed the trustees of the 

Cleveland State Hospital for 
the Insane to investigate the charges of 
cruelty, and declares he will hold them re- 
sponsible for remedying abuses if they have 
occurred. The trustees have found that 
many of the charges were true and the 
grand jury of Athens county has returned 
indictments against five former employes, — 
three for murder in the second degree, and 
two for assault and battery. When will 
trustees feel their responsibility to the ex- 
tent of discovering abuses and prosecuting 
officials before a public scandal calls their 
attention to their most evident and sacred 

Governor Deneen has a fight 
In Illinois. on his hands within his own 
party. The speaker of the 
house is making politics out of the govern- 
or's attempts to reform the care of the in- 
sane. He began by fighting the hospital 
clinics, which the State Board of Charities 
and the governor were promoting with the 
laudable purpose of teaching practicing 
physicians how to detect the early symp- 
toms of insanity. He now has discovered 
some alleged illegal use of funds by the 
trustees of a state hospital in providing 
needed fire protection for one of the hos- 
pitals which the Board of Charities declared 
was a fire-trap. 

One of the superintendents 
In New Jersey, of county asylums for the 

insane says it is easier to 
commit a person to an insane hospital than 
to a county almshouse. He thinks there 
are some people "who are incapable of dis- 
tinguishing between a fee and a bribe." 
(Has he been reading the testimony in the 
Thaw case?) 

The grand jury of Rockland 

ln stZu.° rk count y nas indicted the 
owner of a private insane 
asylum at Nyack for conducting the insti- 
tution without a license from the State 
Lunacy Commission. Surely there can be 
no more certain principle than that every 
institution in which any person is held 
against his will, must be licensed and closely 
inspected by a state agent or commission. 

The penalty in such a case ought to be 
heavy enough to be absolutely deterrent 
of such offences. 

The political job that gave Ike Baker, Jr., 
$42,000 for a hilly farm worth less than one- 
fourth that sum, in an inaccessible location, 
upon which to build a hospital for the in- 
sane, it seems does not end with that pay- 
ment. The thrifty Mr. Baker reserved 
eighty acres upon which he proposes to 
build a village with stores and a bank. The 
bank he wants to run himself. The business 
of the village is to come from the hospital, 
its five or six hundred employes, and" the 
4,000 inmates, and their visiting friends. 
Until Mr. Baker's hospital shall be built, 
his friends in the Legislature will obstruct 
provision for the insane of Manhattan, who 
surely will not and can not be sent up to 
Washington county. As the cost of a water 
supply for the "Ike Baker, Jr. Hospital," is 
estimated at $8,000 more than has been 
paid for the site, Dr. Pilgrim and the 
Lunacy Commission think the first loss is 
enough; they do not want to throw away 
good money after bad. The Manhattan 
Hospital on Ward's Island is on leased 
ground and some of its buildings are of a 
temporary nature. The situation is an em- 
barrassing one, for somebody. A proposal 
to buy Baker off for half a million could not 
be entertained; still it would pay the state to 
do it if that were the only alternative to 
building the hospital up there on the Ver- 
mont line. 

The idea of preventing re- 
S of r insane n production of insane persons 

is contained in a bill before 
the Wisconsin legislature, which proposes 
to create an examining board of three per- 
sons; a physician, a lawyer and a neurolo- 
gist. Their duty would be to pass upon the 
condition of imbeciles and hopelessly insane, 
and to perform the operation of sterilization. 
At the same time, the state board control- 
ling insane asylums and prisons has rec- 
ommended the penalty of sterilization for 
criminal assault. The Indiana legislature 
has just enacted a similar measure applied 
to idiotic, feeble-minded and criminal males. 

Environment Tt *» interesting to see how 
vs. much better it is for a child 

Heredity. to pass through the hands 
of a benevolent society and be placed out in 
a good home than to stay with its natural 
parents, no matter how good they are. The 
superintendent of what a speaker at the 
last National Conference of Charities, called 
"the leading charitable society" of a great 
city, is quoted as saying that his society 
had kept track of all cases in which infants 
of bad parents had been adopted by good 
people and that they had yet to find where 
one had gone wrong. He could mention 
hundreds of instances, etc. We all know 
cases of children of most excellent parents 
who have gone wrong; of course this was 


Charities and The Commons 

April 20 

because they have not had the advantages of 
the placing out method as it is practiced 
by that society. 

Coal Bills Thanks to the fiscal super- 
and Per vision of state charities (and 
Capita Cost, the mild weather of last win- 
ter) the coal bill of the New York state in- 
stitutions was $20,000 less last year than the 
year before. The farms and gardens yielded 
much better than ever before. The institu- 
tions are making more of their own cloth- 
ing and other supplies. And the total reduc- 
tion in average per capita cost is six mills 
per week— from $168.97 to $168.67 per an- 

Board of The Minnesota senate wants 
Guardians of to make the State Board of 
the insane. Control of Institutions into a 
board of guardians of the insane so that 
when surgical operations are necessary — 
and the natural guardians of the patient can- 
not be reached — the board of control may 
give their consent and the physicians may 
be relieved of their responsibility. This 
seems like a sensible and helpful plan. 

Clinics at One of the things most need- 
state ed for the improved care 

Hospitals. f the insane is that physi- 
cians at large shall know more about it. If 
every doctor could promptly detect and prop- 
erly treat incipient cases, there would be 
many more recoveries and fewer chronic 
lunatics. The probability of recovery di- 
minishes rapidly as the time between on- 
set of the disease and proper treatment in- 

creases. There is only one way for doctors 
to learn, and that is- by clinical instruction 
and the only possibility of a clinic is at the 
state hospitals. The Illinois legislators who 
are trying to defeat the plans of the Board 
of State Charities, to hold clinics at the hos- 
pitals for the instruction of graduated phy- 
sicians, are probably more insincere than ig- 
norant. If they did not have the hospital 
clinics to object to, they would soon find 
something else to serve their purpose. 

The appropriation committee 
Pennsylvania, is in favor of a bill increas- 
ing the support of the hos- 
pitals for insane by $200,000 per annum. 
Also for $1,590,800 for new buildings dur- 
ing the coming two years. The chairman 
says this will provide for 1950 additional 
inmates or 362 more than the present sur- 
plus of patients, which number should be 
enough for the natural increase of the bien- 
nial period. He also thinks that an appro- 
priation of $243,500 will furnish and equip 
buildings for the feeble-minded and epilep- 
tics in the new institution at Spring City 
to be completed next June!!! The chair- 
man surely has had little experience in pub- 
lic building or else he is an invincible opti- 
mist. On the whole the insane situation 
in Pennsylvania is brighter than it has been 
for many a day. Now if only the situation 
is striking enough to cause commissions 
and contractors to act with vigor and push 
the work so that relief shall come as quickly 
(let us say), as it would if it were the 
work of a private corporation, building a 
sky-scraper in New York or Chicago. 

Civic Improvement 

For the In Boston, under the lead of 
Children's the Massachusetts Civic Lea- 
Good. gue> and in Rochester, N. Y., 
under the lead of the Children's Playground 
League and of other organizations for social 
betterment, there has been serious effort 
this spring to secure more supervised play- 
grounds. In both places the special effort 
has been to get the playgrounds put under 
the control of the Board of Education. In 
Rochester it is hoped to effect this in the 
new charter. Rochester has also been try- 
ing to secure a municipal appropriation for 
a new playground in a congested residential 
section, and — as a distinct, but allied, effort 
— to secure an extension of the public 
school's neighborhood social service. The 
argument for the transfer of the play- 
grounds from the park department to the 
school board has not been based on any 
criticism of the park board management of 
them. Under the latter's authority the 
playgrounds have proved a success. But it 
is based on the idea that the work of a 

supervised playground is educational to a 
considerable degree, and as such properly 
belongs to the educational authorities. The 
Rochester aldermen were induced, after a 
deal of labor over two of them, to include 
in the tax levy an item of $50,000 for the 
new playground. This is not much, but it 
will make a beginning in a district where 
even a little can do much good. And as to 
getting fuller value for a neighborhood from 
its public school facilities, by opening read- 
ing rooms, game rooms, and a gymnasium 
in the school house, for evening use, a 
school betterment association has been or- 
ganized in one district for the purpose of 
putting the theory to the test. If the exper- 
iment works out as well as expected, and 
as it has in other places, the movement is 
likely to grow more important. At all 
events, Rochester, the rapid growth of which 
has lately necessitated a new charter, has 
shown that its citizens are not forgetful of 
the social obligations imposed by a larger 

9 o7 

Civic Improvement 


Town Organization for town better- 

oJJSSa-* ment is wel1 i llus trated in 
tions. " Wellesley, Massachusetts. An 
outsider might be pardoned for wondering 
whether there is not more of it than neces- 
sary. At any rate, it seems that the whole 
ground must be effectually covered and the 
condition is suggestively instructive. There 
is the Wellesley Club, which discusses town 
affairs in advance of the town meetings and 
so enables its members to vote intelligently 
on the propositions that come up; there is 
the Joint Committee, of the Wellesley, the 
Hills, and the Palls Improvement Societies, 
which works with the selectmen, co-operat- 
ing with them for the town's good; there 
is the Village Improvement Association, a 
flourishing and active organization; and 
finally there is a weekly paper, called The 
Townsman, which is the organ of all these 
forces and a champion of civic progress. 
To get an idea of the questions that come 
before these organizations, of how closely 
in touch they are with the town's life, and 
of the abundance of the supply of questions 
to interest them, one may turn to a single 
issue of The Townsman, in which there are 
notes of meetings of all three. All the 
meetings had been held within the week. 
The Wellesley Club considered the plans 
for the new high school. The joint commit- 
tee approved the selectmen's request that 
the town appropriate $500' for street signs, 
discussed the redecoration of the town hall, 
approved the notice as to the condition of 
the ice for skating, some drownings having 
occurred in recent years for want of such 
notice; and received a report on the estab- 
lishment of an additional public telephone 
booth. The Village Improvement Associa- 
tion acknowledged a special subscription of 
$200 for school garden work, considered the 
treatment of the village square, voted $25 
for tree planting on Arbor Day; received 
a report on the conditions along the Boston 
& Albany Railroad tracks, and made plans for 
an improvement rally. At a later meeting com- 
mittees were appointed on Arbor Day, on 
the improvement of a certain corner, and on 
poles and wires. There was a discussion 
of the station grounds, and congratulations 
on the formation of yet another improve- 
ment society — this one to represent the 
Fells district, with a membership from 
nearly every family in its community. That 
is the way to do things. 

The trees of Hartford, Conn., 
Street Trees, are about as well looked 

after as the trees of any city 
in the United States. It is a beautiful city, 
there is a good deal of public spirit, and 
its streets have many old and noble trees 
that command love and pride. Finally, the 
deus loci was a tree — the charter oak — so 
that people's thoughts turn naturally to 
trees. A couple of years ago quite a re- 
markable Report on the Street Tree Ques- 
tion was issued by the Hartford Florist 

Club. Altogether, the moderate statement, 
"as well looked after as the trees of any 
city," might perhaps be slightly strength- 
ened. The Hartford trees have received 
more care and thought than in a great many 
cities. This fact gives interest and special 
significance to the report issued this winter 
by an expert appointed to inspect and make 
an inventory of the street trees of Hartford. 
He reported that he had examined 5,800, tab- 
ulating their conditions and needs. He found 
that a majority of all the trees needed prun- 
ing, spraying or cementing. On Washington 
street, which received particular attention 
because its trees are unusually large, 200 
out of 271 needed pruning for dead wood, 
and out of 114 maples, 92 were affected by 
cottony maple scale, for which the remedy 
is spraying with kerosene emulsion. On 
this street the value of the trees, commer- 
cially estimated, was figured at $37,500.81. 
There is much in this report to make other 
communities think. The great need of care 
for this neglected public asset and the en- 
ormous value, figured even commercially, 
of this asset have not had the consideration 
from city officials that they deserve. 

Vacant A correspondent sends to 

Lot this department an account 

Gardening. of the success f a "vacant 

lot garden" in Chicago, and directions for 
establishing such gardens. The letter is 
of special interest now as a seasonable sug- 
gestion. The idea is of course familiar to 
those interested in civic improvement; but 
here are the practical details: Secure the 
use of a vacant lot, and in so doing get 
permission in writing to remove all living 
plants or crops, and any fence you may 
erect, within a certain number of days after 
notice is given to you that you must move. 
More lots are suitable than might be sup- 
posed, even sandy and clayey soil yielding 
results if enough work be put in. But the 
work on all difficult soil must be intelligent, 
even scientific, and it will be well in such 
cases to get good advice. Clear the lot of 
stones, tin cans, and rubbish; then plow 
or spade it. Finish by raking, for the soil 
must be pulverized. In the ordinary lot- 
garden, seldom more than 100 feet square, 
(a quarter acre) there is no reason why the 
amateur gardeners should not do all this 
work. Cultivate the ground and, if nec- 
essary, fence the plot. Make a plan for 
the garden, showing the individual parts 
and what shall be planted in each. The 
children can do the measuring. Then plant. 
As to the success to be anticipated from a 
garden thus tended, the instance cited is 
that of a garden looked after by the children 
of the Chicago Home for the Friendless — a 
garden for which the neighborhood center 
committee of the Chicago Woman's Club 
was responsible. The crops from this gar- 
den included last year, among other things, 
three dozen cucumbers, half a bushel of 
peas, one and a half bushels of beans, thir- 


Charities and The Commons 

April 20 

teen and a half dozen ears of corn, five 
and one-half dozen beets, and "let- 
tuce without measure." The eastern 
fence was a solid mass of morning glories, 
and against the north fence nasturtiums 
banked themselves. There were other flow- 
ers, so that the home was gay with them 
all summer. "In the matter of practical 
instruction the garden accomplished what 
nothing else could do." This does not ap- 
ply only to horticultural and agricultural 
instruction. The class in manual training 
made stakes for the garden; the children 
sewed garments for use there; the cooking 
classes prepared and cooked vegetables 
which their own members had raised, and 
the class in English "wrote feelingly con- 
cerning the garden, with the understanding 
born of that first-hand knowledge and gen- 
uine interest which unite when a small boy 
promises, as one of these did, to be ready 
at 4 o'clock in the morning to continue work 
interrupted by darkness." Incidentally, the 
garden became an adornment to the neigh- 
borhood, in substitution for a yard of weeds. 

New York Tne report of the New York 
Improvement City Improvement Commis- 
Report. sion, recently submitted to 

the mayor, makes a notable addition to the 
winter's list of beautifully published city 
plan reports as described here a month ago. 
With its stiff cover, its cream paper, its 
luxurious spacing, this is in some respects 
the handsomest of the several profusely il- 
lustrated reports. The commission has been 
at work on its problem for upwards of three 
years, having been appointed in December, 
1903. A preliminary report was brought 
out at the end of a year and the final re- 
port advocates many of the changes that 
were tentatively put forward in that. It 
is an interesting study; but, owing to var- 
ious unfavorable local conditions, it does 
not seem likely that its recommendations 
will be carried out in any large degree. Yet 
it is something to have dreamed. The plans 
of the commission will be more fully con- 
sidered in a later issue of Charities and 
The Commons. 

Not only are civic improve- 
N( *n h L?n k0ta ment clubs sprinkled about 

in North Dakota as certainly 
as in the eastern states, but within a few 
weeks a call has been issued for a civic 
improvement convention there — the first to 
be held in that state. The announcement 
says that "among the subjects to be taken 
up are the care of streets, parks, river 
banks, city health and sanitation; the beau- 
tification of cities; the co-operation of civic 
improvement leagues and other organiza- 
tions with mayors and city councils; the de- 
velopment of civic-spirited men, women and 
children; the enforcement of law; the im- 
provement of conditions in local public 
places, as railroad stations; the provision 
of rest rooms for women; facilities for 
recreation for the young, and other topics 
as may seem advisable." It would appear 
that the convention will have to be a long 
one, if it is to touch on other topics be- 
sides all those given. But the great thing 
is that so much is contemplated and earnest- 
ly undertaken in North Dakota, where the 
problems still are new. 

School At a meeting during the 

G Mlssi" in winter in Haverhill, Mass., 
chusetts. of the State Association of 
School Superintendents, it was unanimously 
resolved to work for the establishment of 
public school gardens in every city, village, 
and county in Massachusetts. Surely, no 
body of men or women could work for this 
object more efficiently than can the school 
superintendents, nor could the worth of the 
movement have more authoritative witness 
than theirs. 

A recent note in this depart- 

at n Triiton. ment referred to tne anti - 
noise campaign. Trenton, 

N. J., has now joined in it, a resolution 
having been recently adopted by the council 
calling for the appointment of a committee 
to draft an anti-noise ordinance. The reso- 
lution recited that "the continued growth of 
the city has caused an increase of street 
noises to such an extent that they have be- 
come a nuisance." 

Treatment of tKe Delinquent 

The Revolu= 

tion in 


Eugene Smith, in a chapter 
on The Science of Penology 
in the memorial volume to 
Colonel Henry Martyn Boies shows how 
fundamental and far-reaching is the field of 
the indeterminate sentence: "Many persons 
who accept the theory of the indeterminate 
sentence fail to realize that the theory 
logically involves the upheaval and subver- 
sion of the entire structure of the criminal 
law as it has stood from time immemorial. 

All the penal codes, with their elaborate 
system of graduated penalties, the indeter- 
minate sentence sweeps away as utter rub- 
bish; it repudiates as false and indefensible 
the very foundations on which all criminal 
law has been built; it substitutes a new 
corner-stone, that of protection of the public 
and reformation of the criminal, in the place 
of vindictive retribution and expiation 
through punitive suffering, and upon this 
new foundation it would erect a radically 


The Trend of Things 


new superstructure of criminal law. It 
logically reverses the attitude of the state 
toward the criminal; formerly the state 
presented itself to the criminal as an aveng- 
ing fury; seizing him only to inflict suffer- 
ing upon him and, when it had wreaked its 
vengeance, casting him out with threaten- 
ings for the future; the indeterminate sen- 
tence presents the state to the criminal as a 
kindly, paternal power, seeking to uplift 
and rehabilitate him, aiming to fit him for 
restoration to freedom, and finally to send 
him forth with a helping hand. Thus, the 
revolution in criminal law included in the 
principle of the indeterminate sentence is 
not less momentous than the change wrought 
in astronomy by the Copernican system, 
which stopped the sun and stars in their ab- 
surd circuit about the stationary earth, and 
set the world in motion." 

in England. 

The proceedings of the thir- 
teenth Conference of Dis- 
charged Prisoners Aid So- 
cieties of Great Britain have come to hand. 
The volume contains a great variety of 
matter which is valuable to all interested in 
the right treatment of offenders. A subject 
which received much consideration at the con- 
gress was that of juvenile courts and pro- 
bation. J. Courteney Lord, chairman of the 
children's courts of Birmingham, called 
attention to the importance of getting the 
right kind of probation officers. Evidently 
the qualifications which seem most impor- 
tant to us in this country as based on expe- 
rience, namely, tact, sympathy and interest 
in the work are those which have impressed 
our English friends. One of the difficulties 
in Great Britain is that there is no fund 
from which officers can be paid. John Lind- 
say of Glasgow spoke of the probation guard- 
ianship in Scotland. It appears that in the 
city of Dundee in both the police and the 

sheriff's criminal courts, the probation sys- 
tem has been in successful operation for six 
years. It has not been in operation, however, 
in any other city or town in Scotland. Par- 
liamentary legislation would be necessary 
before probation could be carried out in Scot- 
land on the same lines and to the same 
extent as it is carried out in Massachusetts, 
but it was pointed out that a great deal can 
be done under existing laws. 

Sir Howard Vincent, who introduced the 
first offenders act in the House of Commons 
in 1886, which became a law January 1, 1888, 
believes that the time has now arrived when 
probation officers may be introduced into 
the English system as was originally pro- 
vided in the act, and he has already made a 
move in that direction. 

The Borstal system is already 
System. familiar to some of our read- 
ers as a reformatory system 
which has been applied at the old convict 
prison at Borstal in Kent, England, since 
1892. It is applied to boys from seventeen 
to twenty-one. And it is described by Sir 
Evelyn Ruggles-Brise, chairman of Her 
Majesty's Prison Commision, as "a simple 
system of firm and exact discipline, tempered 
by an ascending scale of rewards and privi- 
leges, which depend upon a system of marks 
for industry, conduct and special merit." 
The results are described as "truly marvel- 
ous." Nearly fifty per cent of these lads 
have been reinstated in honest employment, 
notwithstanding that out of some 200 cases, 
only about a dozen were first offenders. 
The Borstal system has also been extended 
to boys from sixteen to twenty-one sentenced 
to penal servitude and is in operation at 
Dartmoor. Nearly 100 of the young convicts 
are being trained in physical drill and 
gymnastics and in various trades as well as 
in farming. 

THe Trend of THings 

Carl Snyder writes in the April Every- 
body's on The Growing Railway Death Roll: 
Who is Responsible? In 1905, he shows, it 
was twice as dangerous to travel on a rail- 
way train or to work for a railway company 
in the United States as it was in 1895. All 
railways are not alike in this respect for in 
these ten years there was one road which 
did not kill a passenger in an accident. 
Moreover, 279 American roads, covering 
more than half the total track mileage, and 
carrying more than half the passenger 
mileage had no passengers killed in train 
accidents in 1906. All other roads, however, 
with less than half the track mileage and 
less than half the passenger mileage, killed 
182 passengers. In this country not one- 

quarter of the total mileage is covered by 
any block signal system at all. 
* * * 

The Doctor in the Public School is the 
title under which Dr. John J. Cronin tells 
in the April Review of Reviews of the ben- 
eficient results of medical examination of 
school children. "It has been shown," he 
says, "that ninety-five per cent of backward 
children and of mentally deficient children 
have physical defects which can be rem- 
edied, thus improving their mentality as 
well as their physical health. Moral ob- 
liquity, if which truancy is the first manifes- 
tation in school life, goes hand in hand with 
physical defects. Thus among eighty-three 
truants examined by the Department of 


Charities and The Commons 

Health in the Special Truant School, eighty- 
seven per cent were found to have physical 
defects, in most cases of a remediable char- 
acter. We have shown beyond peradventure 
that physical defects exist in about sixty 
per cent of all school children in New York; 
that in most cases these defects are remedi- 
able by proper treatment and that the early 
discovery of these defects is the prime factor 
in the maintenance of the health of the 
school children and in enabling them to pur- 
sue their studies." 

* * * 

The powerful German Social Democracy 
is the subject of an article by Robert 
Hunter in the April number of the Interna- 
tional Socialist Review. The history of the 
Socialist movement in Germany is traced 
briefly from the beginning, and it is seen 
that there have been several times in the 
past where the Reichstag representation fell 
off with an increasing vote, as it did in the 
last election. A recent census bulletin on 
the size of industrial units has been analyzed 

Employment Exchange. 

Address all communications to Miss Helen M. Kelsey, 
Editor Employment Exchange of Charities and The 
Commons, Room 535, 156 Fifth Avenue. Kindly enclose 
postage if a reply is desired. 

YOUNG- woman, college graduate, who has done 
successfully a piece of original investigation in 
connection with labor problems, wishes an op- 
portunity to continue such work during the coming 

YOUNG man of considerable business experience 
wishes position as Financial Secretary with 
some large institution or society. 

YOUNGr women of experience with children, either 
as primary or kindergarten teachers, or as 
volunteer workers in the settlements, wish op- 
portunities in the Fresh Air "Work in the vicinity of 
New York. 

YOUNG woman who has had practical experience 
in settlement management, but who prefers the 
actual work with people rather than organizing, 
wishes an opening in the Fall as Asst. Head Worker in 
a well-established settlement, where she can gain fur- 
ther e xperience. 

YOUNG woman with experience in kindergarten 
teaching wishes immediate employment in New 
York City in any line of work where her train- 
ing would be of value. 


ANTED— A woman of experience in settlement 
management to take the Head-Workership in 
a settlement in the vicinity of New York. 

WANTED— Man of successful experience in set- 
tlement work to take charge of the boys' and 
men's departments in a well-established settle- 
ment in the East. 

WANTED— A general secretary in a C. O S. in a 
small city in Eastern Pennsylvania. Work is 
well established and some one of experience in 
organized charity methods is needed immediately to 
carry it on. 

WANTED— Young woman, who wishes opportun- 
ity to gain an insight into settlement methods, 
who isf ree to take a position at once for the 
next four months. No salary beyond living expenses. 


ANTED — Woman to do visiting for a Bap- 
tist church in the South. 

by H. L. Slobodin in the same magazine. 
Not only is the industrial life of the nation 
coming into the hands of fewer and fewer 
firms, it shows, but the large firms show an 
efficiency far in excess of the smaller. An 
interesting fact is that the large firms pay 
far better wages than the smaller. 

The Hull House Labor Museum is de- 
scribed by Katherine Louise Smith in the 
April Pilgrim. Different forms of spinning 
and weaving are illustrated by women. Ital- 
ian, Greek, Russian and Syrian, each in na- 
tive costume. "One sees the Greek spin with 
a hand spindle, composed of a straight stick 
with a couple of discs ; then he discovers that 
the Russian spins with the same spindle but 
fastened to a frame and that the Italian and 
Syrian employ the same method, but hold 
the spindle in a reverse position. All the 
spindles are set in motion by being twirled 
on the hip, and then held in the air, while 
the rapid revolution of the stick twists the 
thread." The products are offered for sale 
in addition to being exhibited and a whole- 
some pride is aroused among the immi- 
grants over their native handicrafts. 

A new magazine with the name Altruria, 
has made its appearance in New York with 
the editorial policy, "All sides of all ques- 
tions." "We love our fellow men. We be- 
lieve in the essential goodness of human na- 
ture. We know that most of the mean and 
wicked things of this world are done not 
out of wickedness, but out of ignorance, and 
on account of wrong social conditions." Al- 
truria aims to be "a sanely radical journal." 
Having expended several pages on the scope 
of Altruria, the editor proceeds about his 
business of writing and letting others write 
trenchantly. The Hearst newspapers are 
defended, anarchism is unmercifully dealt 
with and finally "Comstockery" is scored, 
and moral and physical prophylaxis demand- 

The Beth Israel Hospital 


offers a two years' course in the study of nursing to 
women from 21 to 33 years of age, with High School 
education. An allowance of $7.00 and $10.00 
per month is made for uniforms and books. 
For information address. 

Superintendent School of Nurses, 


Cherry Street, New York City. 


Investigates and gathers facts, statistics, etc., for 

By appointment only, 144 East 22d St., N. Y. Tel. 6406 Gramercy 
Member of Executive Committee of St. Paul's Co- 
operative Club of Business and Professional Women. 
Visitor of Italian Division Calvary Settlement. Active 
Patroness of Clear Pool Camp. 


AND The Commons 

Edward T- Devine, Editor 
Graham Taylor, associate 
Lee k. frankel, associate foi 
Jewish Charity 

THe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 

stm After After a hard fight through 
the Cocaine the New York Assembly 
Flend * the A. E. Smith anti-co- 
caine bill last Monday arrived at its 
final reading in the Senate. Its oppon- 
ents succeeded in the Assembly in secur- 
ing the omission of all the poisons 
originally covered by the bill except co- 
caine and eucaine, as explained in a pre- 
vious issue of this journal. As far as it 
goes the bill is a good one, but its effect- 
iveness was pretty nearly destroyed in 
the Senate by an amendment changing 
the selling of the drugs without a pre- 
scription from a felony to a misde- 
meanor. The backers of the bill pointed 
to the failure of other prohibitions that 
are classed as misdemeanors as an argu- 
ment against the change, and claim that 
the unrestricted sale of the drug is little 
short of murder. Expert practitioners 
place the length of life of the habitual 
cocaine fiend at not more than two years 
while, furthermore, the use of the drug 
leads to the lowest forms of degeneracy. 
So far the campaign against cocaine has 
resulted in a health ordinance issued by 
Commissioner Darlington in New York 
city under which a conviction was re- 
cently secured of one of the men most 
heavily engaged in the retail traffic of 
the drug. The campaign has also re- 
sulted in the exclusion from the United 
States mails of five well-known catarrh 
mixtures, while one of the most adver- 
tised claims that all cocaine is now 
eliminated from the preparation. How 
lucrative this illicit selling of the drug 
is in New York can be seen when one 
of the retail dealers sells some 480,000 
grains every fortnight, the retail price 


being three grains for ten cents. In 
New Orleans, where using the drug is 
a felony the police made 40,000 arrests 
in the first eighteen months of enforcing 
the new law; in Chicago a police esti- 
mate places the number of users at 70,- 
000 ; the estimate for New York has been 
placed at 80,000. The evil is said to be 
even greater, in proportion, in some of 
the smaller cities, especially in the towns. 

The si ^ n ten " An eleemosynary associa- 
te the tion has been incorporated 

ar schoT n under the laws of the state 
of New Jersey, which is designed to carry 
on a work, unique in the educational field, 
and notable for its bearing upon a num- 
ber of social problems. The incorpora- 
tion is an advance step in the develop- 
ment of the Groszmann School and as 
stated in its charter the main purposes 

To establish and conduct schools and in- 
stitutions for the treatment, care, and edu- 
cation of nervous and atypical children; to 
provide for the -delivery and holding of lec- 
tures, exhibitions, public meetings, classes 
and conferences, calculated directly or in- 
directly to advance the cause of education; 
to establish and maintain laboratories for 
the scientific study of this problem; to pub- 
lish books, pamphlets, or periodicals em- 
bodying the results of investigation; to 
establish and maintain a library; to estab- 
lish courses of instruction for teachers, 
etc.; and to so administer whatever funds 
may be collected as to promote to the best 
advantage whichever of the above move- 
ments may be inaugurated. 

To estimate the significance of the un- 
dertaking it is necessary to review what 
might be called Dr. Groszmann's mission 
to the atypical child in society. The gen- 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

eral reader is becoming more and more 
conscious of the general movement in this 
field, catching glimpses of passing land- 
marks which to him have been discon- 
nected and obscure. He now hears more 
and more frequently of the reports of 
school physicians who startle us with 
appalling figures indicating how large a 
percentage of the ordinary school chil- 
dren deviate more or less from the nor- 
mal; of the efforts of school boards in 
many important cities to inaugurate and 
intelligently conduct special or ungraded 
classes for at least some of these children ; 
of the statements of the superintendents 
of state institutions for the feeble-minded, 
epileptic, mentally arrested, or otherwise 
abnormal persons, which point out that 
many could have been saved earlier in 
their lives, or are now not in their 
right places ; and of the social workers in 
reformatories and other penal institutions 
who are bending every energy toward a 
study of the causes producing criminal 
action in the individual. In a sense all 
these activities seek one final goal — to 
learn the initial causes portending digres- 
sion from the normal, and to apply such 
knowledge in the education of new gener- 
ations. Dr. Maximilian P. E. Groszmann 
has set as his task the recognition of the 
beginnings of these things in the child 
and to mold or remold its mind and soul 
while still plastic and unfettered by fixed 
and deleterious habits ; and the school 
which until now he has carried on as a 
private venture just outside of Plainfield 
on the crest of Watchung Mountain, has 
been a laboratory for a study of children 
on this border line between the nor- 
mal and the defective. Dr. Groszmann 
brought to this new and delicate work his 
pioneer experience in a number of our 
present educational reforms. In conjunc- 
tion with Dr. Nathan Oppenheim of New 
York, he started with one case in 1900 
to work out a medico-educational regi- 
men, commensurate with its particular 
needs. A boy of nine was removed from 
his parents and early environment. He 
sought to remold the boy, as it were, re- 
casting his habits and organizing his men- 
tal response. Out of this first case, de- 
veloped the work and method now carried 
out with a group of children at the Grosz- 

mann School, to which the present incor- 
poration plans to give broader applica- 
tion. The general method employed has 
been described as follows: 

Dr. Groszmann usually takes a case in 
hand after gleaning as complete and accu- 
rate a history of its early life as the parents 
and their consulting physicians can fur- 
nish. He then removes the child completely 
from the influence of its previous environ- 
ment, subjecting it to a close study for 
some weeks to verify earlier impressions 
and to learn its reaction to its new sur- 
roundings. He seeks to place it in a 
strengthening atmosphere, one which is per- 
meated with the spirit of love and under- 
standing. A constant process of weeding 
out wrong habits and replacing them with 
rational, or where this is inapplicable, imi- 
tative modes of response is begun. A close 
co-ordination of home and school life, to- 
gether with a carefully adjusted physical 
and outdoor regimen is planned, and almost 
daily written reports of observations are 
filed as a record of progress or relapse. 
The individual child is the unit which de- 
termines the nature of its class-work and 
general reaction. Regular physiological and 
psychological measurements and tests form 
the indices of its progress. Added to this 
carefully adjusted educational regimen is 
the suggestion and advice of the consulting 
physicians. A close co-operation of educa- 
tional and medical science is effected. The 
ultimate results are determined by the na- 
ture of the case, the time allowed to work 
with it, and the atmosphere it enters after 
leaving the institution. Under reasonably 
favorable conditions many have profited and 
are holding their own in their communities. 

Of the significance of the proper edu- 
cation of the exceptional child Dr. Grosz- 
mann says: 

Such a child is on the borderland between 
the typical and the non-typical. It tends to 
become an increment to that vast army of 
the shiftless, indolent, vagrant, or criminal 
element; to the feeble-minded, insane, or 
morally perverted; to the unstable, unhappy, 
neuropathic victims of wrong environment 
and early educational blunders. That the 
balance can be inclined toward normal man- 
hood and womanhood has now been deter- 
mined. Though it may become truly de- 
fective with years if neglected and thus be a 
menace and a charge upon society, it can 
be made into a valuable adjunct to its com- 
munity by proper training. 

Medical Upon the initative and un- 

inspection A ev ±u e direction of the 

in Milwaukee ^~. LI1C uireLiiun 01 me 

Schools. Milwaukee Medical Society 
there has recently been made in that city 
an examination of school children, with 


The Common Welfare 


a view to determining the necessity for 
organizing a permanent and systematic 
plan of medical examination such as has 
been in force for some years in New 
York and several other cities. From the 
first there was the most cordial and ef- 
fective co-operation from the school 
board. The details of the examination 
were determined by conferences between 
the superintendent of schools, Charles 
Pearse, and the committee from the medi- 
cal society, composed of Drs. A. J. Patek, 
chairman, George P. Barth and A. W. 
Akerley, to whom full power for investi- 
gation and report was delegated. Three 
districts, the schools of which draw their 
pupils from different social strata, were 
deemed sufficient to afford a fair average 
of conditions. The examination was 
undertaken for a period of one month 
and a detailed report with recommenda- 
tions has now been rendered to the school 
board. Physicians reported at each 
school at nine o'clock and "inspected first 
those pupils whom the teachers of the 
various grades sent in for some dis- 
ability which they noted or because the 
child was absent three or more consecu- 
tive days, and secondly each grade sepa- 
rately. It was possible to follow this 
plan in two of the districts but in the 
third the number of pupils sent in to the 
physicians each morning was so great 
that the doctors found it impossible in 
the time allotted to inspect the school 
grade by grade." In this third district, 
the school being located on Ninth street 
north of Walnut, the report declares that 
conditions were "in fact terrible." Of 
114 cases of pediculosis reported, 103 
were found in this district. Other cases 
of contagious disease included two of 
chicken pox, three of diphtheria and nine 
of acute tonsilitis. 

The percentage of defective eyes was 
rather low — only 21.3%. This did not 
include complete statistics from the third 
district where the time was too short for 
a systematic examination. Many of the 
children with defective eyesight were not 
wearing glasses and "one can easily see 
under what disadvantages they are labor- 
ing. The percentage of short-sighted 
children in Milwaukee schools (21.3%) 
is somewhat low as compared to that of 

other cities but it is far higher that it 
should be and especially so when the dis- 
ability can be so easily corrected." After 
outlining what has been accomplished in 
other cities through school medical ex- 
amination, the report states concisely the 
object of such systematic inspection. 

The primary reason for medical inspection 
of schools is to prevent the spread of com- 
municable diseases by excluding from school 
and quarantining such cases as may have 
been unrecognized or returned to the class 
room while still infectious to other chil- 
dren. The second object is to place the 
child in the most favorable condition for 
progress in school by discovering and re- 
moving such defects as interfere with 
normal, physical and mental growth. . A 
third purpose is to note the growth and de- 
velopment of school children. Physical per- 
fection and mental activity are known to 
bear a definite relationship to each other. 

The report declares, moreover, that 
the inspection of schools should also in- 
clude the supervision of the sanitation 
of the building, with regard to proper 
cleanliness, ventilation, light and heat. 
Recommendations submitted in the name 
of the Milwaukee Medical Society are : 

1. That all the schools be placed under 
systematic medical inspection, or, if not all, 
those schools which are attended by the pu- 
pils from the more crowded sections of the 

2. That a board be organized composed 
of one chief medical inspector who will su- 
pervise the work, and an efficient corps of 
assistants — as many as will be deemed neces- 
sary to insure adequate inspection, each in- 
spector to be assigned to not more than four 

3. That medical inspection of schools 
maintain close relations with the city 
health department or be an adjunct bureau 
of that department. 

Toronto The Ontario government 
Psychiatric has decided upon a step in 
cunic. regard to the treatment 
of acute cases of mental diseases which 
will mark a radical departure from the 
systems now in vogue in Canada. A 
psychiatric clinic is to be established in 
connection with the new Toronto Gen- 
eral Hospital. It is intended that the 
clinic shall occupy a separate building in 
connection with the new hospital, with 
accommodation for one hundred patients, 
and equipped in the most modern and 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

approved manner for the treatment of the 
insane. The building, equipment, and 
the system of treating patients will, in 
fact, be modeled on that of Munich, 
Germany, established some years ago, 
and which has been followed by wonder- 
fully successful advanced treatment of 
cases of acute insanity throughout Ger- 
many. One of the results of the es- 
tablishment of the clinic in Toronto will 
be the doing away with the local state 
asylum. Instead of cases of insanity 
being sent there, they will be treated 
first at the hospital under wholly hospital 
surroundings. If they recover, they will 
then be sent back to their homes without 
any of the stigma unfortunately attach- 
ing to those who have been subjected to 
asylum treatment. If the cases become 
chronic they will be sent to Mimico or 
other asylums, where the cottage accom- 
modation system, impossible in Toronto, 
is to be increased with that end in view. 
An item of $100,000 in the supplementary 
estimates, under the head of "changes in 
the Toronto Asylum," is directly con- 
nected with the plan above outlined. 

Wa G 5hing°ton B Y an unsolicited gift of 

Associated $12,000 Mrs. Florence 
C Fund. eS Lathrop Page has made the 
first start toward an endowment fund 
for the Associated Charities of the na- 
tional capital. Thomas Nelson Page, 
the husband of the donor, attended a 
special meeting of the Board of Manag- 
ers of the Association on Wednesday, 
April 3, at the residence of Justice 
David J. Brewer, president of the so- 
ciety. Mr. Page explained the purpose 
of the gift to be the establishment of a 
trust fund of which only the interest is 
to be used for the purposes of the Asso- 
ciated Charities. The board of manag- 
ers is to have full power to reinvest the 
money at any time and is unrestricted in 
its use of the interest. Justice Brewer 
received for the board the certificates 
representing the investment of $12,000 
and the board of managers passed a 
rising vote of thanks to Mrs. Page. 
Justice Brewer said : "I must say that 
this admirable and worthy gift to a work 
in which we are all so deeply interested 
is most encouraging. It will be a benefit 

to this community after all of us who are 
present at this meeting have passed 
away." "Since the very beginning of the 
work in 1882," said Professor Bernard 
T. Janney, chairman of the board of 
managers, "I have watched the develop- 
ment of the Associated Charities and I 
feel that this gift of Mrs. Page recog- 
nizes and crowns the successful work of 
the past twenity-five years and inaugu- 
rates an era of enlarged usefulness for 
the future." Col. Archibald Hopkins, 
chairman of the finance committee, said : 
"This gift is just what the association has 
been desiring for some years as the be- 
ginning of an endowment fund which 
should soon equal the $100,000 endow- 
ment of the similar society in Baltimore 
and should provide a regular yearly in- 
come for the work." After Judge Wil- 
liam H. DeLacy, Dr. George M. Kober, 
William H. Baldwin, Col. George Trues- 
dell, Dr. Sofie A. Nordhoff-Jung, 
George S. Wilson, Miss Florence Spof- 
ford and Miss Helen Nicolay had spoken 
in a similar vein, the board of managers 
appointed Justice David J. Brewer and 
Col. Archibald Hopkins "a special com- 
mittee on endowment," to report plans 
for taking up at an appropriate time the 
work of securing other endowment gifts 
inspired by that of Mrs. Page. The 
president was asked to convey to Mrs. 
Page a special written expression of the 
board's appreciation not only of this 
$12,000 but also of the generous yearly 
contribution of $500 with which Mrs. 
Page has steadily assisted the current 
work of the society. 

Garden cities such as those 
°in rd America. S abroad are apparently in a 

fair way to be established 
in this country. The Garden Cities Asso- 
ciation of America, the formation and 
purposes of which have already been 
outlined in this journal, now has, accord- 
ing to Dr. W. D. P. Bliss, secretary of 
the association, some $400,000 in land 
and money subscribed to the subsidiary 
companies through which the movement 
is to be promoted. So far there are 800 
acres in Long Island for factories and 
workers; 5,000 acres in Virginia, mainly 
agricultural; 500 acres in Pennsylvania, 


The Common Welfare 


near Easton ; 247 acres in Connecticut, 
near an industrial city, and 1,000 acres 
in New Jersey for workers in New York. 
Various bodies of capitalists are inter- 
ested, the association itself simply stand- 
ing sponsor for the general idea and 
having in each case appointed a com- 
mittee to investigate and report upon 
the merits of each subsidiary company 
and also to permanently work with the 
company interested in the property, to 
see that the fundamental ideas of the as- 
sociation are not departed from. Says 
Dr. Bliss: 

The sites in Long Island and Pennsylvania 
are for factories and workers in the factories 
and can only be developed as factories are 
found to move upon them. In the case of 
the Long Island property one factory has 
already agreed to move upon the land and 
therefore operations can begin at no distaut 
date, while there are good prospects of other 
factories coming shortly both to this and the 
Pennsylvania property. The Virginia prop- 
osition is in size the largest of all and in 
many ways the most attractive, but will be, 
for some time at least, mainly agricultural 
and only more slowly take the form of a 
garden city. The properties in Connecticut, 
being near an industrial city and those in 
New Jersey, being (at present) within 
thirty-one minutes of New York, and having 
within a radius of twenty miles a population 
of 8,000,000, can be developed for workers 
in their present places of employment with- 
out waiting for factories. While this is not 
the full garden city idea it is immensely 
needed, it can give good garden homes and 
social attractions to a large number of 
people, and can be immediately developed 
and immediately made both remunerative 
and helpful. 

With these various movements the Garden 
Cities Association is thus already committed 
to an immediate large and varied activity. 
Taking all the properties at an average of 
five to the acre, the association will be in a 
position to locate over 375,000 families. Of 
the whole, about 650 acres will be imme- 
diately developed. Plans and designs for 
the lands and houses are being worked out. 
They are intended to be good business in- 
vestments and not charitable gifts. The 
purchasers of homes are willing and able 
to pay for them, even though slowly. As 
all the land thus far has been acquired at 
unimproved acreage valuation, the chance 
for increase of value is good, though the 
profits in the companies will be limited. 
As soon as lots and homes are ready for 
purchasers or tenants, a mass meeting will 
be held in Cooper Union and a general cam- 
paign of publicity entered into. 


The United Hebrew Chari- 

Ghetto ties of Chicago is attack- 
ing the Ghetto problem by 
attempts at forcing disintegration in a 
somewhat novel way which is more local 
in its application than most of the other 
schemes which have been used by Jew- 
ish philanthropies in their efforts to deal 
with the districts in which large num- 
bers of Russian immigrants have made 
their homes. This experiment for the 
solution of the housing problem of the 
Ghetto is being carried on with the 
"Joseph Harris fund,'' which has been 
established by a public-spirited citizen 
for the purpose of removing poor fami- 
lies from unsanitary quarters, and fur- 
ther compelling the owners to make such 
property habitable. Incidentally in cases 
where families are moved to more ex- 
pensive quarters, provision is made for 
paying the difference in rent. Thus far 
seventy-two families have been helped 
to places in which a decent existence is 

Kindergarten Bellevue Hospital in New 
in a York has adopted a kinder- 

Hospital. g ar ten school in connection 
with its children's ward. The work was 
started at the request of Miss Delano 
who was superintendent of the Nurses' 
Training School at the time. In 1905 
Miss Minnie Van Deventer was appointed 
teacher by the board of education. From 
the start the kindergarten has been a suc- 
cess, frequently as many as forty chil- 
dren being on the roll, all anxious 
for diversion in mind and body. It is 
the custom to go to the bedside of all 
children who cannot come to the tables, 
thus giving individual instruction. Of 
course the work is necessarily different 
from the regular kindergarten work. 
If there is a very sick child in the ward, 
games and songs must be omitted and 
on account of the many fractured limbs 
the children cannot have any active 
games. Raffia and reedwork have been 
taken up with some of the patients and 
older children, who are apt and seem in- 
terested in it. An interesting practical 
feature of the work is the fact that it 
often suggests means of employment for 


Charities and The Commons 

Inspection as a means of 

infection. raisin S the standard of 
milk supply of cities was 
the subject of a recent stereopticon lec- 
ture before the New York School of 
Philanthropy, by Clarence B. Lane, 
assistant chief of the dairying division 
of the bureau of animal industry in the 
United States Department of Agri- 
culture. About ninety slides were shown 
to illustrate the advantages of a well- 
planned system of milk inspection, from 
the farm to the consumer. Two points 
were made. First was the dishonesty 
in watering, skimming, adding preserva- 
tives, misrepresentation as to certifica- 
tion, testing by tuberculin, or pasteuri- 
zation and sterilization. For the pre- 
vention of dishonesty Mr. Lane advo- 
cated a "score card system" of marking 
with the results to be published widely. 

Inspection, he said, would do much in 
the way of educating the dairymen to 
conform to the law : 

It is all right for our cities to set stand- 
ards for bacteria; it is all right to insist 
that milk shall be cooled; it is all right to 
require that the milk shall contain a cer- 
tain per cent of butter, fat, and solids; it 
is all right to insist that cows be tuberculin- 
tested; but the dairy farmers should be as- 
sisted along all these lines by capable in- 
spectors and given all the help and encour- 
agement possible. The inspector must come 
into personal contact with the individual 

Child Labor in Ontario 

Florence ftelley 

It is a comprehensive program which 
our neighbors in Ontario are undertak- 
ing for the protection of the children. 
The Hon. Mr. Monteith, chairman of the 
special legislative committee on child la- 
bor, recently presented to the house a 
report containing the following recom- 
mendations : 

That the age for beginning to work in 
stores and factories be made uniform with 
the end of compulsory school attendance at 
fourteen years; 

That the factory act be extended to stores, 
laundries and all places in which work is 
done for wages; 

That the employment of children in ho- 
tels, concert halls, etc., be regulated; 

That the staff of inspectors be increased; 

That running elevators and driving de- 
livery wagons be forbidden to boys under 

sixteen years of age; and employment in 
breweries and bottling works to children 
under eighteen years; 

That certificates be required of all work- 
ing children showing the holder to be at 
least fourteen years of age, in sound phy- 
sical condition and able to read and write, 
the certificate to be issued by an inspector 
or school principal, or by some other officer 
appointed by the school board for the pur- 

That the mining law be revisea and pro- 
vision made for inspectors; 

That dangerous occupations be designated 
which are forbidden to children; 

That a provincial law be passed govern- 
ing street trades (newsboys, etc.); boys 
working after school hours to be limited to 
7 P. M. and coming under the general re- 
striction of age to fourteen years for day 
work and sixteen years for night work. 

When adopted, these recommendations 
will place Ontario well abreast in several 
important respects of New York in her 
care of her children. Certain other pro- 
visions, however, seem rather belated in 
the light of American experience. Among 
these are the proposed restrictions of the 
hours of labor prescribing that no child 
under sixteen years be employed for 
more than sixty hours per week or eleven 
hours in any one day. This is, however, 
somewhat improved by the total prohi- 
bition of work throughout twelve hours 
at night from 6.30 p. m. to 6.30 a. m. 
When Illinois has maintained the eight 
hour day and New York and New Jersey 
the nine hour day since 1903, the estab- 
lishment of a day of eleven hours for 
children under sixteen in Ontario would 
seem distinctly backward. Even worse 
is the suggestion that children may work 
in canning factories at twelve years, and 
children of fourteen may work in them 
at night from June 15 to October I. 
Difficulties of enforcement resemble the 
troubles which still persist in New 
Jersey. Of a total enrollment of 397,- 
000 children in the province, the average 
school attendance has been but fifty-eight 
per cent. Of 250 cities, towns and in- 
corporated villages upon whom it was 
obligatory to appoint truant officers and 
make truancy returns only seventy-five 
had sent in such returns. To meet this 
the special committee recommends that 
municipalities should be forced to enforce 
the truancy laws or else the government 
should assume the duty. 

SHall tHe Salvation Army TaKe tHe Public 
Into its Confidence? 

C. C. Carstens 
Secretary Massachusetts Society for tHe Prevention of Cruelty to CKildren 

Considerable light is being shed upon 
the work of the Salvation Army by the 
recent publication of several books and 
pamphlets which concern themselves with 
one or another of that organization's ac- 
tivities. 1 

The work of the Salvation Army in 
the United States is carried on through 
three distinct corporations, The Salvation 
Army — incorporated under the laws of 
the state of New York, and the Industrial 
Homes Company and the Reliance Trad- 
ing Company — two New Jersey corpora- 
tions of which Miss Booth, commander 
of the Salvation Army, is president; but 
Ranson Caygill, a capitalist, who is not 
officially connected with the Salvation 
Army, is treasurer and business mana- 
ger. It comes therefore as a new light 
and somewhat disturbing revelation that 
purchasers of the War Cry, Post Foun- 
tain pens, and other articles of manufac- 
ture are supplying profits on six per cent 
preferred stock which the Salvation 
Army has guaranteed, and that donors 
of old clothes, shoes, furniture, maga- 
zines, newspapers and books give them, 
not to the Salvation Army but to a cor- 
poration which likewise pays six per cent 
dividends on preferred stock guaranteed 
by the Salvation Army. While there is 
perhaps no false representation on the 
part of the salvage collectors, the gen- 
erous donors have generally supposed 
that the salvage as far as it could be 
used went direct to the poor instead of 
being sold for profit, and that magazines 
and newspapers were distributed in hos- 
pitals, prisons and homes instead of in 
large measure being baled for profit to 
pay interest on a loan with which to 
finance the corporations. 

*The Social Relief Work of the Salvation Army. 
Address by E. D. Solenberger at the Philadelphia 
meeting of the National Conference of Charities 
and Correction, May, 1906. 

The Salvation Army and the Public. By John 
Manson, Routledge, London, 1906. 

The Prophet of the Poor — The Life Story of 
General Booth. By Thomas F. G. Coates. Dut- 
ton, New York, 1906. 


It is but natural therefore that the 
facts and figures published by the Salva- 
tion Army should receive new scrutiny. 
While the military discipline of an army 
would lead us to expect that "headquar- 
ters" would present consistent informa- 
tion for the education of its patrons, Mr. 
Solenberger calls attention to a maze of 
inconsistencies which leads to nothing 
short of a doubt of all "army" statistics. 
In October, 1905, the Salvation Army in 
the United States is credited with having 
"150 industrial homes, woodyards, and 
stores for the unemployed." From the 
same source in June, 1906, came a book- 
let styled A Year's Progress, in which 
appear but "100 industrial homes, wood- 
yards, and stores for the unemployed." 
Possibly neither of these round numbers 
is correct. Or, are fifty "industrial 
homes, etc.," a negligible quantity? In 
September, 1905, Miss Booth announces 
that the army maintains seventy- four 
shelters in the United States; in May, 
1906, there are eighty-eight shelters, but 
in June, 1906, the Philadelphia Brigadier 
falls back on seventy-four shelters and 
adds "there are four shelters for women." 
We are curious to know when during 
these nine months the Salvation Army 
had seventy- four, when seventy-eight, 
and when eighty-eight shelters. And just 
what does it mean when the army says it. 
has in "the United States an annual pro- 
vision of 3,000,000 beds for the poor." 
We suspect it means that each of its 
eighty or more lodging houses has an 
average of 100 beds. But, would this 
have served the same purpose ? 

Public ^ * ts annua l statements 
Accounting are as full of inconsisten- 

for Funds. Q ^ s ag -^ stat J st J CSj fa e 

public unfortunately has no way of find- 
ing it out. While in the balance sheets 
it presents to the public the financial 
status of the army, the inclusion of nom- 
inal rent charges and "depreciation on 
properties" under "income and expendi- 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

tures," gives the donor and the public in 
general no chance to gain accurate knowl- 
edge of the total income and expenditures 
of the army. But it should be remem- 
bered that these "statements" concern 
themselves only with the headquarters 
funds of New York and Chicago. No 
public accounting is made anywhere of 
the funds collected and expended locally 
in the hundreds of towns and cities of 
the United States. Donors who have 
sought to get reliable information pri- 
vately, have learned to their sorrow and 
to the discouragement of further contri- 
butions that they were not available. 
There is no local board of trustees; the 
treasurer and the auditor are almost with- 
out exception officers of the local corps. 
Audits are therefore farcical. Will the 
Salvation Army continue much longer to 
stand in a class by itself? Up to this 
time its defiance of the principles of ac- 
counting for trust funds has been nearly 
complete. The dishonesty in the man- 
agement of large trust funds in the last 
year has led to some rude awakenings in 
quarters where no dishonesty was 
charged and the various business philan- 
thropies of the Salvation Army cannot 
hope long to continue in the confidence 
of the public, without which they are 
from their form of organization doomed 
to speedy shipwreck, unless the army will 
take the generous public into its confi- 

conditions Mn Solenberger also 
in the Farm gives us additional light on 
the farm colony, an experi- 
ment which General Booth had planned 
to be the foundation stone of his social 
enterprises, and large sums of money for 
all its various forms of work have flowed 
into the Salvation Army coffers because 
of this experiment. The farm colony of 
Hadleigh, England, was to be the proto- 
type of a large number which the army 
hoped to establish in all parts of the 
United States and Canada. When the 
Salvation Army asserts that the "proper 
solution of the problem of poverty is to 
place the 'landless man' on the 'manless 
land,' " it has but restated the problem 
and has gotten no nearer a solution. 

Booth-Tucker claimed that of the evils 
of society found in America the "worst 
of all is the tendency of public and phil- 
anthropic institutions to give aid only on 
condition of the family being broken up 
and the children made over to them. The 
father must go to this semi-penal insti- 
tution (the penitentiary), the mother to 
a second, and the children to the third." 
Mr. Solenberger, however, reminds 
Mr. Booth-Tucker that "men are not 
sent to the penitentiary in this country 
because they cannot find work, property 
is not confiscated by excessive taxation 
and the whole tendency in child-saving 
work in the United States is the exact 
opposite of that which Booth-Tucker de- 
scribes." Of the three colonies which 
were started with this imperfect knowl- 
edge of American conditions the one at 
Fort Herrick, Ohio, has ceased to be a 
farm-colony and is now used as an in- 
ebriates' home. The colonists at Fort 
Amity and Fort Romie have in most in- 
stances become self-supporting and have 
acquired a considerable equity in their 
homesteads, but no data is adduced as 
proof that they were, just prior to the 
period of colonization, dependent upon 
public or private charity ; on the contrary 
there is a considerable amount of proof 
that few, if any, belonged to that group 
which corresponds to what William 
Booth calls "the submerged tenth," for 
whom the farm colony was hailed as a 
panacea. It is not surprising therefore 
to find the department committee of the 
English Parliament appointed to consid- 
er H. Rider Haggard's report on the 
Salvation Army colonies in America, say- 
ing with regard to Fort Romie and Fort 
Amity, "the settlements, then, do not 
prove that, so far as colonization is con- 
cerned, unskilled and untrained persons 
can be taken from towns, put upon the 
land and thrive there." No one doubts 
but that American colonists who have 
"certificates of both physical and moral 
soundness" will succeed where land is 
provided on easy terms, but is the Sal- 
vation Army justified to ask the public 
for large funds to experiment with these 
on the plea that it is undertaking to solve 
grim poverty? 

1907 Shall Salvation Army take Public into its Confidence 119 

The Salvation Army also 
" So invoi'vS. ork appeals for funds on the 
plea that it is "lodging thou- 
sands of the homeless." From the finan- 
cial statement filed with the secretary of 
state of New York it appears that the 
"poor and destitute" who occupied the 
beds of the Salvation Army lodging 
houses paid in actual cash $311,819.32 
which is $21,730.12 over and above the 
total expense of these shelters. The 
Salvation Army is to be commended for 
making the enterprises pay, but its failure 
to give the public these facts raises the 
question of its right to ask support for 
some of its other enterprises. 

New York headquarters reports its 
Christmas dinner collections for Christ- 
mas, 1903, as $20,105.90, while the ex- 
penses of the dinner were $15,586.09, the 
balance being expended in relief during 
the year including payments for postage, 
carfare, stationery, etc. A comparison 
with the Christmas fund of 1904 is not 
exactly possible as the dinner fund was 
not kept separate according to the annual 
statements for 1905, but there is nothing 
pointing to a change in the policy of these 

The quality of the relief and "social" 
work with individual needy families must 
necessarily depend largely upon the in- 
telligence, devotion and experience of in- 
dividual officers, and undoubtedly many 
good deeds should be put to the credit of 
its officers. Mr. Solenberger cites sev- 
eral instances that present some proof of 
very poor work as well as an unquestion- 
ed tendency to exploit in the "yellow" 
newspapers the misfortunes of the poor 
for the advertisement of the army. The 
instances given also dispel the notion that 
the Salvation Army deals with families 
that do not come to the attention of other 
charitable societies both before and after 
becoming known to the Army. Instead 
of being willing to profit by the successes 
and mistakes of other agencies the Salva- 
tion Army remains unwilling to prevent 
duplication and overlapping of relief, 
and is content to work at cross purposes 
rather than to join hands with others, for 
fear of indirectly subjecting its work to 
others' scrutiny. 

Their unwillingness to co-operate with 
local charitable agencies, the entire lack of 
local boards, the levying of enormous annual 
contributions without permitting the donors 
any voice in the expenditure of the funds, 
the strictly military form of government, 
preventing even the "soldiers" of the Army 
from having any part in its management — 
all these defects and many others which 
might be mentioned seem to us to make the 
Salvation Army un-American and ill-adapted 
to carry out progressive and rational meas- 
ures of social relief (p. 23). 

Ever since Professor Hux- 
Mr * Book!™'* ley asked in 1891, ''Will 
General Booth submit to 
competent and impartial legal scrutiny 
the arrangements by which he and his 
successors are prevented from dealing 
with the funds of the so-called 'army- 
chest' exactly as he or they may please?" 
and got no satisfactory answer, the army 
has had critics of its financial policy. 
The last one is John Manson, whose 
book The Salvation Army and the Pub- 
lic, piles argument upon argument for 
publicity like veritable Ossa on Pelion. 
He shows that the growth of the army in 
England during the last twelve years has 
been slight, and that while only a very 
few hundreds have been added to the 
officers' strength during the past fifteen 
years, some five or six thousand officers 
at least must have been trained (in train- 
ing homes) mainly at the public cost. 
One of the many interesting pieces of in- 
formation which the army keeps jeal- 
ously to itself is the number of resigna- 
tions and dismissals of officers which 
take place every year. The amount of 
money expended in the religious work 
of the army in the United Kingdom dur- 
ing these fifteen years is estimated at 
$30,000,000, while only about $2,500,000 
has been expended on social work — a ra- 
tio of twelve to one. He believes, there- 
fore, that since a very large part of this 
money has been collected because of the 
general interest of the public in General 
Booth's program In Darkest England 
and the Way Out, an undue financial ad- 
vantage is taken of the public by virtue 
of its misconception of the extent of its 
work. As the public are not given the 
proper means of judging of the efficacy 
of the organization's work in proportion 
to its cost, the question naturally arises 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

whether the army's hesitation to give 
accurate facts and figures is a necessary 
part of its plans. If in accordance with 
the "orders and regulations" one tenth 
of all the "soldiers' " income is to be set 
aside for the use of the army, and, as 
Mr. Booth says, "thousands give five 
shillings a week out of a wage of five and 
twenty shillings," Mr. Manson asks why 
social work cannot be entirely severed 
from the religious work of the corps and 
the various congregations be expected to 
meet their own bills as is the case with 
other denominations. Failure to take the 
contributing public into its confidence 
once more interferes with a clear knowl- 
edge, but "it would appear that the total 
contribution of the members of the army 
in the United Kingdom barely suffices to 
do more than pay half the cost of the 
maintenance of the field and staff officers 
of the whole organization" (p. 58). Mr. 
Manson shows that the army is over pro- 
vided with halls and over staffed with 
officers much beyond its needs and that 
while other religious bodies undertake 
"social" work they bear the cost them- 

Its success has been extraordinary, but it 
has plainly not consisted in raising up, out 
of any class, a band of devoted men and 
women whose "social" work is the natural 
and spontaneous outcome of their fervent 
religious faith and is cheerfully done or 
paid for by their own unaided effort. 

The success has rather consisted in plac- 
ing the cost of holding the fervent faith 
upon the shoulders of people who, for the 
most part, frankly disapprove of it and of 
the methods by which it is maintained and 
sought to be spread; and in allowing the 
social work — also mainly paid for by others 
— constantly to act as an advertisement for 
and to disguise the religious work — so that 
the public are hopelessly confused in regard 
to it, paying several hundred thousand 
pounds a year in England for something 
which they do not want — and which if they 
did want it, they assuredly do not get — to 
the real detriment of all the army's aims, 
both social and religious (p. 63). 

Under the title of The High Finance 
of Salvationism, Mr. Manson devotes an 
interesting chapter to the discussion of 
its English business-philanthropies. The 
earliest large enterprise was the Salva- 
tion Army Building Association, Limit- 
ed, formed in 1884. Its object was prin- 

cipally the negotiation of loans to ad- 
vance the aims and objects of the Salva- 
tion Army. The management of the en- 
terprise remained independent of the 
army and on this account it seems trouble 
arose which led to its liquidation. The 
army claimed it could borrow on more 
advantageous terms elsewhere "while the 
directors were not willing to lend their 
shareholders' money to the army on the 
conditions as to interest or security to 
which the army might have been prepar- 
ed to agree" (p. Jj) 

and could no longer take the responsibility 
of concealing from the shareholders that 
the experiences of the past few years have 
ceased to exist, and that any delay in carry- 
ing out the winding up would be at the ex- 
pense of the shareholders' interests and 
would involve the sacrifice of their rights 
(p. 345). 

In Darkest England had among other 
plans proposed the founding of a poor 
man's bank, but when the Reliance Bank, 
Limited, was founded the original de- 
sign of lending money to the "little" man 
had become altered to that of borrowing 
money from him. The bank lends money 
to the army. In its balance sheet for 
March 31, 1904, one-third of its apparent 
assets consisted of "loans on mortgage 
of Salvation Army shop and hall prop- 

The arrangement then amounts to this: 
General Booth is substantially the Reliance 
Bank. As banker he borrows money from 
the public and lends a large portion of it 
to himself as general of his religious or- 
ganization; as general he receives from pub- 
lic contributions to his corps, money where- 
with to pay himself interest in the capacity 
of lender and it is this money which enables 
him to pay his investors their interest at 
the starting point (p. 83). 

The bank has not been able to find 
enough capital for the army so the Sal- 
vation Army Assurance Society, Limit- 
ed, was incorporated. The bankers of 
this society are the Reliance Bank, Ltd., 
which again is General Booth. About 
five-sixths of the society's 293,108 poli- 
cies in force in 1903 were industrial and 
fifty-four per cent of its premium in- 
come was swallowed up in management 
expenses and agent's commissions. As 
long as investors keep their confidence in 
business philanthropies that maintain no 

1907 Shall Salvation Army take Public into its Confidence 121 

safeguards but the personal honesty of 
General Booth and his associates and suc- 
cessors the enterprises may remain pros- 
perous. But will this confidence last? 

Mr. Manson is clearly disappointed with 
the measure of success with which Gen- 
eral Booth has been able to redeem the 
promises made in his "social scheme." 
"At present it is the public and not the 
industries and works carried on, who 
provide the army's shareholders with 
their heavy dividends" (p. 146) and he 
describes it as a "stationary or dwindling 
effort performed at a largely and con- 
stantly increasing cost to the public" (p. 

The book presents in one of its ap- 
pendices a number of statements from ex- 
officers which speak eloquently of their 
devotion under most trying conditions 
but which if at all typical portray a 
cruelty on the part of "headquarters" 
which may account for its large number 
of desertions. 

Even if the army's evangelistic efforts 
were effectual it would still be necessary to 
inquire whether the salvation of souls is 
not too dearly purchased by the systematic 
social submersion of the saviours (p. 255). 

Here again publicity is needed but the 
"soldiers" and officers are afraid in spite 
of their hardships to open their mouths. 

The Better ^ e ^ ear ^1". ManSOn IS 

side of the somewhat inclined to pro- 
ceed from the keen analysis 
of such weaknesses to an analysis of mo- 
tives which does not do justice to the 
general's insight into the condition of 
London's poor and his devotion to his 
people. We shall prefer to attribute the 
establishment of these rather shaky and 
"shady" business philanthropies and the* 
weaknesses in administration to the ne- 
cessity of borrowing large lump sums for 
which General Booth believed the public 
would furnish the interest through their 
annual contributions but which he could 
not hope to obtain as gifts. General 
Booth undertook a large scheme and his 
ambitions fostered by the devotion of his 
staff officers and many of the rank and 
file outran his resources. The army has 
had to underpay all its officers with few 
if any exceptions. Without justifying 

the neglect and starvation such as Lund- 
quist and other ex-officers charge, the 
army has, however, been free from the 
dead weights of lukewarm time servers 
and place seekers, — a not inconsiderable 
advantage in charitable and religious 

And is it reasonable to suppose that a 
"peoples church" like the Salvation Army 
has reached its position of confidence 
which enables it to appeal successfully 
year after year without making full ac- 
curate and intelligent accounting unless 
it has also on the credit side of its ledger 
a large measure of beneficent religious 
and social work which has satisfied the 
community's rough and ready test in in- 
dividual cases. The community has 
learned that while possibly the "Salva- 
tion lassie" could not boast of college 
training or foreign travel her garb was 
the symbol of a life of simplicity and de- 
votion ; it has learned that the enthusiasm 
and self sacrifice and devotion of its men 
and women with an optimism that over- 
comes obstacles often led them into 
hovel, gutter or brothel from which 
others would hold aloof, but from which 
they would now and then win back 
some sinking soul to decency and self- 
respect. Some of its rescue homes for 
women are among the most effective and 
some of its lodging houses for men are 
among the best that can be found in their 
class. In spite of the fact that some of 
its lodging houses for men and others for 
women are still very bad, the army should 
be given credit for a constant marked 
improvement in a number of its large 
enterprises. The contributing public is 
always ready to support with generosity 
work of this sort when well done and it 
is inconceivable that gifts should not in- 
crease when full, accurate and itemized 
reports and an accounting attested by a 
certified public accountant is available. 

The year just closed has also seen the 
publication of The Prophet of the Poor — 
The Life-Story of General Booth by 
Thomas F. G. Coates. It reads like the 
work of a professional biography writer. 
Far too much space is given to quotation 
from the army's bfficial documents and the 
general's own writing. We share with the 
author his great admiration for William 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

and Catherine Booth who could build up 
a large new church denomination in forty 
years against the greatest obstacles. But 
the biography is adulatory and not in- 
forming. We should like to have seen 
the facts which constituted the differences 
between the general and his son Balling- 
ton and which led to the split in the 
army's ranks and the necessity for build- 


; up another organization for public 
support. This chapter in the general's 
life is evidently considered too "unim- 
portant" to be more than slightly hinted 
at in the preface. We had expected to 
find this and many other incidents in the 
life-story of this picturesque and master- 
ful man interesting and worthy of por- 

TKe New Immigration .Act 

Robert DeC. 'Ward 

The editors of Charities and The 
Commons have asked my opinion of the 
new immigration act. I am (1) not an 
exclusionist ; nor (2) an advocate of a 
large measure of further restriction, but 
a "selectionist." I believe that neither 
the foreign steamship companies nor 
even the immigrants themselves are the 
most competent and unbiased judges as 
to the qualifications — physical, mental, 
moral — which make more fit or less fit 
for American citizenship, and for bring- 
ing into the world future American citi- 
zens, the alien peoples who come to our 
shores. I have some acquaintance with 
the existing conditions of alien immigra- 
tion, and with the way in which the im- 
migration laws have been administered, 
and approach the subject without race or 
religious prejudice. 

The new act is good in raising the 
head-money from $2 to $4. This slight 
increase should mean a somewhat larger 
"immigrant fund," better care and pro- 
tection of the aliens themselves, larger 
and more adequate accommodations at 
existing immigrant stations, the build- 
ing of new stations and a larger inspec- 
tion force, so that the officials shall not 
be obliged, as they now are, to be on 
duty daily, including Sundays and holi- 
days. The comfort and health of our 
immigrant inspectors demand an imme- 
diate increase in the force. The steam- 
ship companies raise their passage rates 
because of the higher head-money, seeing 
that the profit in carrying a single steer- 
age passenger across the ocean is now 
already very large. If the rates are 
raised, the increase will be a slight ad- 

vantage to the United States, in that it 
will tend to remove us by a very little 
from the unenviable position which we 
now occupy of being about the cheap- 
est place for Europeans to emigrate to. 
A "cheap excursion" does not usually 
attract the most desirable passengers. 
The act contains the provision that if the 
income from the head-money is more 
than $2,500,000 in any year, the excess 
shall not be added to the "immigrant 

The new act is good in excluding im- 
beciles, feeble-minded persons, epileptics 
and tuberculous aliens. A good many 
aliens are now certified as being "men- 
tally deficient," or "feeble-minded," and 
are not debarred because not actually 
idiots. No distinction should be made be- 
tween the idiotic and the feeble-minded. 
The latter are as undesirable additions 
to our population as the former; they 
propagate a great deal of feeble-minded- 
ness in their offspring, and in many 
cases subsequently become insane. 

The new act is good in excluding per- 
sons who are "mentally or physically de- 
fective, such mental or physical defect 
being of a nature which may affect the 
ability — to earn a living." The physique 
of our immigrants is deteriorating. 
Their physical condition is of more 
importance than their assimilation. Per- 
sons of poor physique are espec- 
ially susceptible to tuberculosis and 
other diseases resulting from crowding 
in unsanitary dwellings. The exclusion 
of this class would supplement the ex- 
clusion of persons "liable to become pub- 
lic charges," many of the latter now be- 

i 9 o7 

The New Immigration Act 


ing admitted on oral promises of friends 
or relatives to care for them, which 
promises are of no value and are largely 
disregarded. The best preventive of race 
decadence is the selection of good, 
strong, healthy stock. 

The new act is weak in that this excel- 
lent "poor physique" clause is largely nul- 
lified by giving the secretary of commerce 
and labor authority to admit physically 
defective aliens under bonds (except in 
case of tuberculosis or loathsome and 
dangerous contagious diseases). All 
past experience goes to show that such 
bonds are useless. All common sense 
goes to show that a physically defective 
and degenerate alien is undesirable, 
whether he be a public charge or no. 
Better to have 100,000 aliens spending 
all their lives in American almshouses, 
insane asylums, or prisons than to have 
500 physically weak, defective and de- 
generate aliens spending their lives in 
sweat-shops or factories, and reproduc- 
ing their kind to hand down these quali- 
ties of poor physique to succeeding gene- 
rations. We might establish a physical 
standard like that of the United States 
army or navy. That would be too high. 
We might require every alien to have a 
physique sufficiently rugged to enable 
him to work at hard manual labor, 
whether he be a clerk, or a painter, or 
a farm hand. That, also, would be too 
severe. The very least we can do is to 
establish a physical standard such that 
anyone so weak, degenerate or defective 
as to have his ability to support himself 
thereby interfered with should be ex- 
cluded. This does not mean that such 
"poor physique" cases are to be debarred 
because "liable to become public charges" 
(such are already debarred by law). 
But it sets a physical standard at the 
point of ability to support one's self at 
his own occupation. This is wise, reas- 
onable, necessary. It is the lowest 
physical standard of any value whatever 
which it is possible to establish. Excep- 
tions might very well be made in favor 
of the immediate relatives of admissible 
aliens or of responsible persons already 
in the United States. But beyond that 
the medical certificate of poor physique 
should debar as it does in the case of a 

loathsome disease. There should be no 
appeal, and no admittance under bonds. 

Section 26, which gives the secretary of 
commerce and labor authority to admit 
physically defective aliens on bonds, 
gives the same authority in "liable to be- 
come public charge" cases. This latter is 
not a new provision, but it would have 
strengthened the act very much had the 
amount of the bond been fixed by law 
at such a figure that the bond would 
really be effective. 

The act is good in excluding children 
under sixteen years of age unaccompa- 
nied by one or both of their parents. 
The secretary of commerce and labor is 
again given discretion in this matter, and 
may prescribe any regulations which he 
sees fit. The object of this provision is 
to prevent the importation of boys to 
work under the padrone system, and of 
girls for immoral purposes. 

The new act strengthens the contract 
labor provisions in certain respects. 

The present law imposes a fine of $100 
upon steamship lines bringing diseased 
immigrants, if the disease could have 
been detected at the port of departure. 
The new act is good in that it also im- 
poses fines for bringing idiots, imbeciles 
epileptics and tuberculous aliens. While 
the new law does not increase the fine, 
the extension of the fine system to other 
classes may bring up the total of fines to 
a point where the companies will be 
obliged to refuse to take the immigrants 
objected to. 

The new act is good in providing for 
more complete manifests, and for statis- 
tics of aliens emigrating from the United 

The new act is good in providing a 
uniform period of three years within 
which both those entering in violation of 
law and those becoming public charges 
from causes arising prior to landing may 
be deported. It also provides that the 
transportation, including one-half of the 
entire cost of removal to the port of de- 
portation, shall be at the expense of the 
steamship company. Under the new act 
it will be easier and more humane to de- 
port insane aliens, sending them back to 
their nearest relatives at home. 

The new act creates a commission, 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

composed of three senators, three repre- 
sentatives and three persons appointed 
by the president, to investigate the whole 
subject of immigration and report and 
make recommendations to Congress. It 
is not likely that this proposed investi- 
gation will bring to light any new 
facts. The subject has already been thor- 
oughly studied, carefully considered, and 
exhaustively argued. The demand for 
an investigating commission has come 
almost exclusively from those who are 
selfishly interested in having conditions 
continue as at present, and who are even 
hostile to any restrictive or selective 
legislation whatever. The new commis- 
sion will probably not report until after 
the next presidential election. Its rec- 
ommendations, when made, are as likely 
to be unheeded by Congress as to be em- 
bodied into legislation. 

The new act authorizes the president 
to call an international conference on 
immigration, a provision which is not 
likely to lead to any very definite results 
of practical value. It gives authority to 
the commissioner-general of immigra- 
tion to establish a division of information 
to promote the beneficial distribution of 
aliens among the localities desiring im- 
migration. Distribution of immigration 
has been urged by many persons as a 
solution of some of the present evils 
of overcrowding. In so far as the pro- 
posed provision can induce the scattering 
of aliens where their labor is desired, it 
should prove a valuable adjunct to the 
immigration laws and it is certainly worth 

trying. But it is to be remembered that 
"spreading the slum" does not improve 
the quality of the incoming aliens; that 
distribution is a palliative, not a cure; 
that distribution tends rather to increase 
than to diminish the number of new 

The new act is good in providing for 
increased air space on board steamships. 
This is an improvement which has long 
been necessary. 

The foregoing are the most important 
changes which the act makes in our im- 
migration laws, no reference being here 
made to Oriental immigration. It con- 
tains nothing revolutionary, or radically 
restrictive. It makes somewhat more 
effective the principles of selection which 
were contemplated in the original acts of 
1882 and 1891. One of its strongest 
points is the addition of aliens of poor 
physique to the excluded classes, when 
the ability to earn a living is affected. 
One of the weakest points is the provis- 
ion that such aliens may be admitted un- 
der bonds. Taken as a whole, the act of 
February 20, 1907, is not one which can 
give those who favor a good deal more 
careful selection any cause for enthusi- 
astic satisfaction. It is true that more 
effective selection is possible than under 
the old act if the law is properly enforc- 
ed, but a lax enforcement can make even 
the new law of practically no avail in 
debarring any but the most obviously 
diseased, decrepit, feeble-minded and 
generally unfit aliens. 

TKe Horse Car's Last Stand in New YorK 

Louis H. PinK 

University Settlement 

The "bob tail" cars that shamble across 
Broadway are an ever present reminder 
of the need in New York of a law giving 
large powers of oversight and regulation 
to a responsible body. The fond regard 
of the Metropolitan Street Railway Com- 
pany for these relics of a past generation 
is hard to understand — still more diffi- 
cult to explain is the tolerance of the 
traveling public. The horse cars are 

old, dirty, small, slow; poorly lighted, 
heated and ventilated. They do not give 
service; they can not be made to give 
service. They are out of joint with the 
times. No other large city stands for 
them, yet in Manhattan there is almost 
fifty miles of horse car trackage. 

The lower East Side, most in need of 
adequate transportation because of its 
teeming population, is served almost ex- 


The Horse Car's Last Stand in New York 


clusively by these cars. It has grumbled 
at the neglect of its rights and over the 
indignities it has suffered, but until a 
year ago made no organized effort to rid 
its streets of the nuisance. 

Last March several of the civic organi- 
zations and settlements petitioned the 
State Board of Railroad Commissioners 
for relief. After a public hearing that 
body promptly ordered the electrification 
of three of the crosstown lines. The 
railroad company snapped its fingers in 
the face of the commission and did noth- 
ing. The Board of Estimate and Ap- 
portionment was next petitioned to have 
the Franchise Bureau investigate into the 
validity of these franchises. The Fran- 
chise Bureau has made its report, which 
for some time past has been in the hands 
of the corporation counsel. 

Goaded by threatening legislation at 
Albany and by persistent attacks at 
home, the Metropolitan Street Railway 
Company early in 1907, through H. H. 
Vreeland, made public declaration of its 
plans as follows: 

I am now pleased to advise you that at 
a meeting of the board of directors of the 
New York City Railway Company a resolu- 
tion was adopted by said board authorizing 
the officers of the company to proceed with 
the electrification of the remaining horse car 
lines, and further authorizing them to make 
the necessary contracts for material and 
commence construction immediately upon 
the delivery of the structural fixtures. This 
authorization covers the greater part of the 
remaining horse car mileage, excepting such 
sections as West street and other marginal 
streets that are seriously affected by tidal 

Yet on March 26, in an interview with 
a committee from the East Side Civic 
Club, that had called upon the invitation 
of Mr. Shonts to discuss the traffic situa- 
tion on the East Side, Mr. Vreeland 
stated that never so long as he lived 
would he be in favor of the electrifying 
the Spring and Delancey street line. Is 

it at all strange that the public doubts the 
good faith of the Metropolitan Street 
Railway Company? That corporation 
has made promises before and has bro- 
ken them. Several years ago it secured 
the consent of the city authorities to the 
electrification of these lines ; it even is- 
sued bonds for the work, but did noth- 

Mr. Vreeland based his refusal to 
countenance the change of motive power 
of the Spring and Delancey street line 
on the ground that Spring street is too 
narrow to permit a double track electric 
road. Spring street is too narrow for a 
double track electric line ; it is too narrow 
for two tracks for horse cars ; trucks now 
have to drive upon the sidewalk to allow 
the cars to pass. The city authorities 
should long ago have compelled the rail- 
road company to make Spring street a 
single track road. This is done in Essex 
and Clinton streets, which are not so 
broad as Spring street. The Spring 
street cars should go west on Spring 
street and return east on Prince street, 
where the Metropolitan Street Railway 
Company already has a line of cars run- 
ning in that direction. 

This brings us to Mr. Shonts. As 
president of the Interborough he is evi- 
dently trying to straighten out the tangle 
of New York city transit. He believes 
in doing things for the people as well as 
for the stockholders ; he realizes that a 
copartnership between the railroad com- 
pany, the public and the city authorities 
offers the only loophole for escape from 
present conditions. There is need for 
unity, for the problem is immense. We 
trust that Mr. Shonts will see that the 
horse cars must go even if tracks have 
to be rearranged, or if new franchises 
have to be obtained and old ones for- 
feited. It is not strange that routes laid 
out half a century ago are now in need 
of revision. 

Federated JewisH CKarities of Baltimore 1 

Professor Jacob H. Hollander 
President of the Federated Jewish Charities of Baltimore 

It is no new thing for the Jews of 
Baltimore to gather in the name of 
charity. From the very beginning of our 
institutional life a half century ago the 
community has been summoned once a 
year, or oftener, to take counsel in the 
matter of its social problems. As con- 
ditions and requirements have changed, 
there has been development in agencies 
and methods. The relief given by early 
congregations was taken over in 1843 
by the Hebrew Assistance Society. Larg- 
er demands led to incorporation in 1856 
as the Hebrew Benevolent Society. In 
the same year came the Hebrew Ladies' 
Sewing Society, in 1859 the Hebrew Hos- 
pital and Asylum Association, in 1872 
the Hebrew Orphan Asylum, and there- 
after a succession of societies and or- 
ganizations designed to satisfy particular 
needs or to meet new requirements. 

There has often been delay. We have 
not always been free from a certain com- 
munal complacency. Old forms have 
sometimes persisted too long under cover 
of respectable old age, and the new and 
the untried have occasionally been vested 
with the discredit of unwise innovation. 
But these are the incidents of con- 
servative progress. Throughout we have 
realized our problem — the relief of Jew- 
ish suffering — and we have struggled for 
its solution according to the light that 
has been vouchsafed us. Whatever lies 
ahead, we may never forget those who 
did these things — their motives, their 
works, their hopes. Most of them have 
been gathered to the great rest, but their 
memory remains as a blessing and their 
example as an inspiration. 

In this spirit the Federated Jewish 
Charities of Baltimore — whose first an- 
niversary we are in a sense celebrating 
— is a natural phase in our charitable 
history. It has come into being as an 
attempt to meet more complex conditions 
in the old spirit, but with a new efficiency. 
Forty years ago the community was 

Address delivered at the First Annual Meeting of 
the Federated Jewish Charities of Baltimore, April 
14, 1907. 


small ; every member literally knew every 
other; cases of dependence were limited 
and familiar, and the economic ability of 
contributors could be unerringly checked 
against actual performance. But increase 
within and influx from without have 
changed all this. We have grown into 
a community of many thousand souls. 
Men barely know their neighbors. Eco- 
nomic requirement shows itself in new 
forms, and the relation of contribution 
to capacity is purely conjectural. 

With this transition, three distinct de- 
fects in our charitable system manifest- 
ed themselves : First, the amount given 
by the Jewish community for its charit- 
able purposes came to stand in no proper 
relation either to ability or to occasion. 
The receipts of the four oldest organiza- 
tions from annual contributions were 
actually no greater than they had been a 
term of years before, and the actual sup- 
porting membership was, if anything, 
less. Secondly, the funds necessary to 
maintain the several organizations were 
raised by crude, expensive and incon- 
venient methods. The community was 
pestered and dunned by a hundred and 
one different devices for money-getting 
— bazaars, banquets, balls, benefits — the 
net result of which was that, out of every 
dollar given by the contributor, an im- 
properly small part actually reached the 
purpose for which it was designed, the 
remainder being lost in expenses. Final- 
ly, this fierce struggle for financial ex- 
istence among the societies absorbed an 
undue amount of attention and energy 
on the part of their constituted officers, 
to the detriment of the real cares of in- 
ternal organization and institutional effi- 
ciency. In short, the community was 
not giving enough for the efficient main- 
tenance of its institutions, it was giving 
the amount which it did give in the most 
inconvenient and expensive manner, and 
it was making the institutional director- 
ates mere ways and means committees 
instead of administrative boards. 

The Federated Jewish Charities un- 

Federated Jewish Charities of Baltimore 


dertook to face this situation squarely. 
At the outset it affiliated the twelve most 
important societies in a form of organi- 
zation that interfered in no wise with 
individual automony, with vested inter- 
ests or with institutional traditions, and 
yet which centered in the federated body 
full financial responsibility and adequate 
powers. Organization effected, direct 
application for support was made to the 
community. Instead of twelve independ- 
ent appeals, supplemented by perhaps 
twice as many more indirect solicitations, 
one single businesslike contribution was 
invited, corresponding in amount to the 
aggregate need, and apportioned to the 
ability of the givers. The response of 
the community was admirable. On April 
10, 1907, the books of the federation 
showed a pledged subscription of $71,- 
883.10, a notable increase, in so far as 
can be reasonably determined, over the 
amount theretofore provided for the 
same purposes. It is true that the es- 
timated requirements of the constituent 
societies, as thereafter submitted to the 
federation, went cheerfully beyond the 
net amount available, yet this was, after 
all, a healthy symptom of that disposi- 
tion of all self-respecting institutions to 
ask very much in the expectation of re- 
ceiving somewhat more. Eventually, it 
was possible — after making reasonable 
allowance for non-collections and for 
emergency requirements — to allow each 
constituent organization either the same 
amount as theretofore received, or where 
increases were asked, a sum at least 
twenty per cent in excess of customary 

But if the federation has left the con- 
stituent societies at least as well off, it 
has assuredly left the community very 
much better off. The year 1907 should 
remain memorable in our communal life, 
if for no other reason, in that, for the 
first time in many seasons, we have been 
neither bazaared, nor balled, nor bene- 
fited. No tickets have been peddled 
about, and no automobiles have been 
raffled. We have given in the amount 
we have felt it right that we should give, 
freely, directly, in dignity and with the 
assurance that every penny so given, less 
only a narrow administrative charge, will 

reach the purpose for which it is design- 

As to the third promise which the 
federation held forth, namely, that the 
internal conduct of the constituent so- 
cieties would be improved by reason of 
the relief afforded the directors from the 
anxieties of money getting, it is possible 
to speak less definitely, not indeed be- 
cause such result has not followed, but 
because, from the nature of things, the 
evidence must be tangible and general. 
Yet that something of this has resulted, 
or at least should have resulted, is highly 
probable. The constituent societies sub- 
mitted their estimates at the beginning 
of the year, were allotted amounts as 
large, or larger, than they had thereto- 
fore collected, and are now receiving 
these amounts in such installments as 
best serve their purposes. They have 
had neither to solicit nor collect, and the 
energy, the thought and the anxiety, 
theretofore concentrated upon the bread 
and butter problem of maintenance, has 
been given to the more legitimate cares 
of management and administration. Un- 
der such conditions, if the whole insti- 
tutional standard has not been keyed up, 
it is surely not because opportunity has 
been lacking. 

But my purpose, briefly, is neither 
to rehearse the familiar program of 
what the federation undertook to do, 
nor strut in smug content over what it 
has succeeded in doing. Our concern 
is — as behooves a family council — to turn 
from past and present and to deliberate 
as to the future. What lies ahead of the 
federation and what are our mutual 
rights and obligations with respect there- 

In the first place, the federation is pre- 
pared to continue offering the same im- 
munity from indirect contribution and 
supplementary solicitation that have been 
enjoyed during the past year — provided 
that it receives the firm support, and re- 
tains the full confidence of the com- 
munity. The program of the federation 
in this respect is brief and explicit ; there 
are now in existence twelve affiliated or- 
ganizations, to say nothing of a consider- 
able number of unaffiliated bodies. What- 
ever warrant for the origin, or whatever 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

justification for the usefulness of these 
twelve societies, certainly there will be no 
dissent from the pious wish that circum- 
stances might have halved the burden, 
and that only six societies might have 
been created to do the work that the 
twelve are doing. But regret is a vain 
thing, and whatever the future may have 
in store in the way of union or consolida- 
tion — the immediate vista, which the 
community has before it, is twelve so- 
cieties. But clearly, this disposition to 
form new societies should not continue 
indefinitely. There should be no need- 
less multiplication of charitable agencies. 
It should not be within the right of any 
person or any group of persons to come 
together and form, for some unnecessary 
purpose, an independent society, the 
burden of whose support is to rest upon 
the community. It is not' for any indi- 
vidual, but for the community to decide 
whether there is need for any such 
activity, whether, if there be, its occasion 
is more urgent than other alternative 
plan, and finally whether the actual exer- 
cise of the new function, if it be justi- 
fied, should not be correlated with an 
existing society rather than centered in 
a new and independent one. And in say- 
ing it is for the community, I imply that 
it is for the federation, to decide. This 
is not any arrogation of power, no ar- 
bitrary assumption. On the contrary, it 
is arrogance and assumption for a hand- 
ful to impose a communal burden. The 
federation represents the trusteeship of 
Baltimore Jewish philanthropy. If the 
stewardship is improperly exercised, 
change the personnel and oust the di- 
rectorate. But see to it, that for the ill- 
considered irresponsibility of individual 
initiative there be substituted the de- 
liberate action of responsible agents. 

There is little reason to anticipate that 
the federation will be called upon to 
exercise this veto power. If it fully 
serve its purpose, it will, by wise judg- 
ment and conservative action, so win the 
confidence and so hold the faith of the 
community that no charitable plan will 
be formed apart from its deliberation 
and no charitable act will be taken con- 
trary to its policy. But, providing for 
the remotest contingency — if at any time 

there should be a reckless neglect of the 
things for which the federation stands — 
it is the unquestioned duty of the com- 
munity to maintain the federation in the 
position it will have taken. Any attempt 
to establish a new society which the 
federation has declined to endorse, de- 
claring it necessary or inexpedient, 
should receive no support from the com- 
munity, just as an attempt to raise charit- 
able funds for a purpose or in a manner 
discountenanced by the federation should 
be nipped summarily. It is no easy thing 
to refuse a membership or decline a 
ticket, but of these is the dignity of a 
people and the efficiency of its institu- 

But the prime purpose of the federa- 
tion, it must always be remembered, is 
not a mere negation to protect the com- 
munity from the nuisance of ticket ped- 
dling and subscription begging. It is 
rather an affirmative duty to ensure for 
Jewish suffering and distress that full 
degree of relief, both positive and pre- 
ventive, which conditions require and re- 
sources permit. This means, first, a full 
and adequate support of the institutions 
in existence and the activities now ex- 
ercised. Second, it means an increasing 
income to cope with the problems of 
larger numbers, direr distress and more 
efficient relief. Third, it means the pos- 
sibility of undertaking — when the im- 
perative occasion therefor has been made 
unmistakeably clear — new spheres of re- 
lief work and the support of new types of 

The federation will not sound the alarm 
needlessly; it will not cheapen its in- 
fluence by a chronic petition ; it will seek 
faithfully to measure requirement against 
capacity, and it will ask of the Jews of 
Baltimore and their friends only that 
amount in aggregate which it is neces- 
sary to receive and which it is possible 
to give. But when, all these things being 
true, the federation does make a deliber- 
ate, well-considered appeal for larger 
contribution — then, by every recognition 
of what it has done and by every possi- 
bility of what it can do — the community 
must respond promptly and completely. 
The federation will present its plea not 
for benevolence, but for righteousness. 


Federated Jewish Charities of Baltimore 


If Jewish idealism is to dominate and 
Jewish tradition to prevail, the gift must 
be no mere emanation of kindly impulse, 
but a phase of right living. With any- 
thing less than this the federation will 
fail as an educational and as a stimulat- 
ing force. Instead of developing the 
charitable impulse, it will stunt and dull 
it; instead of making it easier to give, 
it will make is easier to evade. 

Here, too, the outlook, if not chrystal- 
lized in definite promise, has at least 
nothing to make us fearful. The re- 
sponse of the community to the federa- 
tion's first appeal was not only substan- 
tial in amount, but fine in spirit. If pub- 
lic sentiment can be interpreted aright, 
the confidence originally so expressed 
has grown stronger, and it is, I believe, 
no undue optimism to anticipate that the 
federation will always be able to receive 
from the community that amount which 
it requires and deserves. 

In two notable directions the ordinary 
revenues of the federation as derived 
from direct subscriptions may be supple- 
mented — by bequests and by special 
gifts. It is a matter of congratulation 
that at this first annual meeting an- 
nouncement may be made of an initial 
bequest and of a considerable gift — the 
latter conditionally tendered and not yet 
finally accepted. The administrators of 
the estate of the late Moses Pels 
have, in pursuance of their trust, made 
available a sum of money to be designat- 
ed as the Moses Pels Memorial Fund, 
the income of which shall forever be de- 
voted to the purposes of the federation. 
It is a fine thing that the first legacy to 
the Federated Jewish Charities, the pre- 
cursor of many hereafter to be received, 
should come from the estate and perpetu- 
ate the memory of one who devoted some 
of the best energies of his life to Jewish 
philanthropy. No man in Baltimore was 
more in sympathy with the idea of fed- 
eration, provided that it could be estab- 
lished upon a sane and workable basis, 
than Moses Pels. He was unwilling to 
see any reckless attempt made in that 
direction, but when a reasonable and 
promising plan was proposed he gave 
cordial support. 

One of the most remarkable social 

movements of the past year has been the 
widespread attack upon tuberculosis. 
Following hard upon the scientific 
demonstration that this dread malady, 
far from being the hopeless affliction that 
fear and tradition have so long made it, 
has come sure knowledge that it is a 
perfectly preventable, perfectly curable 
disease if only taken in its incipent stage 
and subjected to proper curative treat- 
ment. The social conscience has been 
thoroughly aroused and public and 
private agencies are now vieing with 
each other in scientific plan and ener- 
getic campaign against the white plague. 
To this salvage work the Jews of Bal- 
timore have already made notable con- 
tributions, but now an opportunity of 
unique occurrence and brilliant quality 
is presented. I am happy to announce 
that a member of the federation, Jacob 
Epstein, has communicated to me his 
willingness to give the sum of $25,- 
000 for the erection of a hospital or 
sanatorium for Jewish consumptives, 
provided the Federated Jewish Chari- 
ties will undertake, directly or indi- 
rectly, the maintenance and support 
thereof. This proposition is now re- 
ceiving the earnest and deliberate at- 
tention of the officers of the Federa- 
tion. Many considerations must enter 
into account, every phase of the matter 
must be carefully weighed. I can only 
give you the assurance that there will 
be no hasty, no thoughtless action. But 
whatever conclusion may be reached, I 
am sure I voice the sentiment of the com- 
munity in expressing my profound ad- 
miration and respect for the generosity 
in which this splendid gift has been con- 
ceived, and for the delicacy of spirit, the 
breadth of purpose and the wisdom of 
performance in which it has been ten- 

I may be permitted to supplement this 
by the informal statement that within the 
past forty-eight hours four gentlemen 
have announced spontaneously and with- 
out any solicitation that provided a suffi- 
cient number of others will co-operate, 
each of them will contribute over and 
above their present generous subscription 
the sum of $500 a year for a term of 
three to five years, toward the support 


Charities and The Commons 

April 2 j 

of such an institution as has been pro- 

Economy and convenience in giving, 
adequacy and efficiency in maintenance, 
these once secured, and the largest, most 
difficult problem of the federation still 
lies ahead. It is to bring about that co- 
ordination in effort that improvement in 
method in the Jewish charities of Balti- 
more which experience and study sug- 
gest. Here there is need of much 
patience and forbearance, of infinite tact 
and consideration. Vested rights must 
be respected, tradition and custom may 
not be ignored. In extensive effort it 
should foe the goal of the federation 
ultimately to associate in one adminis- 
trative oversight every Jewish charitable 
agency of Baltimore, whether its office 
quarters be located east or west of Jones's 
Falls. The burdens and the responsi- 
bilities of Israel are one. 

Trampled and beaten were they as the 

And yet unshaken as the continent. 

Those who need aid to-day will give 
aid to-morrow. Association, not conde- 
scension, is the keynote of wise effort. 

So, too, in intensive endeavor the 
federation can provide the machinery, 

even suggest the mechanism — without 
intrusion and interference — for enabling 
each constituent society to reach its 
largest usefulness. This is surely our 
joint concern. In the long run, common 
sense and hard-headed judgment will 
prevail, and the community which has 
followed so readily and cheerfully in 
wise departure from the accustomed way 
may be counted upon to evince the same 
qualities of enterprise and progress for 
the new problems. 

My message then is congratulation 
and cheer, expectation and hopefulness. 
We have our difficulties, but we shall 
meet them, and it is right that we should ; 
for if the faith to which we give our 
allegiance counts for anything — and I 
speak here with the hesitation and re- 
serve of the veriest of laymen — must it 
not mean — to phrase the fine words of a 
late historian of Israel's aspiration — not 
mere participation in the. larger ideals of 
humanity, the ideals of perfection for 
the human race, but universal peace, an 
age of justice and righteousness, an age 
in which all men will recognize the divine 
unity. Surely in that prospect, the wisest 
charity, the Zedokah of the law and the 
prophets, figures as a personal charge 
no less than as a communal concern. 

Free Eye-Glasses for ScKool Children 

Statement by the Charity Organization Society of Ne-w Yorh 
City in Opposition to the Proposition to Supply Free Eye-glasses 
to School Children and Treatment for Defective Eyesight at the 
Expense of the City; submitted at a hearing before a committee 
of the Board of Education at which opposition was offered by 
Charles C. Burling'ham, Chairman of the Committee on the 
Physical Welfare of School Children, Dr. Lee R. FranKel of the 
United Hebrew Charities, and representatives of Hospitals, Dis- 
pensaries, Etc. 

The proposition to furnish skilled oculists 
to treat all pupils in the public schools who 
have defective eyesight and to give glasses 
to all for whom they are prescribed is op- 
posed by the Charity Organization Society 
because it represents a radical departure 
from the well-established policy of the city 
in regard to public outdoor relief. It is like 
the giving of coal, groceries, clothing or any 
other necessaries of life from funds raised 
by taxation. All such relief is unnecessary 
and harmful. The giving of glasses and of 
free medical service is not a natural and 
logical development of the excellent work 
which has been done in the medical inspec- 
tion of school children. The purpose of that 
inspection has been to find out who need 

treatment and to suggest to parents that 
such treatment is necessary, or, in the case 
of infectious diseases, to exclude children 
so long as the dangerous condition remains. 
The present plan is to give both the treat- 
ment and the glasses to all who need them, 
regardless of the ability of the parents to 

If there were no other way to supply 
glasses and needed medical advice, except 
at the expense of the taxpayers, we would 
of course favor the recommendation, just 
as we would favor giving food and clothing 
if children could not be otherwise supplied, 
but any such assumption is preposterous. 
The natural and reasonable course is for 
parents to supply their own children with 


The Trend of Things 


food and clothing and glasses and medical 
care. We believe that every wage-earner's 
family should have income enough to sup- 
ply their personal wants, and we believe, 
moreover, that except in rare instances of 
sickness or other misfortune they have, and 
that they will prefer to shoulder their own 

For the exceptional cases in which parents 
cannot afford to buy glasses, there are dis- 
pensaries and charitable agencies which will 
meet every proper demand upon them, and 
will not ask the city to spend a dollar for 
the purpose. If it is said that they have 
not done so in the past, the answer is that 
the demands have not been made. System- 
atic inspection to ascertain what physical 
defects there are among school children has 
only fairly begun. There has been no such 
persistent' and long-continued effort to in- 
form and educate parents, as to justify our 
suddenly throwing the responsibility from 
the family to the state. In so far as any 
attempts have been made to secure co-opera- 
tion of this kind from parents and dispen- 
saries they have been remarkably successful, 
but the attempts have been made only on a 
small scale and spasmodically. 

Many things are objected to on the ground 
that they are paternalistic which, in fact, 
are not so, but this plan does represent the 
most complete and demoralizing kind of 
paternalism. It proposes to relieve parents 
of what is, in the nature of the case, a 
strictly personal necessity. The care of the 
teeth, and every other kind of medical and 
surgical attendance are as closely connected 
with the work of the school-room as the 
treatment of defective eyesight. To give 
glasses and free treatment for defective eye- 
sight is to take a first long step toward 
turning over the whole responsibility for the 
support and care of children to the state. 
There is not a shadow of reason for reliev- 

ing parents of responsibility for the care 
of their children's eyes which does not 
equally apply to the care of their ears, 
lungs, and stomach. The analogy of free 
text-books and stationery, even if the wis- 
dom of furnishing them free is admitted, 
does not apply, since these are a part of the 
school equipment and their ownership does 
not become personal. Glasses are needed as 
much outside the schoolroom as in it. They 
will need to be replaced as often as they 
are lost or broken, and this depends more 
upon the way they are treated at home and 
on the street than upon the care given them 
during school hours. The medical prescrip- 
tion, on the other hand, — which is, of course, 
the most expensive part of the present plan 
— should be a part of the general medical 
oversight and care of the child. The parent 
has the right and should have the duty of 
deciding who shall give this treatment. In 
case they are unable to pay for it, and must 
accept free treatment, they should never- 
theless have the right and the responsibility 
of deciding where to go for it. 

The Board of Education has not yet been 
able to supply a sufficient number of sittings 
for children of school age who desire to 
attend the public schools. They have not 
been able to develop a proper system of ele- 
mentary industrial training. They have not 
been able to extend vacation schools, even- 
ing schools and recreation centers to corre- 
spond with the recognized needs. Under 
these circumstances, in view of the admitted 
ability of parents in the very great majority 
of all cases to take care of their own chil- 
dren, and in view of the demonstrated 
ability and willingness of dispensaries and 
charitable societies to provide for all whose 
parents have not this financial ability, we 
are emphatically opposed to this radical, as 
it appears to us revolutionary, and certainly 
unnecessary proposition. 

THe Trend of THings 

Jacob Riis has written a little word of 
warning in the April Century against The 
Gambling Mania that seems to be gripping 
America, on stock exchange, race track and 
in business. "We must shake it off," he 
says, "if we are not to end as a nation of 

* * * 

The second of Professor Charles R. Hen- 
derson's articles on Industrial Insurance is 
published in the March American Journal 
of Sociology. Very succinctly he sketches 
the existing mutual aid associations among 
workingmen to care for those who are in- 
injured, or are sick, or die. "The state," he 
concludes, 'might well accept this genuine 
product of elementary patriotism, these 

little groups of brave pioneers, adopt their 
societies into a great and powerful system 
covering the land, and at the same time re- 
tain all the advantages of self-government 
in small societies in which men gain their 
best preparation for participation in the 
larger affairs of political action." 

The New York State Library Bulletins for 
the year 1905, are now complete containing 
the review of legislation, the index of leg- 
islation and the governor's messages for 
that year. The governor's messages for 
1906 are also complete while another bulle- 
tin indexes the messages of the governor of 
New York, 1777-1901. 


Charities and The Commons 

April 27 

An example of how probation betters the 
suspended sentence is given in the recently 
issued sixty-first annual report of the Prison 
Association of New York 1905-6: "An intelli- 
gent bookkeeper, already turned fifty, had 
falsified his accounts to the amount of two 
hundred dollars. He had once been well-to- 
do, and even up till a year before his aged 
mother had been maintained in great com- 
fort by a rich relative. But finally, on the 
latter's death, she had been thrown on him 
as her sole support. Not having the heart 
to ask her at the age of eighty-five to change 
her standard of living, he struggled to meet 
expenses by working after hours. Despond- 
ent and failing in strength, he began to 
drink, and thus steeled, resorted to crooked 
measures." His employers felt his ingrati- 
tude keenly but finally the idea of probation 
was made to appeal to them. They agreed 
that conviction would be shock enough pro- 
vided his weakened will were sustained by 
the surveillance of probation. "Prison would 
surely have ended his earning capacity and 
meant the death of the lonely mother. To- 
day this probationer has quite recovered 
himself, and by curtailing expenses, is seek- 
ing to make full restitution by instalments." 

In the quarterly bulletin of Commissioner 
P. Tecumseh Sherman of the New York 
State Department of Labor for the last 
three months of 1906, considerable com- 
ment is made on the lessened activities 
of trade and the unprecedented influx of 
aliens. The number of alien arrivals at the 
Port of New York was 297,268, being 50,000 
greater than the corresponding period of 
1905. In the calendar year the number of 
immigrants admitted at the Port of New 
York was 963,669. About forty per cent of 
the aliens remain in New York state. To- 
ward the end of 1906 the unprecedented de- 
mand for labor fell off slightly in certain 
branches of industry. In the last three 
months of the year the state of employment 

was not quite so favorable as in the corre- 
sponding period of 1905, although it sur- 
passed any other year of the decade. Among 
93,000 wageworkers in about eighty-five dif- 
ferent trades and occupations, 14,352 were 
idle at the end of December, as compared 
with 10,223 a year earlier. The Bureau of 
Mediation and Arbitration recorded forty- 
three new trade disputes, as against twenty- 
six in the corresponding period of 1905, and 
eleven in 1904. The total number of acci- 
dents in factories, mines, and quarries was 
4,616. The number of inspections of fac- 
tories, bakeshops, tenement buildings, etc., 
was 11,606. 

* * * 

"To obtain for the army of unskilled 
males and females employment at a living 
wage is the most difficult problem of the 
State Free Employment Office," says The 
Gazette, issued by that office in Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts. "The applicants have little to 
offer aside from their physical strength, and 
that quite often is very small." Quite im- 
portant in its bearing on the need for in- 
dustrial education is the observation that 
"the majority of males applying for work 
in the unskilled department had never 
learned to do anything beyond the simplest 
form of manual labor." A large manufac- 
turer is quoted as saying that of 5,535 men 
who left or were discharged during ten 
months last year, "over twenty per cent 
ceased to be employes on account of inca- 
pacity." Taking the record of seventy-four 
days, from December 3, 1906, to February 
28, 1907, the employment office offered 6,433 
positions to 12,973 male applicants and 2,429 
positions to 4,402 female applicants. That 
is 49.58 per cent of the males received of- 
fers of positions and 55.18 per cent of the 
females or 51 per cent of both sexes. Thus, 
roughly speaking, a few more than half the 
applicants were offered work. The em- 
ployers asked for 9,466 persons and were 
offered 8,862 employes, a percentage of 93.62 
employers' calls met. 


The Insane of Illinois 

To the Editor: 

I read with interest the paragraphs in a 
recent number regarding the insane of Illi- 
nois, a state which has in past years hon- 
ored me beyond my deserts, and of which, 
as a citizen, I am justly proud, especially of 
its public institutions. Dr. Tucker, of Syd- 
ney, Australia, who made, in 1882-83, a tour 
of inspection of the insane hospitals and 
asylums of the world, and published his ob- 
servations in a volume of more than 1500 
pages, octavo, said of the hospital at Jack- 

sonville, "as near perfection as possible"; of 
that at Anna, "everything about this hospital 
bears the stamp of good management"; of 
that at Elgin, "in perfect order"; of that at 
Kankakee, "one of the most remarkable in- 
stitutions in America"; of the state school 
for the deaf, "this institution is a grand one 
in every respect"; and of the institution for 
the feeble-minded, "I found much to admire 
and nothing to criticise in the arrangement 
and order of the establishment, and the treat- 
ment of the inmates." Dr. Tucker further 
credited Illinois with having the best insti- 
tutions, on the whole, that he had seen in 




any state of the union, but he ranked those 
of Ohio and Minnesota in the same class. I 
should greatly deprecate any mention of "re- 
form" in the administration of these institu- 
tions which conveys by indirection any re- 
flection upon their record prior to the admin- 
istration of Gov. Altgeld, who reversed the 
policy of the state with reference to them 
and made them, for the first time in their 
history, adjuncts of the political machine. 

The word "Psychopathic" is a recent addi- 
tion to the technical vocabulary of psychia- 
try; but what the present state board of 
charities in Illinois proposes was recom- 
mended, by the board of which I was secre- 
tary, more than a quarter of a century ago, 
in its report, submitted November 1, 1880. 
In this report they said: "Pathological re- 
search is one of the great aids to the ad- 
vancement of science. A competent, able 
pathologist, specially educated for his work, 
with the most improved apparatus at his 
command, and the amount of material which 
an insane asylum has to offer for his inves- 
tigations, might render very great service to 
science and possibly to humanity." They 
therefore recommended the employment, at 
an adequate salary, of "a man of command- 
ing ability, as well as favorably known in his 
profession on account of present attainments 
in this line of investigation, who should de- 
vote his whole time to this exclusive work, 
and be entirely disconnected with any exist- 
ing institution." This was the repetition of 
a suggestion made by them two years earlier, 
now nearly thirty years since. Two of the 
Illinois hospitals have had so-called patholo- 
gists on their medical staffs, but not of the 
character and ability indicated, nor were 
they relieved from the routine duties of an 
assistant physician, and the results were 
therefore unsatisfactory. 

As to hydro-therapy, when the plans for 
the institution at Peoria were in course of 
preparation, I took the architect with me 
east, and we spent the larger part of a day 
with Dr. Baruch, studying the system invent- 
ed by him, with the result that its adoption 
was decided upon; and in the architect's of- 
fice may still be seen, if not destroyed, the 
plans for a bath-house in which scientific 
use could be made of hot and cold water as 
a therapeutic agency. I left the state, to 
assist in taking the federal census, and this 
house was not built. Had I remained in 
Illinois it undoubtedly would have been. 

My twenty-four years of service as secre- 
tary of the Illinois board have necessarily 
made me familiar with many details of their 
history not known, or not remembered, by 
others new to the work. It seems to me due 
to the memory of the pioneers in it, my asso- 
ciates, that the facts stated in this letter 
should be recalled, and proper credit given 
them for having been far in advance of pub- 
lic sentiment, and laid foundations on which 
their successors can safely build. 

Frederick Howard Wines. 

Beaufort, N. C. 

New YorK City Home 

To the Editor: 

I have read Mr. Kelly's appeal in Chari- 
ties and The Commons of recent date, for 
more homes for the aged. I am quite in 
sympathy with its purpose; I think, how- 
ever, he is unfortunate in some of his ex- 
pressions and leaves a false impression on 
the public mind. This is particularly true 
of the phrase, "the city home is open, to be 
sure, but to one who has known better 
things, the potter's field is preferable." 

After eight years of intimate knowledge of 
our city home, I feel that Mr. Kelley's state- 
ment is extreme and if he were better ac- 
quainted with the home I am sure he would 
modify this statement. If I know myself, 
I believe I should be as earnestly indignant 
as Mr. Kelley or any other citizen at any 
malfeasance in the administration of affairs- 
in the city home. 

In 1904 I visited five workhouses in Eng- 
land (as they name them there). At Ches- 
ter, Oxford, Winchester, Canterbury and 
Liverpool. In all these institutions except 
Liverpool, there were less than 200 inmates. 
No one of them in any particular was su- 
perior to the city home. At Liverpool with 
a population of less than 700,000 there were 
2,500 inmates in the workhouse. The in- 
stitution is in the populous part of the city. 
The inmates were a heterogeneous collection 
of tramps and poor little two months babies 
dying of cholera morbus. They were shut 
in from the outer world by an eight foot 
brick wall. The remembrance of my day 
there is a constant nightmare. Compare this 
to our home with its 2,700 inmates, repre- 
senting a population of 2,000,000, beautifully 
situated on Blackwell's Island, with perfect 
liberty for the inmates to roam about all day 
long. The contrast is very decided. 

What can a man or woman aged and infirm 
look for in life more than a warm room and 
clean, comfortable beds to sleep in — good, 
wholesome and varied food to eat, a church 
to go to, plenty of papers, magazines, and 
books to read. All these the inmates of our 
home have. 

All that I have said does not militate 
against the fact that the home might be 
better and that there is room for reform. 
But year by year there is constant progress 
— some day we may reach perfection. 

Ithamar W. Beard. 
Chaplain of the Chapel of the Good Shep- 
herd, New York City Home for the Aged 
and Infirm, Blackwell's Island. 


Industrial Education. — The public school 
system in its relation to industrial efficiency 
will be discussed from three viewpoints — 
those of the manufacturer, the labor union- 
ist and the educator — at a three day session 
to be held May 8, 9 and 10 at Providence 
by the Conference of Eastern Public Educa- 


Charities and The Commons 

tion Associations. Thirty-four societies will 
be represented and most of the sessions will 
be held at Brown University. Among the 
speakers are Dr. Faunce of Brown, Presi- 
dent Henry S. Pritchett of the Boston Insti- 
tute of Technology, who will tell of the 
work of the National Society for the Promo- 
tion of Industrial Education; Miss Susan 
M. Kingsbury of Simmons College, who will 
speak on opportunities in industrial life, 
and Miss Julia Richman of New York, on 
the obligation of the school to the child 
wage earner. John Golden of Fall River, 
president of the textile workers' union, will 
speak for union labor, prominent manufac- 
turers of representative Rhode Island in- 
dustries will present what the employers 
have on the subject, and the discussion of 
this very practical session will be opened 
by Mrs. May Schenck Woolman of the Man- 
hattan Trade School for Girls. On the final 
day President Kenyon L. Butterfield of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College will 
speak on the rural school and the farm com- 
munity, and Bolton Hall on intensive agri- 
culture as an educational industry. The 
Journal of Education, which has been chosen 
as the official organ of the movement, has a 
special issue dated April 20, on industrial 

Employment Exchange. 

Address all communications to Miss Helen M.Kelsey, 
Editor Employment Exchange of Charities and The 
Commons, Room 535, 156 Fifth Avenue. Kindly enclose 
postage if a reply is desired. 

YOUNG woman, college graduate, who has done 
successfully a piece of original investigation in 
connection with labor problems, wishes an op- 
portunity to continue such work during the coming 

YOUNG man of considerable business experience 
wishes position as Financial Secretary with 
some large institution or society. 

YOUNG women of experience with children, either 
as primary or kindergarten teachers, or as 
volunteer workers in the settlements, wish op- 
portunities in the Fresh Air Work in the vicinity of 
New York. 

YOUNG woman who has had practical experience 
in settlement management, but who prefers the 
actual work with people rather than organizing, 
wishes an opening in the Fall as Asst. Head Worker in 
a well-established settlement, where she can gain fur- 
ther experience. 

WANTED— A woman of experience in settlement 
management to take the Head-Workership in 
a settlement in the vicinity of New York. 

WANTED— Man of successful experience in set- 
tlement work to take charge of the boys' and 
men's departments in a well-established settle- 
ment in the East. 

WANTED— A general secretary for neighborhood 
work on a large scale of over 20 years' standing 
Chiefly among Italians, Hebrews and Negroes 
Office forces of 12 clerks, Clubs and Work well estab- 
lished and prosperous. Visiting Nursing, Rainy Day 
Clubs, Pasteurized Milk Station, Library, etc. 

Meeting of Federated Jewish Charities, 
Baltimore. — The Federated Jewish Charities 
of Baltimore have held their first annual 
meeting at which Louis Marshall of New 
York was the principal speaker and Pro- 
fessor Jacob Hollender read his president's 
report, which is reprinted in this issue of 
Charities and The Commons. Jacob Ep- 
stein, already a large contributor to the 
federation, announced that he had made a 
gift of $25,000 for a hospital for the treat- 
ment of consumptive Jews. Pour men who 
were present at the meeting were so im- 
pressed with this gift, that each one volun- 
teered to make an annual donation of $500 
towards the maintenance of the hospital. 
A committee has been appointed to decide 
upon the most effective manner in which 
the money can be used; this committee will 
consult with the Maryland Society for the 
Prevention and Relief of Tuberculosis. 

Model Tenement, Detroit. — Rabbi Max 
Franklin of Detroit, has announced to the 
Hebrew Ladies' Society that David Neder- 
lander offers them the privilege of selecting 
a plot of ground with which he will present 
them, and upon which the society will im- 
mediately begin to erect a model tenement. 
Rabbi Franklin says that another Detroit 
business man is ready to donate a second 
building site as soon as the society can take 
advantage of it. 

Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asylum. — San 
Francisco responded generously to the call 
for help for the Pacific Hebrew Orphan Asy- 
lum and Home Society. The institution has 
been compelled to face an annual deficit of 
some $23,000, which was further increased 
by the falling off in contributions during the 
past year. A committee consisting of Judge 
M. C. Sloss and Messrs. Moses Heller and 
Abraham Hass, was appointed to secure ad- 
ditional annual subscriptions from among 
the members with the result that there is 
an increase of $19,445 from about one hun- 
dred members in yearly payments of from 
one thousand to one hundred dollars. 

The Beth Israel Hospital 


offers a two years' course in the study of nursing to 
women from 21 to 33 years of age, with High School 
education. An allowance of $7.00 and $10.00 
per month is made for uniforms and books. 
For information address. 

Superintendent School of Nurses, 


Cherry Street, New York City. 


Investigates and gathers facts, statistics, etc., for 

By appointment only, 144 East 22d St., N. Y. Tel. 6406 Graraercy 

Member of Executive Committee of St. Paul's Co- 
operative Cluh of Business and Professional Women. 
Visitor of Italian Division Calvary Settlement. Active 
Patroness of Clear.Pool Camp. 


AND The Commons 

TKe New View 

A Foreword Fortnig'Ktly hy tKe E,ditor 


The best investment of which we have knowledge for any social worker is 
the purchase of a copy of Simon .N. Patten's The New Basis of Civilization which 
is announced for May 8 and which will be sent post paid by Charities and The 
Commons at the publisher's net price of a dollar and a quarter. 

Professor Patten was appointed by the trustees of the New York School of 
Philanthropy as the first lecturer in a special series given each year and known, in 
recognition of John S. Kennedy's endowment of the School, as the Kennedy 
Lectureship. It is the substance of this first Kennedy course which appears in 
this volume. Professor Patten's successors in the series are President Arthur 
T. Hadley, whose lectures on The Basis of Public Morals will appear within a 
few weeks, and Professor J. W. Jenks, whose course will be given in the autumn 
and subsequently published. 

Professor Patten is a university teacher who, so far as we know, has never 
lived in a settlement, served on a board of managers, acted as a friendly visitor, 
appeared before legislative committee in advocacy of a reform measure, or exposed 
graft or corruption in politics or business. He is, nevertheless, the ablest exponent 
of the new view of philanthropy. Others have shown sympathy for distress. 
The philosophy which permeates The New Basis of Civilization is more com- 
pletely democratic, and offers a sounder basis for rational optimism than we have 
discovered in the writings of any other defender or critic of existing conditions. 
Others have devised schemes to relieve the distress of particular classes. Prof- 
fessor Patten is satisfied with nothing less than the abolition of poverty. Others 
have proposed schemes of economic revolution, involving the complete abandon- 
ment of private property and other fundamental social institutions as they now 
exist. Professor Patten is in these respects a thorough-going conservative, 
building entirely upon historic foundations. Others have waxed eloquent over 
the possibility of educating and making efficient such persons as have ambition 
or latent special capacities. Professor Patten in this volume fearlessly enters 
even the forbidding, and to many people, hopeless field of deficient motives, 
and shows the place in a scheme of social progress of such agencies as create a 
motive for industry, regularity of work, and submission to discipline. It is for 
this reason that, whether the reader agree with the details of Professor Patten's 
program or not, he will gain inspiration from the radical thinking — none the 
less radical because not destructive — and from the tone of confidence which 
characterize this volume. 

The remedies which are suggested are not mechanical panaceas. They have 
no flavor of materialism, although some who have not taken the trouble to under- 
stand Professor Patten's ideas have inferred the contrary. His discussion of 
the social problem is not academic, if by that is meant impractical, fruitless, 

136 Charities and The Commons 

and uninteresting. Although gained largely at second hand, his knowledge of 
adverse social conditions is extraordinarily exhaustive and intimate. This is 
not surprising when it is understood that it is gained in part through a large 
number of his former students whose original interest in social problems was 
awakened in his own class room, and with whom he has kept in touch, with some- 
thing of that keen sense of personal responsibility which a military commander 
may feel for those whom he has sent upon this or that particular campaign. 

It is related that on one occasion at a dinner where a goodly company of suc- 
cessful teachers and social workers were celebrating with Professor Patten the 
publication of an earlier volume, a speaker who has since become the dean of one 
of the schools of a great university, made handsome acknowledgment of his 
indebtedness to Dr. Patten for the ideas which were the basis of his own reputa- 
tion. "And in this acknowledgment." added the speaker with a generous gesture, 
"I would like to be understood as including all the others here present." 

Never has a teacher been more lavish of ideas, wise counsel, and beneficent 
criticism, or less concerned that credit for them should be given him either by his 
students and colleagues or by any one else who could use them. The chapter which 
we published a fortnight ago from this volume was intended, as in the case of 
the chapter published from Miss Addams's Newer Ideals of Peace, not as a sub- 
stitute for the volume but as a more effective means of calling attention to the 
advisability of reading, and reflecting upon, and therefore, owning the book. 


William H. Allen's Efficient Democracy which is published this week is a book 
which is calculated to make many people sit up and think. It is not precisely 
a bid for personal popularity. We do not expect to see it republished as an 
appendix to the next annual report of the city superintendent of schools, or in 
the City Record, at the request of the bureau of municipal investigations. If any 
of our readers encounter respectable citizens who have a look of annoyance, or 
even now and then one who is fighting mad, we suggest that they begin their 
inquiry as to the cause of the trouble by asking if the respectable citizen has 
been reading the chapter on hospital efficiency, efficiency in charitable work, or 
efficiency in religious work. 

Even this magazine, although it gets into Dr. Allen's bibliography and is 
cited along with the School of Philanthropy as among the more creditable con- 
tributions of the Charity Organization Society, is not without its grievance, but 
no reader of ours shall find out about it except by reading the volume. 

As for federal, state, and municipal officials and managers of charitable in- 
stitutions, social workers, teachers, and ordinary citizens, all that can be said 
is that there are enough of them whose toes are trod upon to make a success of 
any book, though it were much less entertaining and instructive than this one. 

There is no need of advising people to read this book. They will read it 
anyway. It is original in conception, brilliant in style, convincing, in spite of its 
irritating qualities, on all the main points which it raises. The wise course for 
all whom it offends is to keep very quiet and as expeditiously as possible get into 
line with the course which it recommends. It might readily be shown that the 
volume is lacking in proportion, that the nearest thing looms largest, that the 
historical beginnings, even of the movements which are used for purposes of 
illustration, are not always accurately traced. But these things are of no con- 
sequence. On the main point which is illustrated and re-enforced by studies in 
politics, philanthropy, education, and public health the book is fundamentally 
and overwhelmingly in the right, and a careful reading of it is one of the most 
wholesome exercises — using the word in a somewhat disciplinary sense — which 
we can recommend. 


ANDThe Common* 

Edward T. oevine, Editor 
Graham Taylor, Associate 
lee k- frankel, associate for 
Jewish Charity 

TKe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 

Baltimore -Report on an investiga- 
its Housing tion of housing conditions 
secrets. was given to the public this 
week by the Federate Charities of Bal- 
timore. A more adequate review will be 
published later, in connection with the 
legislation proposed by the committee. 
Here it is sufficient to say that the find- 
ings are such as to demand prompt and 
ra lical reform if evil conditions are not 
to become crystallized. One American 
community after another is brought 
face to face with this problem. 

The Baltimore survey was carried out 
under a special committee on improved 
housing appointed by the Association for 
the Improvement of the Condition of the 
Poor and the Charity Organization So- 
ciety. The field work was begun last 
June by Miss Janet E. Kemp, who as- 
sisted Charles F. Weller in his Washing- 
ton investigation of 1905-6. The work 
was undertaken in the face of the con- 
tented dictum of no less an authority 
than the Baltimore City Directory, the 
most extensively consulted volume in 
Baltimore, that "there are no tenements 
in Baltimore." It is true that there are 
very few tenements of the type that pre- 
vails in some other large cities. Yet 
over seventy-three per cent of the 715 
families in the two white districts in- 
vestigated were found to be living in 
houses occupied by from three to fifteen 
families. "The construction of tenements 
has proceeded largely within the four 
walls of dwellings intended for single 
families." The external aspect of the 
houses has remained unchanged, and the 
general public has taken little note of the 
overcrowding within. But the condi- 
tions which exist in buildings occupied 
by nearly as many families as there are 
rooms, are not such as should be toler- 


ated. In the district east of Fells Point 
market, seventy-two apartments out of 
the 400 investigated contained but one 
room. In several instances, six, seven 
and even eight people were found occupy- 
ing the one room. The bad effect of this 
overcrowding within the houses is in- 
tensified by the congested condition of 
many of the blocks studied. Nearly 
forty-four per cent of the houses in the 
two districts where tenements most 
abound, covered more than seventy 
per cent of the ground area. In one 
case a nine-family tenement was found 
to cover ninety-five per cent of an in- 
terior lot. 

"Dirty, dark, damp and dilapidated" 
are the general terms used to describe 
the large majority of the 442 cellars in- 
vestigated. Some, entirely below the 
level of the street, are used as dwellings. 
In the two tenement districts investigated 
only ten houses were found to be pro- 
vided with fire escapes. In 600 houses, 
twenty-seven bath-tubs were found. Nine 
houses of the 600 were provided with 
toilet facilities other than yard privies. 
One hundred and eighty-five families 
used closets which were shared in com- 
mon by six or more families. For a 
double tenement containing twenty-two 
apartments, and housing 10c/ people in 
the twenty apartments occupied at the 
time of the inspection, three filthy privy 
compartments were the only conveniences 
supplied and one of these had no door. 

Finally, in two of the districts studied 
the water supply was found to be very 
deficient. For instance, five families in a 
Thames street tenement obtained their 
water from the yard hydrant upon which 
six other families were also dependent. 
One court with five houses had no water- 
supply at all. 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

"A municipality," says ths committee's 
report, "can commit no greater crime 
against itself than to permit the un- 
checked development of conditions which 
menace the welfare of its wage earners. 
Such neglect is civic suicide. Every day 
the pressure of a rapidly growing popu- 
lation is being more acutely felt in Balti- 
more ; every day the congestion is be- 
coming more apparent, and breathing 
spaces are being built up. To-day the 
tendency may be checked, to-morrow it 
may be too late to undo the consequences 
of neglect." 

The secretary of the special housing 
committee is Walter S. Ufford and its 
work is typical of standards along which 
he has projected his executive duties as 
general secretary of the Federated 
Charities. Mr. Ufford has resigned 
because of poor health, and will be suc- 
ceeded on September i by the Rev. J. W. 
Magruder, D. D., of Portland, Me. * 

Child Labor Pennsylvania continues to 
crisis in supplv more urgent argu- 

Pennsylvania. mentg than ^ y ^^ ^^ 

to those who favor a federal child labor 
law. Nowhere is the failure of the indi- 
vidual states to give adequate protection 
to the children so glaring as in Penn- 
svlvania and nowhere has there been a 
fiercer contest against effective legislation 
than that now going on at Harrisburg. 

The courts have held unconstitutional 
the most valuable provisions of the state 
laws of 1903 both as to factories and 
mines. These are the provisions which 
required children either to prove their 
age in some one of several specified ways, 
or to complete a certain part of the cur- 
riculum of the public schools. Under 
these decisions the children have now no 
effective statutory protection. 

Hearings were to be held on Tues- 
day of this week on the bill for the regu- 
lation of child labor in or about the 
mines and also on the bill intended for 
protection of children in manufacture 
and commerce. This bill was endorsed 
by the Pennsylvania Child Labor Com- 
mittee, but was killed in the house com- 
mittee by a vote of nine to two. A 
similar measure is pending in the senate. 

Meanwhile there has been favorably re- 
ported a bill which would permit chil- 
dren of widows and disabled fathers to 
work at the age of twelve years, and 
would continue the iniquitous practice of 
work at night for children of fourteen 
years, thus placing Pennsylvania in the 
group with West Virginia and North 
Carolina. This bill would remove from 
the school authorities the power of is- 
suing employment certificates and place 
this function in the hands of aldermen 
and other local magistrates. These 
impartial gentlemen would be left free 
to take the parent's word as to the child's 
age as no definite proof is required ex- 
cept "when deemed necessary." In such 
case, among many alternative forms of 
evidence, is the offering of a family 
bible, older than the child and containing 
the latter's name and date of birth. This 
sliding scale of piety and profit is the 
happy creation of Captain Delaney, state 
factory inspector. 

In population and wealth Pennsylvania 
is the second state in the Republic, ex- 
celled only by New York. In the extent 
of child labor it is at the foot of the list 
of states with Alabama, having the larg- 
est proportion of working children, and 
Pennsylvania having more than Alabama 
both actually and relatively. 

New York, with more people, more 
manufacture, more commerce, and the 
greatest immigration in the world, for 
which it has never been possible to pro- 
vide sufficient schools, had according to 
the census of 1900, nearly two thousand 
less illiterate children between 10 and 14 
than Pennsylvania. With Rhode Island, 
Pennsylvania is one of the two last re- 
maining northern states having the 13th 
birthday as the end of the working 
child's compulsory school attendance, and 
local school boards are empowered to re- 
duce the required attendance from the 
full school year to seventy per cent there- 

In the scale of the states when ranked 
according to the ability of the chil- 
dren to read and write, Pennsylvania 
stood sixteenth in 1890 and twentieth in 
1900. The present indications are that 
her position will be still more unfavor- 
able in 1910. The legislature will not 


The Common Welfare 


meet again until 1909. Unless, there- 
fore, the present legislature passes a law 
which the courts can hold constitutional, 
capable of transferring the children from 
mill and mine to school, there will be no 
time for a later law to accomplish re- 
sults discernible in the census of 19 10. 
In that case, we shall again have the un- 
edifying spectacle of the second state in 
the Union bracketed with the most be- 
lated for the period of ten years in the 
only records which the Federal govern- 
ment affords. 

If the child labor bill drawn by the 
state factory inspector and now before, the 
legislature of Pennsylvania should pass 
without far reaching amendments, and if 
no bill should be passed for the protection 
of young children from employment in 
and about mines, Pennsylvania will fur- 
nish the most striking argument possible 
for the speedy enactment of some such 
measure as the Beveridge child labor 
bill at the next session of Congress. 

Mothers' At the Jamestown Exposi- 

and Children's ,• i_» 1 j 1 

Buildings at tion which opened last 
Jamestown. we ek are two cottages de- 
voted to the interests of mothers and 
children. They are under the care of the 
National Congress of Mothers, and are 
designed to be an educational center for 
the promotion of every organized move- 
ment for the betterment of childhood. 
The Children's Cottage contains a kinder- 
garten with model appointments, under 
the charge of a kindergartner. In addi- 
tion to the games and plays of the regu- 
lar kindergarten there is manual work 
for older children. For outdoor sport 
and life, there are large grounds and a 
fine sand beach. Bath houses, and con- 
veniences for bathing are among the at- 
tractions for children. A trained nurse 
of wide experience has charge of the 
children under three years of age. She 
is assisted by other nurses who super- 
vise the children's outdoor play. Simple 
wholesome luncheons are provided for 
children left in the care of the kindergar- 
ten or nursery. The Mothers' Cottage, 
which is connected by a broad veranda 
with the children's cottage, contains a 
library and reading room which has up- 
wards of five hundred books of special 
interest and value to those who are deal- 

ing with children. In this library there 
is opportunity to study the development 
of parent-teacher associations, mother cir- 
cles, juvenile court and probation work, 
child labor conditions, day nurseries, va- 
cation schools, play grounds, kindergar- 
tens, household economics, the teaching 
of speech to deaf infants, the work for 
the backward and defective children. A 
secretary is in attendance to direct or ad- 
vise visitors as to books and literature ex- 
hibited. Every organization working for 
social uplift has been invited to send its 
literature to be included in the exhibit. 
A conference room adjoins the library, 
where conferences will be held for an 
hour or more for mothers who may be 
attending the exposition. Officers of the 
Mothers' Congress from various states 
will conduct these conferences and many 
well known specialists have promised 
to speak. An invitation is given to 
those who are willing to assist in the 
conferences to send their names to Mrs. 
Edwin C. Grice, 3308 Arch street, Phila- 
delphia, stating when they will be at the 
exposition. The International Congress 
of Mothers will meet in Washington in 
March, 1908, and fourteen foreign coun- 
tries have already accepted the invita- 
tion of the congress to send a representa- 

Dr. Kennard, who is 
Famine S Reiief. investigating the Russian 

famine, has written from 
Samara that, with the exception of the 
Indian famines, the scenes in Russia are 
unprecedented. His appeal to Great 
Britain and America is to hasten relief, 
estimating that $2,500,000 is necessary. 
Thousands are slowly dying while wait- 
ing for food, which comes only in doles 
sufficient to supply two pounds of bread 
and a bowl of soup daily to 372,000 of 
the 750,000 starving people. Each meal 
allotted is generally divided among many 
mouths and is so minimized that it is 
useless and even harmful, the fraction 
that each gets merely serving to stimu- 
late the hungry stomach and make it 
crave for more. Dr. Kennard, who is act- 
ing for the English Quakers, vouches that 
the zemstvo representatives are distribut- 
ing relief in Samara honestly and capab- 
ly, making the most of their resources, 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

but that their means of relief would not 
last into this month. His report deals 
with Samara alone, but he adds that 
20,000,000 people distributed through the 
southeastern provinces cannot live with- 
out aid to see another harvest. Epi- 
demic diseases are on the increase, caus- 
ing terrible conditions. 

The American Red Cross Society has 
cabled through the state department $5,- 
000 to the Russian Red Cross for the 
relief of the famine sufferers. The 
money represents general subscriptions 
received by the Red Cross for this pur- 
pose and is the first remittance made by 
the society for the relief of the Russian 
famine. Last week the Russian Famine 
Relief Committee sent by cable to the 
Russian Free Economic Society at St. 
Petersburg $20,000 for the purchase of 
food for Russia's starving peasants, mak- 
ing a total of $30,000 thus far sent. 
There is about $12,000 more on hand in 
the treasury here. England has already 
given $120,000 and promised $50,000 
more. The American committee appeals 
for more funds through its secretary, 
Dr. Samuel J. Barrows, 135 East Fif- 
teenth street, New York city. 

A symposium on The Re- 
So M cS. lation of the Medical Pro- 
fession to the Housing of 
the People, will be a feature of the thirty- 
second annual meeting of the American 
Academy of Medicine to be held at the 
Hotel Dennis, Atlantic City, on June 1 
and 3. Special invitations have been ex- 
tended to organizations interested in the 
subject. Some of the other topics to be 
discussed show the extent of specializa- 
tion in Medical Sociology ; The Teaching 
of Hygiene in the Public Schools ; The 
Communal Life of Physicians, Its Culti- 
vation and Value ; The Superiority of the 
Playground to the School Room, by Dr. 
Woods Hutchinson ; Insurance for De- 
fectives, and The Relation of the Pro- 
fession to Medical Legislation. 

National Representative health offic- 
Tubercuiosis ers from all sections of the 
country, specialists and lay- 
men, all interested in checking the rav- 
ages of the so-called "great white 
plague," will gather in Washington May 

6-8 at the annual meeting of the National 
Association for the Study and Prevention 
of Tuberculosis. The growth of the or- 
ganization in numbers as well as extent 
of influence in practically every part of 
the United States renders these annual 
meetings increasingly national. In 1908, 
under the auspices of the national asso- 
ciation, the international congress on 
tuberculosis will be held in Washington 
and one of the features of the May meet- 
ing will be the report of the committee 
on arrangements by the chairman, Dr. 
Lawrence F. Flick, of the Phipps Insti- 
tute in Philadelphia. The growth of the 
national campaign against tuberculosis 
during the past two years will be sketch- 
ed by the executive secretary, Dr. Liv- 
ingston Farrand. Possibly the chief in- 
terest, however, in the program of the 
meeting will center in the discussion be- 
fore the advisory council on compulsory 
notification and registration of tu- 
berculosis. This paper will be presented 
by Dr. Herman M. Biggs, of New York, 
and the discussion will be carried on by 
health officers from several large cities. 
It is hoped that a definite statement of 
authority regarding the necessity of reg- 
istration may result. The papers to be 
presented before the sociological section 
will naturally appeal to the general pub- 
lic most strongly. Factory Inspection 
for Tuberculosis, by Dr. Frank T. Ful- 
ton, of Providence, R. I., and the discus- 
sion opened by Dr. Charles S. Millet, of 
Brockton, Mass., should prove very in- 
teresting in view of the advance made in 
certain mills in New England toward 
combatting tuberculosis. Schools and 
Tuberculosis is the topic of Dr. John H. 
Lowman, of Cleveland, with a discussion 
opened by Dr. Linsly R. Williams, of 
New York. Dr. Joseph H. Pratt, of 
Boston, will speak on Tuberculosis 
Classes and Day Camps and Dr. B. H. 
Waters, of New York, on Country Treat- 
ment of City Cases. Dr. Oscar H. Rog- 
ers, of Yonkers, N. Y., will present a 
paper on A Working Program for a 
Small City. The other sections will be 
the clinical and climatological, the path- 
ological and bacteriological, the section 
on tuberculosis in children and the sur- 
gical section. On the second day of the 


The Common Welfare 


meeting President Roosevelt will receive 
the members of the association at the 
White House. It may be mentioned that 
the interest which the president has 
shown in the anti-tuberculosis work 
through his executive order regarding 
precautions against the disease in gov- 
ernment buildings and workshops has 
proved a valuable factor in gaining the 
official co-operation at which the associa- 
tion constantly aims. A full report will 
appear in Charities and The Commons 
directly after the meeting. 

In Boston last week, there 


setts and Her was an interesting confer- 
ence on village improve- 
ment work and methods, the sixth to 
be held under the auspices of the Massa- 
chusetts Civic League. As an example 
of lively town interests and activities, 
some of the discussions may well be out- 
lined here. 

The afternoon session was devoted 
to accomplishments. J. S. Perkins, of 
Canton, and Philip Emerson, of Lynn, 
talked on school and home garden work. 
Mr. Perkins held that all the activities 
of the child should center in the school. 
As superintendent he has aimed to 
come into contact with all children in- 
terested in gardens. This has magnified 
the work in their minds, encouraged 
them, caused others to become interest- 
ed, and resulted, without any school 
gardens and without any formal instruc- 
tion, in numerous home gardens through- 
out the village. 

Mr. Emerson's work is in a city where 
many children have no chance for home 
gardens and he has provided gardens 
on the school grounds. The method, 
close personal contact and genuine in- 
terest in the work, has been the same 
as with Mr. Perkins. Where possible, 
even under conditions that would ordi- 
narily be prohibitive, home gardens have 

Charles W. Hubbard outlined the 
work of the Stevens Memorial in Lud- 
low. This is a social center of a very 
advanced type, resembling in many ways 
the community centers developed by the 
South Park Commission in Chicago. 
Miss Harriet B. Whittaker, of Lyngs- 

boro, showed the work of the Tree So- 
ciety, organized there in 1844, — an inter- 
esting point, by the way, in the history 
of organized improvement work, as the 
Stockbridge society founded in 1853 had 
for a long time been considered the first. 
John D. Hardy, of Wellesley Hills, dis- 
cussed the local newspaper and its possi- 
bilities in improvement work. His state- 
ments were based on the work of The 
Tozvnsman, a paper conducted by the 
citizens of Wellesley for the good of the 
town. In spirit and work The Towns- 
man is unique. 

The evening session was devoted to 
billboards. The present state of public 
opinion was brought out by a variety of 
views. Philip R. Allen told how East 
Walpole got rid of an enormous board 
on the village green. The sentiment of 
the town was against billboards. This 
one was put up of a sudden. The ques- 
tion was how to get rid of it. Lynch 
law, which the people there think ap- 
propriate for billboards, was with diffi- 
culty restrained while a vigorous cor- 
respondence was conducted with the bill- 
poster and advertiser. The advertiser 
wanted to sell goods, not to create ene- 
mies and he said, "Take it down." 

F. A. Whiting, of Framing, told of 
the work of the Minister Militant of 
Blandford. The Rev. S. G. W r ood, the 
minister, follows the man who tacks up 
tags, placards and posters "like an aveng- 
ing angel," tearing down everything, 
which he has a legal right to do under the 
laws of Massachusetts. Prof. F. Spencer 
Baldwin gave A Heterodox View. 
He thought that all billboards should be 
excluded from certain places and that 
certain billboards should be excluded 
from all places, but that extreme opposi- 
tion to them was a fad of the leisure 
classes. He believed a plebiscite would 
show that a majority of the people favor 
billboards and cited statements made by 
members of his college classes in support 
of his view. Henry Lewis Johnson, of 
Hyde Park, offered evidence of opposi- 
tion in all parts of the country. 

Harlan P. Kelsey, of Salem, talked on 
laws already on the statute books. He 
thought they were sufficient if people 
would rigidly observe them, while Ed- 


Charities and The Commons 

ward T. Hartman, of Boston, discussed 
needed legislation. "Billboards," he said, 
"should be licensed so as to place their 
control in the hands of a representative 
of the people. They should be taxed, on 
the basis of a fair capitalization of their 
income-producing value, so as to make 
taxation equitable. Then, in locations 
made valuable by the money of the people 
for .their pleasure and recreation, bill- 
boards should be absolutely prohibited. 
These three laws are equitable and neces- 

County vs. City Interests in 
State Legislatures 

Graham Taylor 

In every state we are all too familiar 
with the trading of votes in the legislature 
for the passage or defeat of measures in 
which the financial, political and section- 
al interests of members are at stake. 
The large cities also divide the members 
of the legislature of the states in which 
they are into a country and a city faction, 
which are by turns at war with each 
other, or in a state of suspicious and 
armed neutrality. This has been the 
notorious fact in Illinois, equally to the 
disgrace of the country delegates and the 
detriment of the city of Chicago. The 
situation is aggravated just now by the 
peril with which the passage of the Chi- 
cago charter has been menaced in the 
supposed interests of the pending local 
option measure. With a spirit more 
factional and sectional than just or pa- 
triotic the ardent advocates of local op- 
tion are actually threatening the defeat 
of the charter in retaliation for the re- 
fusal of some of the Chicago representa- 
tives to vote for their bill. This threat 
follows a cool proposition to cast enough 
country votes to carry the charter in ex- 
change for enough city votes to carry 
local option. 

All such "deals" are reprehensible. 
These two measures are fraught with 
public interests too great thus to be pitted 
against each other. They not only have 
nothing antagonistic to each other, but 
much in common at the point at issue. 

For the charter provides for home rule 
in licensing the liquor traffic in Chicago, 
as the local option bill does for the state. 

It seems incredible that such grave 
public interests as are at stake in both of 
these greatly needed measures, can finally 
be sacrificed by the mere spite-work with 
which each of them has been threaten- 
ed. But even if, as we confidently ex- 
pect, no such action against the Chicago 
charter will finally be taken, the threat 
of it is a dangerous play with deadly 
weapons of the two-edged sort. 

Meanwhile Chicago has for the last 
three or four years been awaking, — and 
none too early — to the need of sending 
representatives who shall more reputably 
and adequately represent both the city 
and the state in the legislature of the sec- 
ond greatest commonwealth in the Union. 
The Illinois Legislative Voters' League 
was organized for this end by Chicago 
citizens who have at heart the interests 
both of the city and the state. It is ef- 
fectively doing for the state legislature 
what the Chicago Municipal Voters' 
League has so valiantly wrought for the 
city legislature. Had the city continued 
to disgrace itself and the state with such 
a delegation to the legislature as the neg- 
lect of state politics by its best citizens 
has for years tolerated, Chicago could 
hardly have expected consideration at the 
hands of the "down-state" representa- 
tives. But now that there is such mani- 
fest determination in the city to do bet- 
ter by state politics and so many and 
abler and better men from the city are 
already seated in both the senate and the 
house, Chicago may rightly claim to be 
worthy of the service which it so sorely 
needs from the legislature, in the ratifi- 
cation of the charter which was carefully 
and fairly prepared by a very representa- 
tive convention of its citizens after six- 
teen months of faithful and laborious 

It hopelessly belittles and frustrates 
the high function of legislating for a 
whole commonwealth to have legislators 
regard themselves as representing at 
the state capitols only their respective lo- 

Exhibit Boston Trade School for Girls, showing Methods of Instruction 

Boston's Industrial ILxHibit 

Ed-ward X. Hartman 
Massachusetts Civic Leae'ue 

The exhibit of industrial conditions 
in relation to public health, safety and 
welfare, held in Boston the second week 
of April, is safely chronicled in its title. 
But it deserved a big name. It pretty 
well filled Horticultural Hall, making 
use of all available wall space and all the 
floor area not needed for visitors. It 
also covered two Sundays and the time 
between. Ably catalogued, a mere tran- 
script is too long for entry here. 

Group I was devoted to charts and 
maps on industrial geography. The les- 
son of the group was the magnitude of 
the industries in Massachusetts, the great 
influence on the people as a whole of 
good or bad conditions in these indus- 
tries, and the obvious necessity of care- 
ful study and supervision. One of the 
maps lent emphasis to the words of John 
Graham Brooks when he said that, in 
their way, the conditions of child labor 


are as bad in the North as in the South. 

Group II was devoted to industrial 
hygiene and safety. It showed, among 
other things, that actual conditions, do 
not indicate that any sufficient number 
of the people believe that "it is one of 
the first aims of society to secure to the 
individual the maximum of life and 

Good and bad conditions in various 
industries, notably in dairies, bakeries, 
and various forms of sand blasting and 
grinding, were brought out in photo- 
graphs and exhibits by the State Board 
of Health. The swishing tails of cows 
were shown in neighborly proximity to 
milk pails, milk bottles and the other 
utensils of the craft; all enjoying a com- 
munistic existence in one room. Piles 
of foul-smelling brewers' grain to be 
used for feed, streams of liquid manure, 
junk heaps and other bad conditions 


Charities and The Commons 

were in evidence. Bakeries were shown 
where the products were set to cool on 
dirty old barrels amidst dirt, visible 
even in a photograph, old clothes, junk 
and rubbish. Among the sand blasters 
one man was found wearing a rickety 
old mask with a 1/80 inch wire mesh to 
keep out dust. By it was a tray of brass 
and sand which had been passed through 
a 1/100 inch mesh, to show what it was 
possible for the man to get into his 

But the exhibit here, and elsewhere, 
was not a muckraking affair. Good ex- 
amples there were in plenty. Dairies, 
bakeries, factories fairly shining in clean- 
liness were in evidence, to bring out the 
contrasts and point the way to proper 
conditions. As The Boston Globe said : 
"No one can visit this exhibit without 
going away greatly impressed by the 
blessing of cleanliness, light and air in 
every sort of workroom." 

Charts representing greatly magnified 
sections of normal lung and of the lungs 
of steel grinders and other artizans 
showed where disease gets its hold with 
the slightest effort, if it is not frankly 
invited to come and stay. 

The following interesting bulletin was 
given in connection with an exhibit of 
textile industries : 

Textile Industry. 
Five conditions common to this industry 
which can be and ought to be remedied: 

1. Poor light. 

a. dark, dirty ceilings and walls; 

b. small, dirty window glass; 

c. the use of gas jets; 

d. the use of kerosene lamps. 

2. Non-regulation of heat and moisture. 

a. excess of moisture — undue heat; 

b. no artificial moisture — excessive heat. 

3. Poor ventilation. 

4. Location and structure of water closets. 

a. within or too near workrooms, with- 

out suitable ventilation; 

b. not necessary privacy for women. 

5. Spit upon the floors. 

A little chart showed the growth and 
decline of a typhoid epidemic. Three 
separate milk dealers were under sus- 
picion till the state board found that they 
all bought milk from a larger dealer. By 
following up a helper from the larger 
plant, who had gone away, a case of 
walking typhoid was discovered. Proper 

care of utensils stopped the contagion at 
once, although just at that point Welles- 
ley College, under the advice of the 
board, started the use of this producer's 
milk with the beginning of its term. 

The Boston Board of Health showed 
some bedrooms and kitchens which the 
ordinary slummer has failed to discover. 
Their exhibition ought at once to give 
Boston a modern tenement house law. 

The Boston Tuberculosis Association 
presented a characteristic exhibit, as did 
also various safety device manufacturers. 
The attendant showing a safety device 
on a planer gave a sad commentary on 
the lack of such devices when he said 
that no less than thirty men, after look- 
ing at the machine, held up mutilated fin- 
gers and hands and remarked, "this I got 
through lack of that." The exhibit of 
the Tuberculosis Association has been 
selected by the board of managers for 
exhibition at the Jamestown Fair. 

Group III presented agencies of in- 
dustrial progress. Factory betterment, 
industrial insurance, the work of the 
trades unions, the Consumers' League, 
and an extensive treatment of women in 
industry were the chief items. 

Many organizations joined in the work 
but the exhibit was in good part in- 
spired by the trades unions. Their 
achievements were set forth on charts 
and by pictures showing how 7 they offei 
trade training, protection for workers in 
time of sickness, death or unemployment ; 
what they are doing for the immigrant 
and for the protection of children. Sev- 
eral organized trades, cigar makers, hat- 
ters, printers, garment workers, and oth- 
ers, presented exhibits of their work un- 
der union conditions. 

Group IV, industrial education, was 
presented in a very practical way by the 
North Bennett Street Industrial School, 
the Boston Trade School for Girls, the 
North End Union, and similar institu- 
tions. This work was particularly inter- 
esting and practical, the young workers 
drawing forth many favorable comments. 

Interesting programs were provided 
afternoons and evenings, beginning with 
the opening Sunday evening and closing 
Saturday night. Industrial hygiene, in- 
dustrial education, industrial legislation, 

Dipping bristles into hot pitch. Smoke f rt m the pitch is drawn by exhaust draft into overhead pipe 


M9B-' : V 
1 ^^^H^m ' % 


1 Tm 

__ w^^J^Wi MM 

Blacking patent leather tips 

HOME MANUFACTURE ; A sewing woman 

Boston Industrial Exhibit 


industrial safety, industrial organization 
and industrial betterment, with able 
speakers in each case, occupied the 
evening programs. The afternoons were 
given over to special topics, labor and the 
church, tuberculosis in factories, the Con- 
sumers' League, trade schools, domestic 
service, trades unions and savings bank 
insurance for wage-earners. 

While discussing the hope of the future 
of domestic service, Mrs. Ellen H. Rich- 
ards essayed^ perhaps not seriously, to 
change the attitude towards domestic 
service by changing its name. "Call 
them household helpers, on the ground 
that if physicians and nurses can be 
evolved from medicine men and witches 
of a former age, there is no reason why 
the menial of the kitchen or the nursery 
should not glory in the appelation of 
household helper." 

James P. Monroe, considering what 
the state can do for industrial training, 
said that the state, by law, takes the child 
from the time it is five till it is fourteen 
years of age and that it does not do its 
duty as it might. Its educational system 
stifles individuality because it is a great 
"stupid machine" attempting to do the 
same thing with all children without re- 
gard to manifest differences. 

The exhibition closed at ten o'clock 
Sunday night with a total attendance of 
18,676, notwithstanding the fact that four 
of the eight days allotted were about as 
bad as they could be in so far as weather 
conditions were concerned. Its coming 
just at this time, however, was opportune. 
The people of the state and the legislature 
have before them a question of great im- 
portance in an attempt to devise a more 
efficient system of inspecting factories, 
workshops and mercantile establishments, 
with a view to remedying some of the 
many bad conditions which exist and 
further safeguarding the public health. 
The question of tenement house condi- 
tions is also before the people of Boston, 
Cambridge and Springfield. It needs 
consideration in every individual city and 
town in the state. 

The exhibition lacked, if at all, in the 
graphic presentation of the central ideas. 
Diagrams, charts and statistics there 
were in abundance, but their significance 
was lost on many. The educational val- 
ues of the exhibit were very great, but, 
owing to the method of presenting them, 
thirty, rather than eight days' time should 
have been allowed if full results would 
have been secured. 

PRINTERS' EXHIBIT: Good conditions shown 

Socialism and CHarity 

CHarles J. Bonaparte 
Attorney General of the United States 

Some twelve years ago, if I remember 
aright, early in the winter of 1894, I 
received a visit at my office in Baltimore 
from a gentleman who sought to interest 
me in a plan he had formed to prevent 
the distress arising from lack of employ- 
ment then generally expected among 
laborers and mechanics and their families 
during the approaching cold weather. 
This plan was, in substance, that the city 
employ in effecting certain desirable 
public improvements any man willing to 
work for wages a little less than those 
generally paid for similar service. I 
told him that this was precisely the form 
of relief about to be offered able-bodied 
applicants for aid by the Baltimore 
Charity Organization Society, of which 
I was then and am still an officer, at 
some stone yards it had established, and 
that I believed in charity at one's own 
cost and not at the cost of the taxpayers. 
My interlocutor replied that he didn't 
believe in charity. at all, nor did he desire 
to obtain it for anyone, but wished the 
community to discharge its duty of en- 
abling each one among its members to 
earn a living "without loss of self-re- 
spect." I then asked him whether his 
theories did not lead logically and ob- 
viously to the French national workshops 
of 1848, and whether any a priori dis- 
cussion of their merits could by any pos- 
sibility be worth the time it would take 
in view of the actual results of this prac- 
tical test. For these enquiries he did not 
seem to be altogether prepared, but I 
have no doubt he would have met them, 
after a little reflection and research, with 
more or less plausible distinctions and 

I believe that the ideas which he ex- 
pressed candidly, and, therefore, crudely, 
are secretly and, in a measure, uncon- 
sciously snared by many persons who 
would not say flatly that they "didn't 

iA lecture delivered for the benefit of the Society of 
St. Vincent de Paul, at Carnegie Hall, New York, 
Sunday, March 24, 1907. 


believe in charity at all" ; indeed, I think 
there lurks about this subject in the pub- 
lic mind a serious, and even dangerous, 
confusion of thought. 

In a little address which I delivered 
many years ago at an Annual Meeting 
of the Baltimore Association for the 
Improvement of the Condition of the 
Poor, and for which I used as a text the 
well-known motto of that Society: "The 
Lord loveth a cheerful giver," I pointed 
out that; according to the text, the Lord 
loved a giver, not a payer of debts or 
taxes. To be meritorious, any act must 
be voluntary, wdiat one does under com- 
pulsion, he cannot be ethically said to 
"do" at all ; but to win affection from 
the Deity, or even, I may add from 
creatures made in His imperfect like- 
ness, an act must be voluntary in the 
highest possible sense, it must be a gift. 
A European is said to have expressed 
to an educated Hindoo his surprise that, 
notwithstanding the immense benefits 
conferred upon India by its English 
conquerors, he found the latter unmis- 
takably unpopular there. The Hindoo 
replied: "We know the English are just 
to us, but they are not kind to us." I 
do not vouch for the truth of this story, 
but there is a great deal of human nature 
in the Hindoo's alleged reply: those who 
deal justly by all under them, but make 
each individual feel that, for them, he 
is a mere unit in the undistinguished 
mass, treated fairly, as everybody else is 
treated fairly, but regarded, as are all 
like him, with, in last resort, an impar- 
tial indifference, such rulers as these may 
be respected and feared, they will never 
be beloved. On the other hand, men 
have often repaid with an enthusiastic 
loyalty no small measure of oppression 
from a sovereign who, whilst he ill- 
treated them, yet showed that he felt 
himself one of them, that, although he 
might be a very bad father to his people, 
still he "was their father, their own flesh 
and blood, and not a stepfather or a 
guardian ; they may forgive a failure in 

Socialism and Charity 


duty, but they will never overlook a lack 
of sympathy. This great truth is ex- 
pressed in the text I have quoted, for 
the one thing which must be given, which 
cannot be earned or bartered or bought, 
is affection ; a man may sell his skill, his 
time, his labor, even his body and his 
soul, but he cannot sell his heart. If he 
try to do this, he will find with Gul- 
nare : 

" love dwells but with the 

free." k * 

Moreover, as I may safely assume that 
I speak to Christians, I may appro- 
priately add that although, for us, the 
material goods we may acquire have 
value, however we get them, it is surely 
nothing to Almighty God whether He, 
or others, in His name or by His com- 
mand, receive ten or ninety or ninety- 
nine hundredths of the substance where- 
of, by His will and during His suffer- 
ance, each one of us has the steward- 
ship. He were none the richer if every 
atom in His universe should pass from 
the hands of one to those of another 
among His creatures ; if He love the 
cheerful giver, it is because and only 
because, such a giver to his brethren 
gives cheerfully and not under compul- 
sion and gives what can only be given. 
For to do our full duty, to earn the re- 
ward promised in the text I have quoted, 
it is not enough that we hand over to 
others, no matter how well fitted to act 
for us, so many dollars and cents to make 
the world better; the enlightened public 
opinion of to-day recognizes, what true 
philanthropy in all ages has instinctively 
felt, that nothing can replace personal 
contact and influence in the work of 
beneficence. It has been said on high 
authority that the poor need "not alms 
but a friend" ; I should say rather that 
they need both ; alms to do good must 
come, and be felt to come, from a friend. 

Unless then charity be free, it is not 
charity ; if what we give, we might not 
also withhold, we make no gift; and in 
a society where private property was un- 
known, charity, at least in the form the 
Lord loveth, would be unknown also. 
Indeed, in such a society, could one ex- 
ist, any form of charity would be, or 
soon become, impossible, for its contin- 

ued existence would imply the complete 
loss of personal liberty in its members. 
As I have said on another occasion, the 
root of Socialism is the doctrine that all 
men of right ought to be, and should 
therefore be made and kept, precisely 
equal. This doctrine is really a wholly 
arbitrary dogma, a pure assumption, 
justified neither by reason nor by his- 
tory, and, in fact, contradicted by the 
daily experience of all mankind; but it 
was so earnestly and so widely preached 
by the precursors and apostles of the 
French Revolution, and has so gravely 
affected legislation, custom and public 
opinion wherever the influence of the 
revolution extends that to question its 
truth even now seems to a certain class 
of teachers and thinkers little short of 
blasphemy. In its original and salutary 
form and as it found echo in our Declar- 
ation of Independence, the cry for 
" equality " was coupled with one for 
" liberty ", and, in this company, it 
amounted to a protest against arbitrary 
and opppressive privileges, against dis- 
tinctions justified by no material dif- 
ference, to a demand that the law give 
every man a fair field and no favor. But 
it was quickly seen that to make men 
more free would make them less nearly 
equal, that the fairer their start the more 
quickly and surely some would come to 
the front and others fall behind, that, 
in short, if "equality" had the mean- 
ing which leaders in Revolutionary 
thought more and more inclined to give 
it, " equality " was inconsistent with 
"liberty", and they must choose between 
them ; they recognized, in fact, though 
not in words, this necessity and gave up 

Now when the Roman jurisconsuls de- 
clared: Ornnes homines natiira aequales 
sunt, they asserted this, not as a state- 
ment of fact, but as a maxim of juris- 
prudence; just as our courts of chancery 
say now : "Equity considers that done 
which ought to have been done" ; were 
this done in fact, there would be no need 
for courts of equity or for courts of any 
kind. French publicists and politicians, 
however, accepted this old maxim of 
Roman equity as substantially an article 
of religious faith, and, since, understood 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

literally, it is transparently false, for 
men are by nature notoriously unequal 
in strength, courage, energy, foresight 
and self-restraint, and as from these in- 
equalities naturally flow inequalities in 
their wealth, eminence and happiness, 
the more extreme among these writers 
were led to declare it the state's duty 
to redress the inequalities of nature; an 
idea expressed by Louis Blanc when he 
said that, if a man were so strong and 
so industrious that he could and would 
do as much work as four others, that 
man should be held as a public enemy. 

A socialist is essentially, although not 
always avowedly, or even consciously, 
one who sees that the equality demanded 
by this doctrine can be fully, or even ap- 
proximately, secured only among slaves : 
a southern plantation before the war 
constituted, so far as the Negroes were 
concerned, very nearly a socialistic com- 
munity ; and they were probably as near- 
ly equal inter sese as human beings can 
be permanently kept. In this community 
a socialist merely substitutes for the 
omnipotent, omniscient master an omnip- 
otent, omniscient .corporation made up 
of the slaves themselves, enslaves each 
one of them, as an individual, to all, in 
their corporate capacity, and names this 
corporation : "the state" ; and, in fact, 
only a people in chains, working under 
the lash of taskmasters would be and 
remain so nearly and hopelessly equal 
as to leave no room for any one of them 
to grow richer or happier than his fel- 
lows. But charity would die out long 
before this stage of social degradation 
were reached, for nothing is so fatal to 
charity as a sense of insecurity. When 
the strong man armed guards his treas- 
ures, he looks on with grim selfishness 
at the hardships of his poorer, because 
weaker, neighbors; if these move him 
to any action, it is but to profit by their 
misery that he may further despoil them, 
well knowing that they all await but the 
moment and lack but the ability to do the 
like by him. When Gil Bias was asked 
for alms by the returned soldier, who 
meantime covered him with his musket, 
he gave indeed, but there was little of 
cheerfulness, and even less of charity in 
his gift. 

When the householder of the parable 
had given those engaged at the eleventh 
hour a full day's wages, he replied to 
the murmurs of one among the work- 
men who had borne the burden and heat 
of the day, and yet received no more: 
"Friend, I do thee no wrong; didst thou 
not agree with me for this coin? Take 
what is thine and go thy way 
Is it not lawful for me to do what I 
will with mine own"? We are not told 
of any answer to these questions, but 
had they been asked under the like cir- 
cumstances to-day, it were curious to 
conjecture what some of those like- 
minded with the gentleman I first quoted 
would have said in reply. They imply 
the assertion of two vital principles 
which underlie the constitution of modern 
civilized society, that is to say, liberty 
of contract and sanctity of property. If 
I keep my promise to you, you are not 
concerned to know, you have no right 
even to ask, what bargain I have made 
with your neighbor : "Take what is thine, 
and go thy way" ; in other words, — mind 
your own business ; and it is no part of 
your business what I do with my own 
means. To a careless reader, this may 
seem the gospel of selfishness; it is 
really the gospel of charity through 
freedom. My rights are sacred, not for 
my sake : the finite conscious existence of 
any man is a mere wavelet, the tiniest 
billow on the great ocean of humanity; 
it swells, it subsides, it has gone forever : 
— but, for those who accept the gospels, 
I have a great office, a terrible respon- 
sibility, an awful trust. Whatever a man 
holds lawfully, he holds of God ; the Lord, 
not the steward, the Master, not the ser- 
vant, is wronged when this is wrested 
from him. Doubtless he is often, nay, 
he is always, an unfaithful steward, an 
unprofitable servant, but this is nothing 
for other men : he will surely answer for 
it, but not to them. He does what he will 
with his own, because it is not his own, 
but that of One who has chosen him, 
him of all men, as its guardian, who has 
commissioned him, him and not another, 
to use it. 

I have noted that my visitor objected 
to charity because its recipients were 


Socialism and Charity 


robbed of their "self-respect" ; the same 
idea meets us in various forms of ex- 
pression and even not infrequently in the 
speech or writing of those who give much 
time and thought to the problems of en- 
lightened beneficence: what are its 
merits? Before I discuss these I must, 
in candor, confess that I approach the 
subject with a decided dislike, perhaps, 
I ought to say, a prejudice, against the 
term. I object, in the first place, to an 
old friend who meets me under a new 
name, or, at least, I wish the alias satis- 
factorily explained ,and I am not satis- 
fied when told by Mr. Lecky that Chris- 
tians invented "self-respect" when they 
began to consider pride a virtue instead 
of a vice. This big, rank peony has, for 
me, no more of a rose's fragrance, sug- 
gests, as I scent it, no more of modesty, 
humility and truth, when called by this 
name than when frankly catalogued un- 
der the other. The thing is unchanged, 
and in — I won't say before ladies how 
many — years of. an ill-spent life, I have 
ever found it, in others and in myself, a 
small, mean, ugly, treacherous, harmful 
thing. I have heard the whipping post 
deprecated as a punishment for wife- 
beaters on the ground that no criminal 
would respect himself after enduring it; 
to my mind this is a great merit, 'for 
surely such a man ought not to respect 
himself. If he does so, he thinks a lie; 
he wilfully shuts his eyes to the loath- 
some degradation of his being; and if a 
cat-o'-nine-tails well handled will make 
him open them, make him see himself, 
not necessarily as others see him, for 
that is a matter of very subordinate im- 
portance, but as he really is, it will ren- 
der him the greatest of services ; that 
thrashing may plant the seed of his moral 
regeneration. I suppose you have all 
read 'True and I," and remember the 
magic spectacles which ruined the happi- 
ness of their owner by showing him the 
true nature of everyone around him and 
finally his own; this is a touching story, 
but, after all, a false and mischievous 
philosophy: the foundation of all virtue, 
of all moral health and strength is, not 
vain dreams, but the truth. When a man 
has learned to look calmly and firmly into 
the mirror of his consciousness and say 

to himself without flinching: "Yes, thit 
hideous, distorted shape which I shudder 
to see is just what I am," then, but not 
until then, may we trust him, if he add: 
"But I can and will be something better." 

I read once the narrative of a wordy 
warfare between, if I recollect aright, two 
washerwomen, as given by the daughter 
of one of the combatants. Describing the 
enemy's tactics, this doubtless veracious, 
but not wholly impartial, chronicler ex- 
claimed : "She tried to work the dignerty 
racket, but it would not go down with 
my ma ! My ma's jest" (something begin- 
ning with H) "on dignerty!" The dig- 
nity of this good lady bears a strong 
family likeness, in my eyes, to the "self- 
respect" of a wife-beater or a tramp : I 
am not painfully solicitous lest the fair 
proportions of either be impaired. 

It is, however, a serious and interest- 
ing, although not, for me, a difficult, 
question whether the fact of one's accept- 
ing and even soliciting material relief, 
supposing this to be truly needed and 
fruitfully employed, ought to unfavorably 
affect the opinion entertained of the ap- 
plicant by those who would judge of men 
and things according to their substance 
and not their shadow. Speaking broadly, 
and without pausing to distinguish cer- 
tain cases (which, indeed, constitute 
rather apparent than actual exceptions 
to the statement, and, in any event, are 
quite beside our present purpose) we 
may say safely that it can never be right 
to induce or enable another to do wrong. 
If it be base and disgraceful to take 
alms, it cannot be creditable to give alms ; 
for surely no person of good principle 
or good feeling will take pride or pleas- 
ure in degrading the character of his 
neighbor, and no casuist will hesitate to 
pronounce him who wilfully provides the 
means and occasion of sin particeps 
criminis with the sinner. Cato advised 
all prudent farmers to sell off worn out 
slaves with the other rubbish of their 
estates ; those, if any there be, who now 
accept the doctrine of their duty to others 
implied in this advice, may consistently 
hold that, as it is weak and foolish to 
relieve distress, so it is mean and un- 
worthy to ask for or submit to relief; 
but whoever recognizes an obligation to 


Charities and The Commons 


give, must logically admit a right in the 
needy to receive without blame. But I 
go farther, — I consider this no privilege, 
to be exercised or waived, at their 
pleasure, but a right giving rise to a 
duty, for them no less than those who 
can help them. When a man is down, 
he may not lawfully lie supine and hope- 
less ; he is bound, strictly bound, to get 
again on his feet without one moment's 
needless delay, and if he cannot arise 
without a helping hand from one stronger 
or more lucky than himself, it is his plain 
duty to take that hand when offered, and 
to call and call loudly for it until it is 
offered. Some years since I heard the 
various forms of organized philanthropy 
in our midst compared by one who spoke 
with knowledge to the working of those 
agencies provided by the humanity of 
modern warfare to soften its miseries. 
From personal experience this speaker, a 
distinguished officer in our Civil War, 
very forcibly pictured an attacking force 
as he had seen it at the moment of clos- 
ing, the officers waving their swords and 
urging on their men, the soldiers shout- 
ing and firing and surging forward, every 
thought bent, every eye fixed on the 
crackling, roaring line of flame, where, 
shrouded in eddying smoke, they rather 
felt than saw their enemies. No man in 
those seconds of terribly intense action 
could even turn to look for those who 
but an instant before were by his side, 
but, as each one of these fell helpless 
and bleeding, he was noted for succor. 
The ever vigilant ambulance corps, the 
devoted field-surgeon were there ready 
to draw him from under the feet of his 
blind and deaf comrades, often to pre- 
serve, by their timely care, a faithful 
soldier for the future service of his coun- 
try. Surely no one questioned that a 
wounded man who had refused their 
proffered aid, nay, who had failed to 
claim it, would have been guilty of a 
criminal folly; yet such is the course of 
every one who, borne down in the crash- 
ing, whirring turmoil of our great in- 
dustrial civilization, hurled to earth as all 
around him press forward, heedless of 
the fallen, in the increasing struggle for 
mastery over the powers of nature and 
the common infirmities of our physical 

life, elects to perish miserably or to live 
crippled, useless and suffering rather 
than to profit by the enlightened tender- 
ness of those who, in our midst, seek to 
make him again of service to his fellow 

True, there are in the world of to-day, 
as there have been in every army, how- 
ever brave' and patient, shirks and 
malingerers and mere cowards, who pre- 
fer the hospital to the field, and nurse 
or invent disabilities which may keep 
them there; but such as these are not 
objects of charity, and those who wil- 
fully or negligently aid their imposture 
are not charitable. To give a dime or a 
quarter to a street beggar, to furnish a 
meal for an unknown vagrant, to listen 
and respond, without testing its truth, 
to a tale of distress which an overwhelm- 
ing mass of recorded experience pro- 
nounces presumptively false, even to so 
relieve real want that it shall be rather 
perpetuated than cured, these are not 
true works of mercy, done for the Glory 
of God and the good of our fellow-men ; 
they are the shallow devices by which 
those too lazy and selfish to really help 
others try to drug or hypnotize their 
own consciences. Such as these no more 
love their neighbors than would a mother 
love her children who gave them poison 
because they cried for it. 

Some professed Christians who often 
repeat the biblical commendation for 
those who give meat to the hungry, drink 
to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, shelter 
to the stranger, care to the sick, and 
words of cheer to the captive, seldom re- 
flect on the reason given for this conduct 
and for its promised reward. "I was* 
hungry. ... I was thirsty. ... I 
was a stranger and . . . naked . . . 
sick and in prison. . . . Inasmuch as 
you have done this unto one of the least 
of these my brethren ye have done it 
unto me." Cheerful givers give with 
pleasure because the deformity of vice 
and squalor does not blind them to the 
essential brotherhood of mankind. But 
this essential, this universal brotherhood 
of man exists, and man is an object of 
charity because and only because he is 
akin to God. Blot out this kinship, and 


Socialism and Charity 


we have no reason and no warrant to 
cherish or to succor him : when he has 
finally disowned it, when he has irre- 
vocably turned his back on all that this 
kinship means, neither is he our brother 
longer, but a fierce and dangerous an- 
imal, the most noxious and most disgust- 
ing of all beasts. Can we imagine a 

greater sacrifice than to make perversely 
or indolently the very service which he 
claims as, and only as, one of the divine 
family, a means to cast him out further 
from it? And, if you must talk of "self- 
respect," who is this who cannot respect 
himself because he is owned by his breth- 
ren to be a child of God? 

Belle Lindner Israels 

Of the ways of raising money there 
is no end. A number of Austrian so- 
cieties are obtaining revenue from the 
sale of charity stamps and one Vienna 
institution is entirely supported by them. 
The stamps are decorative and attract- 
ive in color and design and their sale is 
calculated carefully on business princi- 
ples. They are used as pasters on the 
back of letters and as additional stamps 
on postal cards and thus advertise the 
particular charity to be benefited while 
they bring it revenue. 

Of course the stamps have no postal 
value, but their use is allowed by the 
Austrian authorities as they do not in 
any way interfere with the regular post- 
age. Their cost is infinitesimal, perhaps 
ten for one cent; but the quantity sold 
must be worth while, as a correspondent 

writes that they are on sale in cigar 
stores, candy shops and schools and are 
the favorite means of securing the charit- 
able co-operation of children. A man 
wishing to show his interest in one or 
several institutions will send you a letter 
completely covered with charity stamps. 
Each institution has its design, for in- 
stance an infant asylum uses the della 
Robbia bambino and a peace society has 
a figure of grief as its totem. 

The Verein Frauenhort of Vienna has 
a patent upon the issuing of these stamps 
and has offered to furnish them to so- 
cieties in America appropriately designed 
to fit our circumstances. The issuing 
societies benefit of course in two ways. 
They sell direct to the user for the bene- 
fit of their own society and furnish them 
on a purely business basis to others. 

A Plea of a "Parlor Socialist'' 

John Reid 

Perhaps no one rejoiced as much over 
the 1905 defeat of the Municipal Own- 
ership party in New York, assuming that 
it was a legitimate defeat, as the parti- 
zan of municipal ownership. Aside from 
a not unnatural suspicion of the person- 
ality of the leader, the movement was too 
sudden, its promises were too unweighed, 
and the hopes of its followers were too 
extravagant to have led, in case of a 
ballot-box-success, to anything but abso- 
lute administrative failure and conse- 
quent violent reaction against municipal 

But this, under the best of current cir- 
cumstances, will always be the fate of any 
attempts at state ownership, paternalism, 
federal control or whatever name col- 
lective ownership or control of public 
service corporations may go by, urges 
the political individualist. True, many 
reactions are undoubtedly in store for the 
future political successes and administra- 
tive failures of collective ownership or 
operation. It is, furthermore, very easy 
for the champion of laissez faire doctrine 
to win in any argument about the com- 
parative efficiency or even about the com- 
parative honesty or rather dishonesty of 
public or private management. Human 
nature will not suddenly change. The 
private grafter will merely become the 
public grafter. Deprived of the stimu- 
lus of competition and of at any rate di- 
rect pecuniary gain the officials of the 
state railroad, gas or electric lighting 
bureau, ferry service or what not will im- 
mediately become more or less irresponsi- 
ble, wasteful and inefficient. 

It is futile to attempt to meet the in- 
dividualist on the ground of immediately 
increased economy or efficiency. What 
justification is there then for collectivism? 
One which is too generally ignored, 
although it is, to my mind, the only argu- 
ment warranted by anything else but the 
rankest kind of political idealism. It is 
the support of collectivism, of a gradual 
development of collectivism of course, 
limited however only by experiences, as 
a means of social education. 


Back of recent more or less hysterical 
outcries against bossism, financial dis- 
honesty, political corruptibility, and 
growing protests against child labor, 
race-suicide, prostitution, the unsimpie 
life, gross inequalities of wealth, is a 
widening consciousness of kind, to use 
Professor Giddings's well-known phrase, 
which in another form finds expression 
likewise in the appeal for collectivism. 
For several years the social settlement 
clan both in this country and in Eng- 
land has been in its mode of life implicitly 
asserting the fact that marked economic 
inequalities are a more or less insuperable 
barrier to a general social intercourse 
and to the finer relations of life. Radical 
differences in clothes, household equip- 
ment, etc., alienate people before they 
have a chance to know one another. Cer- 
tain objective uniformities are indispen- 
sable to mutual discovery, a necessary 
form of introduction to sympathetic like- 
nesses or to mutually helpful differences 
of outlook and character. Moreover, if 
bad or inadequate physical conditions 
are shared by all, instead of being suf- 
fered by some and more or less avoided 
or individually remedied by others, or- 
ganization to improve these conditions 
is far more apt to be quicker and more 
effectual. If the vegetarian had vied 
numerically with meat-eating man in 
the United States the history of a certain 
recent federal law might have been very 
different. Furthermore, if the meat-eat- 
ers had been confined to the lower eco- 
nomic classes and the vegetarians to the 
higher, would the "meat bill" have had 
its day at all? 

In a great city like New York, for ex- 
ample, and to a less degree everywhere 
else, it is very difficult to make people 
feel an effective personal responsibility 
for the pains and privations of their 
neighbors. Of what direct concern are 
tenement-house living conditions on First 
avenue to the private house dwellers on 
Fifth? If in common with the East 
Sider his gas supply is bad, he wires his 
house for electricity, if the street-clean- 

A Plea of a "Parlor Socialist' 


ing department neglects Fifth as well as 
First avenue, he goes to the country for 
good air at the end of the week and he 
may keep his children out of town seven 
or eight months of the year ; if the water 
supply is bad, he drinks bottled water; 
and he can afford to ignore whether or 
not the city milk inspection is adequate, 
for he buys milk for his household at a 
high price from a privately certified com- 
pany. As for the adequacy of tenement- 
house laws or the efficiency of the tene- 
ment-house department, he may never in 
all his life have occasion to inquire into 
them. If he is a tenement-house owner, 
on the other hand, he is more than likely 
to consider proper laws and proper en- 
forcement hurtful to his own interests. 
Similarly a higher tax-rate is very likely 
to antagonize him if its purpose is in- 
crease of small parks in congested dis- 
tricts which he or his children never ap- 
proach, or increase of public school fa- 
cilities, his children being educated at 
home or in private schools. Is it not 
expedient for their own social education 
for this type of citizen and for the live- 
and-let-live type as well to suffer many 
of the same inconveniences and distresses 

of their East Side neighbors? Is material 
distress too high a price to pay for a 
sense of social solidarity? 

My plea then for municipal ownership 
and for whatever forms of collectivism 
may have to follow for the goal 
in view, is twofold ( i ) it will encourage 
social sympathy through promoting uni- 
formity of physical environment and 
eventually, perhaps, of certain forms of 
material life in general, (2) through a 
common suffering from political or eco- 
nomic or, to avoid what may become a 
redundancy of speech, let us merely say 
administrative selfishness, inefficiency or 
malpractice, it will make in the long run 
for intelligent, persistent and concerted 
attempts at amelioration of the common 

Collectivism looked at as a panacea for 
the evils of progress through individual- 
istic competition, as the key to perfect 
political machinery or as a way of legis- 
lating public virtue is, let us frankly ad- 
mit, a social mirage. As an expression, 
however, of an already existent although 
slowly growing spirit of altruism and as 
a means of quickening this spirit may it 
not be worth the experiment? 

THe Part of Play in Education for Life 

Elmer EllswortH Brown 

United States Commissioner of Education 

It is a matter of first importance to our 
national well-being that we should know 
how to work. It is almost as important 
that we should know how to play. In 
fact it is sometimes more important that 
we should know how to play. Robert 
Burdette said many years ago that men 
seldom die young from overwork. They 
die young from what they do after the 
hours of work are done. "It is the in- 
tervals that kill, my son," said Mr. Bur- 
dette, "it is the intervals that kill." But 
many a man feels that it is only in the 
intervals that he lives. Our modern life 
is making more of the intervals, and with 
the shortening of the hours of labor they 
will fill a still larger place. It is in the 
intervals that we play, and if we play 
well, the intervals will count for life and 

not for death. So it will be true for at 
least a large part of our people, that the 
way they play in their intervals of leisure 
will count for more than the way they 
work in their hours of labor. 

Play counts for morals; for it is in 
our play that we choose things according 
to our character, and by choosing we 
make our character. The greater part 
of our hours of work is occupied with 
routine. We have started on the task 
and we do what comes to us, and for 
the most of us there is very little choice 
after the start is once made. But in our 
free hours we have a chance to show 
what we are. We will do this or that, 
and we linger over the decision with a 
kind of relish for the experience of 
choosing what we will. We take this 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

or that, a trivial thing it is more often 
than not, but now and then it is a choice 
between things good and bad. We take 
the thing that brings us into companion- 
ship with those who are better than our- 
selves. We do the thing we have dream- 
ed of, which is something more perfect 
than we have ever done before. Wejo 
into a game that has no meanness in r it 
and come out braced up and exhilarated. 
Here we show what we are and what we 
intend to be. After such play as this we 
can go back to our drudgery and do it 
like free men and not like galley slaves. 

But the trouble is with many of us, 
that we do not know how to play. We 
are Puritans and the sons of English- 
men, and a competent critic has said that 
the Englishman takes his pleasures sadly, 
sadly. We are not only the sons of Eng- 
lishmen, but we are spiritual descend- 
ants of Scotchmen, even those of us who 
have no Scotch blood in our veins, and 
the Scotchman takes his pleasures by 
way of a careful division of labor. Mr. 
Barrie has told us in one of his sketches, 
of the village humorist who said : "A 
body canna be expeckit baith to mak the 
joke an' to see't. Na, that would be 
doin' twa fowks' wark." We Americans 
are not all English and not all Scotch. 
We are getting an infusion from all of 
the peoples of the world, and some of 
them know how to play without being 
taught. We have at least got on so far 
as this, that we have a serious conviction 
that we ought to play, and in good 
American fashion we put that conviction 
into effect by organizing societies and 
electing presidents and treasurers. This 
shows that the movement is under way, 
as American movements go, and when it 
has gone far enough we shall undoubted- 
ly succeed in playing, systematically and 

But, now, seriously, as becomes 
this occasion, there can be no man- 
ner of doubt that people will play to 
better purpose if they know how to play, 
and they will choose their pleasures bet- 
ter if there are more things than one that 
they know how to do skilfully and vic- 
toriously. The play imoulse works it- 
self out in crude and debasing fashion 
when one does not know how to do bet- 

ter. I have seen a new boy at school, 
standing on the edge of the playground 
and watching the games which he did not 
know how to play. The excitement of 
the sport entered into him, but all he 
could do was to jump wildly and gro- 
tesquely about, winding up with stupid 
horseplay, in which he pushed and kicked 
and made himself a nuisance generally. 
Boys of an older growth in the same per- 
plexity, take to drink, and I verily believe 
that one reason why they go on drink- 
ing is because they do not know how to 
play. I have seen young people of re- 
spectable families, young men and wo- 
men together, engage in romping sports 
that were horseplay for the greater' part, 
and not at all pleasant to look upon, 
when I believe the trouble was simply 
that they had not learned to dance, or 
had been taught that dancing was a sin. 
To have a variety of sports from which 
to choose, none of them bad in them- 
selves, all of them familiar and all offer- 
ing a range of unalloyed delight, this is 
a safeguard and a help to any people. 
Music is good. It is not a fad in the 
schools. It is a way of giving our boys 
and girls a choice of one more ennobling 
play, and how much more than play ! — 
and the spirit of play works over into 
the making of music and of all the arts. 
When we, as a people, have really learn- 
ed to play, we shall have a national 
American art which will fill our souls 
with joy. In our games we do what 
we do heartily. They give us a joyous 
exercise which makes for health. Our 
business and our politics are cleaner 
when they have in them the spirit of the 
game than when they have in them the 
spirit of the dollar. 

I don't know how near these thoughts 
and sentiments come to the special pur- 
pose of this Playgrounds Association, 
but I should like to add just one word 
with reference to the playground propa- 
ganda. The movement of our education 
may be expressed in a formula. We are 
projecting the city into the country, and 
projecting the country into the city. In 
a hundred ways our, country schools and 
our country committees are getting the 
advantages of city life. In the play- 


Notions of a Prison Man 


grounds movement we are trying to give 
to the city — to that part of the city which 
stays at home year in and year out — 
some of the advantages of country life. 
Those of us who were brought up on the 
farm know how our lives were pitched 
on a key which they have always kept, 
by our free work and free play as boys 
in the open air, out under a sky that was 
not darkened and hardened with the tene- 

ments of a city. We want to see the 
city children of to-day get something of 
that tonic life with which our life began. 
We want to give them the opportunity 
to play their own games in their own 
way, out in the open where there is light 
and air. The country owes much to the 
city, but the debt will be well paid if the 
country shall give back to the city child 
such advantages as these. 

Notions of a Prison Man 

Aloys M. FisK 

Chaplain Ne-w Jersey State Prison, Trenton 

II. All Sorts and Conditions of Men 

A friend writes me: "I don't believe 
the ordinary person has a glimmer of an 
idea of what sort are the make-ups of 
the men you handle, what sort of troubles 
they have to unfold to you." And in this 
I know that he is right. 

Under what form does the ordinary 
mortal picture to himself the convict in 
our prisons? It is usually as either a 
burly, bullet-headed, heavy- jawed, hard- 
eyed monster, ever ready to rob and 
plunder and kill, or as a slender built, 
shifty-eyed, slinking, catlike creature 
seeking his opportunities to steal and as- 
sassinate noiselessly and unawares. The 
novel and the theater have selected these 
as types of the criminal and convict, and 
thus has the public received and retained 
such impressions and these are the 
images that fearsome humanity holds 
before its gaze. 

It is well-known that there are such 
beings, both in our prisons and still at 
large, but it is too broad a conclusion 
to assume that our prison population is 
composed entirely of such men. The 
close-cropped hair, the stubby beard, the 
bagging multi-colored apparel, the influ- 
ence of bleak, cheerless and harsh prison 
surroundings, contribute to produce a 
forbidding and repelling appearance in 
the convict; but take him when dressed 
in well-kept, civilized garb, with trimmed 
beard or smooth-shaven face, combed 
hair and polished shoes, place him in 
congenial surroundings of liberty, and his 

aspect is entirely changed. He will then 
look so nearly like the rest of us, that we 
will not be able to tell him apart. Bullet- 
heads and lantern- jaws, slender build 
and restless eyes are found even among 
those who have always walked in the up- 
right and respectable ways of life. In 
prison there are handsome men, and home- 
ly men, men of all sizes and weights, men 
whose looks inspire confidence and men 
who instinctively affect one with repul- 
sion ; I cannot estimate the ratios of the 
various shapes and sizes and kinds. 

The mental and moral calibres of men 
in prison vary almost infinitely. Some 
are illiterate, others have learning; many 
are crude and some are refined. A few 
have ambitions and ideals ; the majority 
are unable to rise above a level of medi- 

All are not equally bad, nor are the 
crimes committed by them to be imputed 
to them by unvarying rules of moral re- 
sponsibility. Many are first offenders 
against the criminal law, a large number 
have never before been guilty of more 
than misdemeanors, a goodly por- 
tion are adepts in the ways and means 
of vice and crime. In our prisons we 
find victims of degenerate heredity, we 
can distinguish the products of defective 
and debasing environment, we meet ex- 
amples of perversity of will accompany- 
ing the possession of excellent capaci- 
ties, opportunities and attainments. The 
greater number are guilty, but — surpris- 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

ing though the assertion may seem — 
some are there, innocent of wrong-doing. 

All are not confirmed criminals; the 
prison is not a garbage heap of irre- 
claimable dregs and outcasts; it is not 
a storage-house, more or less temporary, 
of the quintessence of delinquency. We 
of the prisons are fully convinced that a 
great number, perhaps the majority will 
leave prison, chastened by their experi- 
ence, and while not all, or perhaps only 
a few, will attain the heights of virtuous 
living, they will be circumspect and will 
endeavor not to run counter to the dic- 
tates of law again. We are well aware, 
on the other hand, that some, or many 
even, while they were chafing under con- 
finement have become more proficient in 
their knowledge of evil deeds, and will 
continue their lawless ways, though more 
alert against detection and capture. We 
cannot with certainty prognosticate of a 
given individual, but our experience in 
the aggregate has demonstrated that 
some will return to crime and prison while 
many will never again be seen even in 
the courts. There will be first offenders 
who will not be reformed but who rather 
will have become emboldened to further 
evil-doing, and there will be recidivists 
who have become tired and disgusted 
with themselves and their past, and who 
will make strong efforts to achieve a bet- 
ter and more solid future. 

I have always regarded it as an im- 
portant part of my work to become 
personally acquainted with the men and 
women under my jurisdiction and have 
endeavored to study them, to learn to 
gauge the human animal. I must con- 
fess that the sum total of my knowledge, 
after years of this work, is that I know 
very little concerning the intricacies of 
the human mind and the complexities of 
the human heart. The more I learn, the 
less I know. This much I have become 
convinced of, however, that convicts 
must be studied as single persons and 
cannot be effectively worked with as a 
class. The idiosyncracies of the indi- 
vidual, not the characteristics of the 
species must be one's guiding line of 
study and of effort. 

I can illustrate the make-up of con- 
victs by quoting a few specimens, taken 

at random from odds and ends of memo- 
randa : 

Charley is a new man, that is, new again, 
for he has been here before. He does not 
like to admit my contention but I demon- 
strated to him in a few words that he is 
utterly no good, and he finally agrees with 
me. Why should I have a different opinion 
of him? He is a young man, yet ten years 
of his past have been given over to idleness 
and crime. He left here about a year ago 
and of this short space of time he spent one- 
half in the county prison. He admits that 
he worked but two weeks after his previous 
release from here and that thereafter work 
and religion were cut out of his life, and 
drinking, wandering, bad associates and oc- 
casional theft took their place. He has had 
rather a good education, but seems to be 
lacking in will-power for he confesses that 
he cannot say "no" to himself when face to 
face with the occasions for wrong doing. 
But he does not care. He bears very lightly 
the burden of renewed imprisonment, and in 
all human probability will return to crim- 
inal ways 

Mike recently was released and now again 
he is in jail. What is the matter with Mike? 
Petticoats and "booze," that's all. Mike is a 
bachelor, a happy-go-lucky chap, not at all 
criminal or bent on wicked deeds. He is a 
workman who earns good wages, is strong 
and brawny of body, but is warm and soft 
of heart. He is putty in the hands of a 
woman. He had listened to the clandestine 
cooings of a married woman until fear of de- 
tection impelled her to suggest an estrange- 
ment. This broke Mike's heart. He parted 
with reluctance, but soon returned with a 
"jag," making such a nuisance of himself that 
he was arrested and condemned to a short 
sojourn in jail. But he was restless there 
and tried to take French leave of the sher- 
iff's hospitality for which breach of the pro- 
prieties he received a sentence to prison. 
Eventually he was liberated and he went to 
work in another town, where I learn that 
after a time he again fell a victim to the 
smiles of a female and to the allurement of 
strong drink. It was again a married wo- 
man, but Mike was not the only string to 
her bow. In disgust one day he sets himself 
to telling her "a piece of his mind"; she 
makes telling rejoinders as only sharp-ton- 
gued woman can — she is no longer young — 
her husband appears with cudgel in hand 
and poor Mike is ignominiously and sorely 
beaten and routed. Upon their joint com- 
plaint he is arrested and thrust into jail 
where he tremblingly ruminates, not know- 
ing what fate may be in store for him. . . 

James enters upon imprisonment here 
after having been released a few months 
before from a prison in another state. He 
is yet a young man, but has expert knowl- 
edge of the devious ways of crime. He tells 


Notions of a Prison Man 


me that upon his release he endeavored to 
obtain employment in a strange city; but 
being unsuccessful in his quest and impelled 
by sullen despair, he committed a robbery. 
He was immediately caught and a renewal 
of his criminal career has been cut short 
through his present imprisonment. He sur- 
prises me by asking me to furnish him 
books by the aid of which he may develop 
his mind and pass his leisure hours bene- 
ficially to himself. As a boy he was a tru- 
ant from school; as a youth he was impa- 
tient of the restraints of home; now he is 
impressed with the uselessnes and detri- 
ment of his former career and wishes to be- 
gin to retrieve at least a little of the lost op- 
portunities of his past 

Frank has been a gentleman of refinement, 
culture and high standing. A child of ex- 
cellent parents, he has had all the advan- 
tages that their station afforded him. He is 
master of several languages and is the au- 
thor of several books. He married well and 
was able to enjoy all the comforts of life. In 
a business venture, wherein with several 
others he had invested capital, he engaged 
in speculation with the funds of which he 
had the management. The investment was 
a failure and in the crash he lost his money 
and that of his associates. Whether this 
unfortunate event was the result of an er- 
ror of judgment or was an outcome of dis- 
honest planning I cannot say. He is here 
and feels crushed under the burden of the 
disgrace that has overtaken him. He has 
left wife and children behind him in sad 
condition, and feels his condition more keen- 
ly on this account 

Hugh in his younger days was an amateur 
prize-fighter, and the scrapping instinct has 
not yet died out in him. He worked hard 
as a longshoreman, supporting his wife, but 
as is usual with his class often forgot the 
hardships of his labor over the "cup that 
cheers." One day while drunk he happened 
along as several men were engaged in a 
fight. The temptation to take a part in the 
scrimmage was too strong for Hugh, and as 
a result he will serve one year and a half 
for assault and battery 

John will go out of prison and back to 
freedom in a few days and he wants to see me 
before he goes. He has the guarantee of a 
good position in a state far away from here. 
Upon his discharge the state will give him 
five dollars, and from a good-hearted fellow- 
convict he has received a loan of five dollars 
more. But he must travel far and he must 
maintain himself until pay day provides him 
with funds. Hence he asks me to supply 
him the balance needed and he promises to 
repay. He has not a bad look, is not of the 
criminal type and a little quiet investigation 
convinces me that he is a safe risk. This 
is his second time here but he seems so de- 
termined to go away from old associates 
and to start life anew that I feel that I must 

help him. John is not yet old and is an ex- 
pert in a good trade, but he has wasted ten 
years of life. He was of unblemished char- 
acter until, at the age of nineteen, he was 
married to a girl who soon afterward showed 
her preference for other men. They parted 
and soon each married another. For this 
act of bigamy he received a term of impris- 
onment in the jail. Thereafter for some 
years his life was one of carelessness; he 
would work hard and then drink up his 
earnings. One day with an insane craving 
for drink upon him, he appropriated a few 
articles of no great value in order to barter 
them for drink. Convicted of this act of 
larceny, he was sentenced here to imprison- 
ment. He went out of prison with good res- 
olutions and again took up hard work, but 
the Rum demon overcame him again, he be- 
came entangled with a dissolute woman, and 
made his home with her. Not apprehending 
that it might be construed as a crime, he 
made use of some money belonging to her 
(not a large amount), and upon her com- 
plaint was again arrested, convicted, and in 
less than a year after his first release he was 
a prisoner here anew. Will he do better 
after these experiences? I hope he will. . . 

Henry is a man, now going on in years, 
who occupied a high position in a prominent 
industrial establishment, was held in esteem 
by his employers and had hosts of friends. He 
was of generous instincts and through mis- 
taken generosity, he accommodated one 
whom he thought a friend with some mer- 
chandise of the establishment. It was done 
without the knowledge of his superiors and, 
taken by itself, was rather indiscretion than 
dishonesty. The so-thought friend soon 
showed himself an avaricious and unscru- 
pulous harpy and through threats of expo- 
sure, coerced Henry into a series of thefts 
which gradually increased in frequency and 
value until eventually discovery came. Brok- 
en in spirit, Henry now has leisure to re- 
pent of his initial indiscretion and his subse- 
quent weakness and moral cowardice. . 

George came to prison here in the early 
twenties of his age. He received a long 
sentence, and has yet a number of years to 
serve. George's family is a good one of the 
middle class and of the six or more chil- 
dren, George is the only bad one; his broth- 
ers and sisters are honest, respected and liv- 
ing good lives. George has already been 
through a state reformatory, but alas, there 
are in him no traces of reformation. He 
went "crooked again" after his release 
thence, and even now, in his mind he is not 
"straight." With years in prison yet ahead, 
George is planning, and his plans are these: 
he will steal, cautiously and shrewdly; he 
will accumulate a competency and thereaf- 
ter will marry and settle down to a life of 
leisure; he will be straight, but not until 
then. I laughed incredulously while I lis- 
tened to his plans, and I suggested to him 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

that dishonesty will again lead him to pris- 
on. But he assured me that he has profited 
from past failures; that he will have the sit- 
uation well in hand and will be wise enough 
to escape detection. And all that I can say 
to him seems ineffective in changing his 

Long comment on these cases is super- 
fluous. Henry is a casual criminal, 
Frank an accidental one; George is a 

confirmed criminal, Charley is an ha- 
bitual one; Hugh is of animal propensi- 
ties but not of criminal bent. John is 
lacking in moral stamina, Mike is a weak- 
ling, a soft-hearted fool. Thus I have 
tried to show the make-up of men under 
my charge and to illustrate that truly in 
a prison there are "all sorts and condi- 
tions of men/' 

TKe Social Function of tKe Hospital 

Sidney E-. Goldstein 
Mt. Sinai Hospital, New Yorh 

The role that sickness plays in the 
tragedy of the poor is a familiar fact to 
every social worker. Annals of charity 
abound with statistics that point to dis- 
ease as a dark and prolific cause of social 
distress. Of the applications made to 
relief organizations in Boston, Chicago, 
New York and Philadelphia not less than 
thirty per cent are assigned to illness as 
an immediate, ultimate or tributary 
source. This large number is more than 
doubled and confirmed by special investi- 
gations. Dr. Lee K. Frankel found that 
of ioo cases studied to ascertain the re- 
lation between compensation and stand- 
ard of living, sixty-two applied because 
of sickness. 1 

Lilian Brandt in a review of 1,288 
cases closed by the Charity Organization 
Society of New York September 30, 
1906, discovered that at date of applica- 
tion sixty-three per cent ascribed to sick- 
ness the cause of their distress, and that 
of 842 chief wage earners out of work 
410 or nearly fifty per cent were pre- 
vented from accepting employment by 
sickness or physical disability. 2 The 
census report on benevolent institutions 
records 1,493 hospitals in the United 
States in 1904 with 71,530 patients and 
estimates that these hospitals cost the 
community $16,000,000 to maintain. An 
appreciation of these and similar facts 
persuaded the National Conference of 
Charities and Correction in 1905 and 
1906 to set apart one of its sections to 
study the care of the sick. This was a 
profound though somewhat tardy ac- 

iCharities and The Commons, Nov, 17, 1906. 
sChabities and The Commons, Dec. 1, 1908. 

knowledgment that disease is worthy of 
social investigation. Is it not significant, 
however, that nowhere in the programs 
is there mention of the one institution 
that more than any other devotes its 
energies to the care of the sick, namely, 
the hospital? Why is it that in the 
literature of philanthropy so little con- 
sideration is granted to the hospital as a 
social institution, and to the position it 
occupies in the chain of philanthropic 
agencies for relief and education? 

The first answer to this question is 
that the hospital has been slow to enter 
the circle of communal institutions and to 
share in their plans and progress. This has 
been due in part to the fact that men and 
women engaged in hospital work have 
found the hospital problem provokingly 
complex and baffling even minus that 
part which considers the relation of the 
hospital to society. During the past 
twenty-five years radical changes in the 
sciences of medicine, surgery and sanita- 
tion have forced to the surface new ques- 
tions of location, construction and equip- 
ment; these in turn have introduced new 
methods of administration and control. 
Where to locate and how to construct and 
furnish a hospital, how to provide and 
expend funds, in what way to distribute 
the forces at command, in what manner 
to secure that organization which will 
prove most efficient in caring for the 
patient; these are interrogations the an- 
swers to which have consumed the days 
and nights of those devoted to the study 
of the hospital. Naturally, but unfortu- 
nately, the result has been a tendency to 


The Social Function of the Hospital 


view the hospital merely from the in- 
side, seldom from such a happy distance 
that the hospital falls into its proper pro- 
portions in the midst of the community. 
The hospital, consequently, does not feel 
itself an intimate part of the social order ; 
it stands forbiddingly isolated and aloof. 
A second answer is that social workers 
have not approached the hospital with 
faith and friendliness ; they have retained 
something of the public's lingering re- 
gard of disfavor and suspicion. These 
feelings, certainly, were not without their 
basis in the past; patients were not in 
all centuries accommodated as they are 
at present. In ancient times the sick 
were segregated in camps and housed in 
unclean huts ; the chief therapeutic agents 
were incantations and exorcising formu- 
las. In the Middle Ages wards were 
built in conjunction with convents and 
monasteries by the church, in which to 
minister to the stricken and the dying. 
These wards partook of the heavy, mas- 
sive architecture of the period, with dark 
and poorly ventilated interiors, and what 
could be done with the few herb concoc- 
tions of the time was religiously accom- 
plished. About those cloister wards 
grew up the principal hospitals of Eu- 
rope and England. The care of the sick 
appealed to the people; but the compas- 
sionate spirit that conceived the project 
did not fulfil its promise. The hospitals 
of the 17th and 18th centuries became 
festering centers of contagion; their 
death lists swelled to terrifying propor- 
tions; their inmates who survived, re- 
hearsed tales that charged the very word 
hospital with inexpressible terror. Wylie 
quotes from Dr. Jones his description of 
a visit to the Hotel Dieu in 1772. 

It is impossible for a man of any hu- 
manity to walk through the long wards 
of this crowded hospital without a mixture 
of pity and commiseration at the sad spec- 
tacle of misery which presents itself. The 
beds are placed in triple rows with four 
and six patients in each bed; and I have 
more than once, in the morning rounds, 
found the dead lying with the living. 

Yet in those pest houses there grew up 
the young sciences of medicine and surg- 
ery; in many instances the vast aggre- 
gations of the sick were literally annexed 
to medical colleges and the patients were 

valued primarily as experimental ma- 
terial. The hut, the cloister ward, the 
experiment station, and adjunct to medi- 
cal schools, are being superceded by a fur- 
ther development. The advent of social 
science and the enunciation of new princi- 
ples of charity are destined to modify our 
conception of the function of the hospital 
as fundamentally as they have reformed 
our ideas concerning relief societies, 
orphan asylums and homes. New style 
of buildings, new methods of treatment, 
new manner of nursing, new sense of re- 
sponsibility in administrative and medical 
staff are disabusing the public mind of its 
distrust; the hospital is gradually win- 
ning confidence and interest; patients of 
various classes are seeking the advantages 
it affords; hence, it seems that the time 
is not inopportune to inquire in what way 
the hospital can serve society best. 

The initial move would be to eliminate 
abuses that to a large extent at present 
vitiate the ministrations of the hospital. 
The abuses are evident in different ad- 
ministrative departments, some of them 
have spasmodically been pointed out in 
the press, but the scope of this article 
excludes administrative problems and 
proposes to limit itself to a review of the 
relation of the hospital to society. An 
application for treatment in the hospital 
may be made by whoever claims to be 
ill. Not all patients, however, can be ad- 
mitted. The ward beds of a hospital as 
it is now designed and conducted, are re- 
served for men, women and children with 
acute diseases which for different reasons 
cannot be cared for at home. In con- 
sidering the admission of a patient the 
first inquiry is : How urgent is the case ? 
A case of acute appendicitis or pneu- 
monia may not be turned away with im- 
punity; human life takes precedence over 
theory and system. A further reason for 
admitting a patient is the medical inter- 
est the case possesses. One function of 
the hospital is to round out the education 
of the graduated medical student and to 
furnish material for research and experi- 
mentation, so far as this is compatible 
with the welfare of the patient. This 
work cannot be done if the hospital hesi- 
tates to admit patients who may be 
studied with great advantage in an in- 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

stitution provided with modern labora- 
tory equipment and facilities. In addi- 
tion to urgency and medical interest there 
are other and important facts which are 
at present widely neglected; home sur- 
roundings and family responsibility. 
Every hospital is assailed by more pa- 
tients than it has beds; the consequence 
is that a list of men and women are al- 
ways waiting to be admitted. Of these 
list cases a large percentage, seventy-five 
per cent to ninety per cent are medically 
urgent to the same degree and the custom 
is to admit each in order of application. 
If two men are waiting upon the list, 
one young and single with no one de- 
pendent upon him, the other middle aged 
and married with a wife and children at 
home, no preference is given to the one 
or the other. The date determines who 
shall be requested to call first for treat- 
ment. Justice, however, would seem to 
suggest that wife and children in distress 
contribute something to the urgency of 
the case. The second man ought to be 
admitted before the first, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that the first applied before 
the second. It is wiser social economy to 
consider in this instance the family, for 
delay may prove disastrous and may be- 
queath to the community in place of one 
temporary patient, several permanent 
charges. It is surely more merciful also, 
to ask one man to suffer a little longer 
than to allow a whole family to languish 
in want and pain. 

But these facts concerning home and 
responsibilities together with other infor- 
mation which the hospital should possess 
cannot be ascertained through the pre- 
vailing system of admission. When the 
patient seeks admission he applies to an 
admitting clerk, who writes out his name, 
address and pedigree; from the admit- 
ting clerk he goes to the admitting phy- 
sician, who examines and recommends 
or rejects him; from the admitting phy- 
sician he goes to the ward where he is, 
placed in charge of an attending doctor, 
intern and nurse ; from the ward he goes 
to the office for dismissal and from there 
out the door. At no point in his hospital 
career is he looked upon as anything but 
a medical subject. He enters the hos- 
pital because he is sick, he is treated as 
a phenomenon in medicine and surgery, 

and is discharged "cured," "improved," 
or "no hospital case." His social status, 
one might say, is studiously ignored. 
There is absent almost completely any 
endeavor to discover the patient's ability 
to contribute toward his maintenance or 
treatment. When an applicant is ad- 
mitted he is formally asked whether he 
can pay a specified sum, $i a day in some 
hospitals, from $3 to $10 a week in 
others, but in answer to this question the 
patient's reply, bare and hasty as it is, 
of "Yes," or "No," must be accepted as 

The hospital as a rule has no machinery 
by which to protect itself from imposition 
by the thoughtless and the unscrupulous. 
And there is further lacking all interest 
in the patient as a social unit, as the sup- 
port of a family, as the center of af- 
fection, as a power of upbuilding or dis- 
integration in the civic and social life. 
No attempt is systematically made to in- 
struct or caution, to guide or persuade to 
the safest course of conduct; nor is any 
means provided by which to collect such 
statistics of disease as will lead to a better 
understanding of causes that help to pro- 
duce it and of ways in which it may be 
met or prevented. To study the appli- 
cant; to determine the wisest disposition 
of each case ; to care for the patient as 
a social factor is not done by the hos- 
pital as is done now by other philan- 
thropic institutions. 

In a relief ^organization administered 
along modern lines, the applicant is re- 
ceived by one whose temperament, edu- 
cation and experience enables and en- 
titles him to estimate the motive and urg- 
ency of a request or complaint. If the 
need is pressing, assistance is immediate- 
ly rendered, but soon thereafter an expert 
investigator is detailed upon the case and 
dispatched to gather all information that 
will aid to an intelligent social treat- 
ment. In this investigation, time, money, 
and patience are expended; many visits 
are made, many persons are interviewed, 
facts are carefully sifted from hearsay 
and fabrication and an earnest endeavor 
is made to establish a personal relation 
with those to be assisted. What is the 
object of this method of work? To save 
money? Yes, to save money is one and 
a legitimate object; indiscriminate giving 


The Social Function of the Hospital 


of currency is wasteful and degrading. 
But the greater object is to save the ap- 
plicant. In every case investigated, facts 
are collected and arranged in such a 
manner that a connected story of cause 
and effect unfolds itself. This story out- 
lines in true proportion, a man or woman, 
physically, morally or mentally inefficient ; 
or if efficient, overcome in the conflict 
with craftiness and injustice, or crushed 
in the struggle with ponderous economic 
changes. This picture of a person in 
distress, also uncovers the cause of such 
a condition; and in doing this suggests 
not only assistance but reform. Charity 
to-day looks less to giving than to chang- 
ing, to so changing situations that giv- 
ing will become unnecessary. Our pres- 
ent valuation of human life demands not 
so much relief, as reformation. 

If these modern methods of philan- 
thropy were introduced into the hospital, 
in what way would they advance the 
work of the institution and the interests 
of the public? They would in the first 
place tend to correct the present abuse 
in medical charity. A quarter of a cen- 
tury ago it was only the destitute class 
attacked by disease, that reluctantly 
sought refuge in the hospital. The last 
two decades have witnessed a startling 
growth and transformation in the hos- 
pital clientele. This has been due in 
part to the progress in medicine and surg- 
ery, and part to the development of the 
hospital; in part to small rooms and 
contracted accommodations in large 
cities. Only in rare instances is it pos- 
sible in tenements to reproduce the hos- 
pital environment which is so necessary 
to treatment and recovery. The appa- 
ratus, which is costly, the attention of 
nurses, the presence of physicians, the 
preparedness for emergency; the furni- 
ture, instruments, aseptic conditions re- 
quired for operations, these things can 
be secured even by the wealthy only with 
difficulty and tardiness. The conse- 
quence is that a large class of diseases, 
medical and surgical, can be treated safe- 
ly and successfully only in the hospital. 
The public has with many misgivings and 
much hesitation grown to recognize these 
facts. Hence we find that the destitute 
form only one though the largest 

class of applicants. A careful analysis 
shows that there is a second class that is 
not destitute, but which is unable to pay 
for medical service or hospital main- 
tenance; a third class that cannot pay 
for medical attention, but can contribute 
something toward their support in the 
hospital; and a fourth class that while 
unable to engage a private room and 
physician, are yet in a position to defray 
the entire cost of maintenance during 
their stay in the institution. Should not 
these four classes be treated upon their 
merits? Should not each individual be 
asked to pay what in justice his circum- 
stances permit? 

The amount that a hospital should re- 
ceive from its ward patients one can- 
not fix absolutely; circumstances of pa- 
tients and their financial resources fluc- 
tuate with locality and with industrial 
prosperity or depression; but it is pos- 
sible to approximate the figures that 
should be reached. A comparison of re- 
ports made by the New York City De- 
partment of Charity with the percentage 
of patients who now do pay justifies the 
most conservative estimate that twenty 
per cent of cases that should be treated 
in a general hospital can afford to pay 
something. Of these twenty patients out 
of each one hundred, six can afford $5.00 
per week, ten $7.00 per week, and four 
$14.00 per week on an average, which 
sums up to $156.00 per week or about 
$8,000 per annum. If these figures be 
used as a standard, as they safely may, 
few institutions whose reports are acces- 
sible and whose receipts from pay pa- 
tients are properly analyzed, can claim 
to be free from abuse. In those hos- 
pitals that have a fixed rate of $1.00 per 
day the percentage of pay patients in the 
wards does not rise above twelve per 
cent and the sum collected does not reach 
higher than $5,000 a year. This low 
rate is due partly to lack of investiga- 
tion and partly to the manifest absurdity 
of the fixed rate system. How this sys- 
tem works out in practice may be vividly 
illustrated by one example. A large and 
important hospital expends $2.25 per day 
in caring for each patient. An investi- 
gation discovered that fully one-fifth of 
those in the wards who pay $1.00 a day 

1 64 

Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

can afford $2.25 or more. Through its 
system, therefore, this hospital lost $1.25 
per day for each of these patients, or in 
other words, contributed $8.25 per week 
to the bank account of a fairly prosper- 
ous working or business man. In the 
hospitals that have a sliding scale rang- 
ing from $3.00 to $10.00 per week the 
percentage of pay patients in the wards 
runs up as high as twenty-two or 
twenty-three per cent. This high figure, 
however, is deceiving, for the sums col- 
lected do not correspond, which means 
that a great many more than should, take 
advantage of the system and volunteer 
to pay as little as will be accepted ; and it 
is safe also to assume that without in- 
vestigation many escape payment alto- 
gether. The fact to be emphasized in 
this connection is not that the hospital 
loses $3,000 or $6,000 or $9,000 a year 
according to the number of patients treat- 
ed, but that it misspends these amounts 
in caring for cases that can pay for 
themselves, which is another and softer 
way of saying that it unconsciously mis- 
appropriates funds entrusted to it for 
a legitimate and noble purpose. 

The Mt. Sinai Hospital in January, 
1907, engaged a paid investigator in the 
hope of amending this abuse. A com- 
parison of the receipts from ward pa- 
tients during the months of February, 
March and April of this year with those 
of 1906, show an increase of more than 
twenty per cent. This result is due en- 
tirely to greater vigilance on the part of 
the office and the investigator, and so far 
as can be discovered, inflicts no additional 
hardship upon the patient or his relatives. 

A second result that would follow from 
adopting modern methods is the elimina- 
tion of cases that should go to a private 
physician. The hospital ought to be re- 
served for two classes of patients : those 
that cannot pay for medical attention 
and those afflicted with diseases that can- 
not be treated at home. But there is no 
means at present by which to exclude 
those who do not come within these two 
classes, and consequently the beds can- 
not at all times be preserved for those 
for whom they were intended. Would 
it not be right to devise means by which 
to anticipate this abuse? It is quite as 

reprehensible to misuse beds as it is to 
misspend funds. Each bed represents 
so much capital, so much money that is 
held in trust for the community, and the 
community expects that the beds in the 
hospital shall be given to the most de- 
serving, as it demands that the dollars 
in a relief office shall be expended for 
the most worthy. Beds and dollars are 
interchangeable terms. By combating 
this abuse the hospital would also show 
greater fairness to the general practi- 
tioner. These men complain constantly 
and bitterly that to them the growth of 
the hospital means loss of patients. This 
complaint is by no means groundless ; 
many patients who formerly paid a pri- 
vate physician at home now enter the 
wards of the hospitals free of charge, and 
the hospital makes no effort to bar their 
admission. This ungenerous and unjust 
attitude toward a large class of earnest 
and able men is not in the least commend- 
able. If it is wrong for one man to 
take away the bread of another, it cer- 
tainly is intensely wrong for an insti- 
tution to persistently deprive a profes- 
sional class of its livelihood. 

A department of work at present large- 
ly neglected by the hospital is the com- 
pilation of social statistics. In the ar- 
chives of every hospital will be found the 
medical histories of each patient that has 
been treated in the institution ; these his- 
tories with their wealth of facts and de- 
scriptions, constitute a most valuable 
source of information to students of 
medicine and surgery. Why should they 
not be supplemented by histories of an- 
other character, by a description of the 
patient's social condition and disease? 
A patient is something more than a pa- 
tient; he is also and primarily a social 
unit, and is therefore a legitimate ob- 
ject of interest and solicitude to the so- 
cial worker. For this reason it is just 
to request that facts which the doctor 
alone discovers, should be tabulated and 
arranged in such a manner that they can 
readily be converted into material for so- 
cial study. It is important to know which 
cases can be traced to heredity, which to 
infection from parents; which to lack of 
precaution that should be taken 
by families or neighbors; it is also of 


The Social Function of the Hospital 


value to learn the condition that may ex- 
plain an attack of illness; for instance, 
the poor sewerage and bad sanitation in 
the house ; the dearth of toilets and bath- 
ing facilities that would tempt the men, 
women and children to a cleanly life; 
the way in which children are cared for, 
neglected or exposed; the habits of wo- 
men that drift into decline and nervous 
disorders ; the occupations of men that in- 
duce functional disturbances and that 
threaten operation and weakness and 
consequent incapacity for work. Should 
not this information concerning habits 
and occupations, home and tenement con- 
ditions be written out and placed at our 
disposal? In different movements that 
are organized to combat disease small 
use can be made of the vast amount of 
evidence and argument that could be 
found in hospital records, because the 
hospital makes no effort to present this 
material in accessible form. An accu- 
mulation of such histories as are here sug- 
gested, would give a more intelligent and 
accurate picture of disease as a cause of 
social distress, and would indicate the 
most judicious and promising method in 
which to prevent its fearful catastrophies. 
If the system that at present prevails 
in the hospital fails to accomplish all that 
should be done, what suggestion can be 
made toward constructing another system 
that will promise more? Two things 
should determine the character of the 
system : the objects to be attained and the 
qualities necessary for attainment. From 
previous paragraphs it is clear that the 
objects are: to collect from all ward pa- 
tients what in justice they should pay; 
to eliminate all cases that can be cared 
for at home ; to accumulate and formulate 
information that will lead to a better un- 
derstanding of the relation between dis- 
ease and home surroundings, habits and 
occupations ; to map out measures and 
organize movements in addition to those 
that now exist which will diminish dis- 
ease as a cause of social distress. In 
order to achieve these objects the first 
quality necessary is speed. Each per- 
son that applies should be given the bene- 
fit of the doubt, and admitted if rules 
permit; but after admission the investi- 
gation should be made as speedily as pos- 

sible; the hospital should be in posses- 
sion of facts at the earliest moment, 
otherwise the patient will recover and 
leave the hospital, or taking advantage of 
delay, will insist that matters be allowed 
to remain as they have been. The sec- 
ond quality necessary is thoroughness. 
The investigation should not stop with 
the statement that the patient is or is not 
able to pay for maintenance; it should 
pass beyond the purely financial argu- 
ment and endeavor to press into social 
and moral problems, for in these will 
develop the broadest scope and finest op- 
portunity for action and advancement. 
The third quality necessary is sympathy. 
It is always difficult to approach those in 
need; it is doubly difficult to unveil the 
private life of the sick; not only is ex- 
treme delicacy required, but the bounda- 
ries of gentleness, persuasion and firm- 
ness are tried severely, both by the ner- 
vous, aggravated mental condition of 
the patient and by the suspicious, 
fearful, feelings of the relatives. 
Considerable self-control and patience 
and tenderness are needed to avoid mak- 
ing the investigation resemble a collect- 
or's call or a session of the inquisition. 
The fourth quality necessary is expert- 
ness. To put this work into the hands 
of an amateur or routinist is to 
foredoom it to distortion and lifelessness. 
The discipline that comes from conscien- 
tious labor in the field of modern phil- 
anthropy is positively essential and in ad- 
dition there should be brought to the 
work a mind and experience large enough 
to see and study society and its prob- 
lems as a whole and the devastating part 
that disease plays in the midst thereof, — 
for disease is not limited to one circle or 
one class or one country; it is a social 
problem in the largest and fullest sense 
of the term. 

Two systems propose themselves in 
which these qualities could be expected 
and through which these objects could 
be achieved. The hospital may conduct 
its investigations independent of other in- 
stitutions, or it may work in co-operation 
with various philanthropic agencies. If 
the hospital is to act alone the system 
will prove somewhat costly. For each 

1 66 

Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

one hundred patients in a hospital five 
are admitted and discharged daily on an 
average. These five cases can be handl- 
ed by one expert social worker : in a hos- 
pital of two hundred ward patients one 
assistant would be required and for each 
additional hundred patients, one more 
assistant. The initial cost for the first 
hundred patients would be between $1,200 
and $1,500 per annum and for each new 
assistant $900 per annum more. Even 
this expenditure is small, however, when 
the present income from ward patients 
does not rise above $5,000 a year per one 
hundred ward beds and when it should 
with proper system and control reach 
$8,000 fully. But a happier solution is 
one that contemplates a closer relation 
between different charitable institutions. 
Should the hospital be affiliated with a 

charity organization or relief society one 
chief social worker could be detailed for 
hospital cases only and be provided with 
an office in the institution. To this chief 
worker could be added as many more as- 
sistants as each day or week would de- 
mand. This plan would undoubtedly 
economize labor and expense. The rec- 
ords of the relief society would form a 
valuable asset and the suggestions and 
counsel contained in them would aid 
greatly in this new venture on the part of 
the hospital. But this plan must un- 
fortunately wait upon progress. The 
first system seems at present the only one 
which in most cities may win interest 
and favor, the only one which will tend 
to enlarge the activities of the hospital, 
and which will assist it to fulfil its func- 
tion as a social institution. 

Our Slavic Fellow Citizens 


The Newer Slavic Immigration 
Emily Greene BalcK 

With the coming of the eighties the 
original contingent of Bohemians and 
Poles began to be overlaid by a much 
larger volume of new comers differing in 
various important respects from the old. 

These later immigrants were mainly 
drawn from more primitive districts out 
of touch with western Europe, and they 
generally came not as settlers to take 
up farms but to labor in mines, foun- 
dries, and factories in order to earn 
money to send back to their homes to 
which they intended themselves to re- 
turn. A large part of both the old and 
the new comers were peasants, that is 
small independent farmers, but among 
the new class the proportion of men pos- 
sessing trades was less and the mere la- 
borers were more numerous. 

The bulk of the new Slavic immigra- 
tion has come from Austria-Hungary, 
but just how much there was no means 
to know till 1899 when the immigration 
authorities first began to give data for 
race and nationality. During the eight 
years for which we have these figures 
the total Slavic immigration was 1,198,- 
422 (or nearly 150,000 a year), and of 

this over seventy-two per cent came from 
Austria-Hungary. Of immigration from 
Austria-Hungary sixty-two per cent was 

Table I gives the data for the period 
for which they are available, in regard 
to the different Slavic groups. 

« Table 1 

Slavic Immigration 1899 to 1906 inclusive. 

Poles, 535,538, of whom 47% came from Aus- 
tria-Hungary; 48% from Russia; 4.8% 
from Germany. 

Slovaks, 262,676, of whom over 99% came 
from Austria-Hungary. 

Croatians and Slovenians, 206,477, of whom 
99% came from Austria-Hungary. 

Ruthenians, 66,907, of whom over 98% 
came from Austria-Hungary, and 1% from 

Bohemians and Moravians, 60,914, of whom 
99% came from Austria-Hungary. 

Bulgarians, Servians and Montenegrins, 
30,404, of whom 41% came from Austria- 
Hungary, 35% from Bulgaria, Servia and 
Montenegro, and 22% from Turkey. 

Russians, 21,909, of whom 1% came from 
Austria-Hungary, and 95% from Russia. 

Dalmatians, Bosnians and Herzegovinians, 
13,597, of whom 99% came from Austria- 

Total Slavs, 1,198,422. 

i 9 o; 

Our Slavic Fellow Citizens 


This table shows how Austria-Hun- 
gary sends us the following groups: 

(a) Poles from Galicia (that is Austrian 
Poland); (b) Slovaks from upper Hungary; 
(c) Ruthenians, neighbors of the Poles in 
Galicia and of the Slovaks in Hungary; (d) 
Slovenians, from the Austrian province 
of Carniola and adjacent parts; (e) Croa- 
tians from Croatia-Slavonia, Istria, Dalmatia, 
Bosnia and Herzegovinia, and (f) Servians 
from the same territory. 

From outside Austria-Hungary came 
the following groups: 

(a) The largest of the three Polish con- 
tingents, that from Russia, and (b) the 
smallest Polish contingent, that from Ger- 
many, (c) Russians proper (about two per 
cent only of the million and more that Rus- 
sia has sent us in the eight years), and 
lastly (d) Servians and Bulgarians from 
Servia, Montenegro, Bulgaria and Turkey. 

In considering the total of over a mil- 
lion Slavic immigrants shown by table 
I it must be remembered that not all who 
come here remain and that some go back 
and forth many times. In the last fifteen 
years for which we have the figures 1 the 
passengers "other than cabin" who left 
the ports of the United States equalled 
one-third of the total immigrants of the 
same years. The proportion rises and 
falls with the times, in 1895 it was over 
eighty- three per cent and last year ( 1906) 
just over a quarter. 

These considerations suggest that the 
total of 1,198,422 Slavic immigrants ar- 
rived in the last eight years does not 
mean an addition of this full amount to 
our population. Other evidence on this 
head is the large proportion of arriving 
immigrants who state that they have been 
in the country before. I have worked 
out these percentages for the two years 
1900 and 1906 (Table II) and find to my 
own surprise that the English, Irish and 
Scotch have the largest proportion, and 
thus appear to come and go the most, and 
that the Scandinavians and Germans also 
stand high. The Slovaks have nearly as 
high a rate of those returning as the 
Irish, and Croatians and Slovenians 
stand about with the Italians, Germans 

a Report for 1906 of commissioner general of 
immigration. Table XVII. The figures are for 
1890 to 1906 inclusive with the exception of the 
years 1896 and 1897 which are lacking. The 
figures are probably incomplete. 

and Syrians being in the same class. 
Other Slavs have smaller proportions. 
The Jews have the least . 

Table II 

Per cent of immigrant arrivals who have 
been in the United States before. 

The figures cover the fifteen immigrant 
groups which were the largest in 1906 
(namely, in this order, South Italians, He- 
brews, Poles, Germans, Scandinavians, North 
Italians, English, Croatians and Slovenians, 
Magyars, Irish, Slovaks, Greeks, Scotch, Ru- 
thenians and Lithuanians), and also the 
smaller Slavic groups, Bohemians and Mora- 
vians, Bulgarians, Servians and Montene- 
grins, Russians, and finally Dalmatians, Bos- 
nians and Herzegovinians. I have given the 
same figures for 1900 in parentheses 

1906. 1900. 

English 27.3 (30.6) 

Irish 21.4 (16.9) 

Scotch 20.3 (35.6) 

Slovaks 18.5 (16.0) 

Scandinavians 16.7 ( 18.9 ) 

North Italians 14.4' (16.3) 

Germans 13.2 (12.2) 

South Italians 13.0 (11.2) 

Syrians 12.9 ( 8.0 ) 

Croatians and Slovenians.. 12.6 ( 9.8) 

Magyars 9.8 (12.1) 

Ruthenians 9.7 ( 8.5) 

Poles 5.9 ( 4.9) 

Greeks 5.6 (8.9) 

Dalmatians, Bosnians and 

Herzegovinians 4.7 (9.0) 

Russians 4.5 ( 2.6) 

Bulgarians, Servians and 

Montenegrins 3.5 (7.8) 

Bohemians and Moravians.. 3.4 ( 5.4) 

Lithuanians 2.8 ( 1.3) 

Hebrews 1.7 ( 1.9) 

Another indication of the same thing 
is given by a comparison of the figures 
for immigration with the United States 
census. Foreign countries sent us, in 
the decade 1 891 -1900, 3,687,564 immi- 
grants. The census of 1900, however, 
shows a gain of foreign born since 1890 
of less than a third as many (1,091,729). 
A considerable part of this difference, 
but not all of it, is accounted for by 
deaths among our foreign born popula- 

Chart I shows the fluctuation since 
1867 of the stream from Austria-Hun- 
gary which we may, as we have seen, 
roughly identify with the Slavic inflow. 
At least it is the best index that we have 
of it for most of the period. It shows 
on the whole a rapid increase, from 1880 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

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33 40/ 
7'. 042 

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2 7. 309 


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2 7. '336 


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(«75 1 
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ion from 

i Austria-Hungary 

on, with a falling off during the hard 
times beginning with 1893. The sharp 
little check in 1904 represents the care- 
fully inculcated belief that on the presi- 
dential choice of that year hung industrial 
prosperity and the chance of work. 

The beginning of the immigration of 
the different nationalities cannot be dated 
in any hard and fast way. The' older 
Bohemian and German Polish movements 
have already been described. Apparent- 
ly the movement spread from the German 
Poles eastward to their brothers in Gali- 
cia in the later seventies and to the Poles 
in Russia somewhat later. The Slovaks 
began to come in considerable numbers 
in the early eighties and the Ruthenians 
at about the same time. 

These three nationalities converge on 
the slopes of the eastern Carpathian dis- 
trict and more or less interpenetrate 
one another and the immigration once 
being started it was natural that so con- 
tagious a movement should spread 
through the whole Carpathian group. 
Moreover among all these peoples trade 
is largely in the hands of the Jews and 
it seems often to have happened that 
some enterprising Jew was the first 
among his fellow townspeople to explore 

and report on the promised land across 
the Atlantic and thus set the stream of 
immigration to flowing. 

The South Slavs began to immigrate 
somewhat later. Though individual Slo- 
venians came very early, as already men- 
tioned, it was not till about 1892 that 
the movement became noticeably impor- 
tant among them. In the Croatian 
group, the Dalmatians, who are a mobile 
sea faring population, had been coming 
occasionally indefinitely far back, but in 
large numbers and particularly from in- 
land, the Croatians began to come toward 
the middle of the nineties. Servians and 
Bulgarians are still more recent, numer- 
ous only in the last five years but grow- 
ing rapidly. As to Russians, of twenty- 
two thousand in the last eight years over 
three-quarters came in the last half of 
the time. 

Whereas the immigrants of the pre- 
ceding period had mainly gone to the 
farming country north and west of Chi- 
cago, these later comers primarily 
answered the call for labor in mines and 
related industries and consequently found 
their center of gravity in Pennsylvania. 

There the great early goal seems to 
have been the anthracite coal region of 
the eastern part of the state. The Poles 
appear to have been the first to come and 
right on their heels came the Slovaks. 
An informant from Hazleton, a district 
where they appeared quite early, gave 
me the following account of their first 
arrival : 

They began to come about twenty years 
ago, a few stray ones came earlier. Nowa- 
days not so many are coming but at one 
time they came in batches shipped by the 
carload to the coal fields. When they ar- 
rived they seemed perfectly aimless. It was 
hard for them to make themselves under- 
stood and they would be sent to a man who 
kept a saloon on Wyoming street. They 
would land at the depot and at the beginning 
they would spend the first night on the plat- 
form. I have quartered many in my stable 
on the hay. One pulled out a prayer book 
and read a prayer. They were mainly Cath- 
olics, but some were Protestants, though 
we did not know that till later. Sometimes 
they would go up into the brush and build 
a fire and sleep or if it was too cold just 
sit there on the ground. As soon as they 
had earned something or if they had a little 
money they would go to the bakers or get 
meat of any cheap sort regardless of its 


The Industrial Viewpoint 


condition. Many were so poor that they 
came in old army suits, their belongings all 
in one big bundle. At first it was only 
men that came. 

In a number of places these raw re- 
cruits of industry seem to have been called 
in as the result of a strike 1 and there 
probably were plenty of instances of 
sending agents abroad or otherwise in- 
ducing labor to immigrate either under 
contract or with an equivalent under- 
standing. It must be remembered that 
the law forbidding importation of labor 
under contract was not passed till 1885. 
But even while perfectly legal such a 
course would have been unpopular 
among working men and was probably 
always more or less sub rosa. This may 
be one reason why it is very hard to get 
any definite information about it, but in- 
deed on both sides of the water the do- 
ings of less than a generation ago are 
surprisingly hard to learn about. 

In any case it is not of great import- 
ance. The stream once set flowing found 
its way of itself and has constantly in- 

*Mr. Powderly said before the In- 
dustrial Commission (Vol. XV, p. 32) "I believe 
in 1869, during a miners' strike which was then 
in progress, a man who was connected with one 
of the coal companies made the statement that 
in order to defeat the men in their demands It 
would be necessary to bring cheap labor from 
Europe and shortly after that miners were no- 
ticed coming to the anthracite region in large 
numbers from Italy, Hungary, Russia, and other 
far on* lands." 

creased in volume. As one region is 
drained till it approaches the point of 
equilibrium the outflow from a fresher 
district strengthens. 

The new immigrants, guided in the 
main by the chances of good wages rather 
than of cheap land, rapidly found their 
way to the points where there was a de- 
mand for their undaunted though un- 
skilled labor. Once within the country 
no contract labor law impeded the em- 
ployers' agents and men were drafted 
off to different places according as hands 
were needed in mine, coke oven, rolling 
mill, lumber camp or, less typically, fac- 
tory. Such a movement has little co- 
herent history and what I have been able 
to make out will be given separately for 
each nationality along with a considera- 
tion of its present distribution. 

It must be noted that during this period 
agricultural settlement, though over- 
shadowed, was by no means lacking, es- 
pecially among the Bohemians and the 
Poles. Its spread was mainly in the 
group of states west of the great lakes, 
but in the Connecticut valley, and else- 
where in the East, the number of "Po- 
landers" who have bought land is very 
considerable and I was surprised to see in 
a Bohemian paper in New York the 
space devoted to advertisement of Con- 
necticut and other farms. 

TKe Industrial Viewpoint 

Conducted by Graham Taylor 

Triumph The sanity of having some 
Government legalized ways of conciliat- 
Mediation. [ ng or arbitrating labor dis- 
putes readily available and inexpensive- 
ly applicable, is conspicuously demon- 
strated by the settlement of the threat- 
ened strike of railway employes. Since 
1898 the Erdman Act of Congress has 
been at the command of common carriers 
or their employes to settle all dif- 
ferences between them. Singularly 
enough, in view of the efficiency of 
its operation, the act has not been 

resorted to in all these years except 
in a few minor instances. But when most 
desperately needed it proved to be as ad- 
equate to the situation as though it had 
been framed to meet it. The railway 
managers and the leaders of their em- 
ployes' unions had utterly failed to wring 
from each other the concessions for 
which they respectively stood. The man- 
agers then had recourse to this law and 
called upon the chairman of the Inter- 
State Commerce Commission and the 
commissioner of labor to "use their best 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

efforts by mediation and conciliation" to 
settle their differences. In accordance with 
the purpose of the law thus expressed, 
these two officials responded to the sum- 
mons "with all practicable expedition," as 
by the law they were also directed to do. 
According to both sides the settlement 
which seems equally satisfactory to each, 
was due to the tactful way in which Mr. 
Knapp of the Inter-State Commerce 
Commission drew up the compromise 
agreement and the conciliatory way in 
which Labor Commissioner Neill con- 
ducted the negotiations between the 
parties at issue. 

Much as is the credit due to these two 
men, the success of their effort is in part 
at least to be attributed to the features 
of the law lying in the background which 
could have successively been called into 
requisition. For if they had failed to 
conciliate, the common carriers and the 
employes' organization were authorized 
each to appoint an arbitrator and the 
two to select a third, or in case of their 
failure to unite on a third selection, the 
two government officials were authorized 
to select the third arbitrator. The deci- 
sion of this arbitration board is declared 
by the law to be "valid and binding" un- 
less set aside in the United States Cir- 
cuit Court for error of law in the record. 
Each party is held responsible for the 
faithful execution of the award. If 
either is dissatisfied neither of them 
may part company with the other, within 
three months after the award, without 
giving thirty days' notice. If not set 
aside, the awards continue in force for 
a year and the same employer and em- 
ploye cannot enter upon another arbitra- 
tion of the same difficulty during that 
period. The grand master of the Broth- 
erhood of Railroad Trainmen explains 
the philosophy of the conciliation by 
stating that "the railroads and their em- 
ployes know their own affairs best. For 
that reason we accepted less than we 
asked for rather than submit to arbitra- 
tion." Another point of the tact em- 
ployed was in bringing about the agree- 
ment without forcing the general man- 
agers and the labor chiefs into personal 
conference after their relations had been 

somewhat strained by their previous fail- 
ures to get concessions from each other. 

There was a pardonable note of pride 
in the telegram from the commissioner to 
the president of the United States claim- 
ing "a distinct triumph for government 
mediation," and in Mr. Roosevelt's re- 
ply, "am greatly pleased, and heartily 
congratulate you both." 

The size of the results achieved can 
scarcely be realized by any who were 
not directly identified with the organiza- 
tions and interests involved. Between 
48,000 and 50,000 employes receive an 
increase in wages amounting to about 
$6,000,000 a year. The forty-two rail- 
roads west of Chicago won their point 
in maintaining a ten-hour day and were 
spared the incalculable loss of having 
their heaviest traffic indefinitely tied up. 
The public has been spared the still 
greater loss of having the greatest vol- 
ume of business which the country has 
ever known paralyzed and such prosper- 
ity as has never been enjoyed arrested if 
not overthrown. 

Too much of an inference may not 
safely be drawn from this incident for 
compulsory arbitration. For the labor 
press already roundly asserts in the lan- 
guage of one of its editors, "the wage 
earners of the United States have no de- 
sire to trust their interests wholly to any 
form of forced arbitration. They have 
not yet come to such surrender of their 
natural rights as free men and women." 
Nevertheless too much can hardly be said 
in favor of having every legal facility at 
hand for furthering every effort to con- 
ciliate such industrial differences, either 
directly by the parties at issue, or by 
the mediation of officials who personally 
merit the recognition of both of them and 
of the public. 

and Indus- 

Before the Industrial Club 
of Chicago, composed of 
insurance, prominent manufacturers, 
railway officials, and other employers of 
labor, Professor Herman A. C. Schu- 
macher of the department of Political 
Economy in the University of Bonn, 
made a strong plea for the compulsory 
industrial insurance as it is carried out 
in Germany. He said the system was 


The Industrial Viewpoint 


initiated by Emperor William, twenty- 
five years ago, in a message promulgat- 
ing the theory that all workingmen have 
specific claim to protection, and that it is 
the duty of the state to undertake the 
establishment of insurance. The ex- 
penses incident to accident insurance are 
borne entirely by the employers. The 
insurance against sickness is provided by 
apportioning two-thirds of the risks to 
the employers and one-third to the em- 
ployes. The nation carries the whole 
burden of the pensions for old age and 
general disability. Under the provisions 
of this insurance system accidents stead- 
ily decrease, factories are safer and more 
sanitary, and the lives of German work- 
ing people are prolonged. The rate for 
accident insurance under the government 
law is one-third that charged by private 
companies. The representative of the 
coal operators' insurance agency ex- 
plained why mutual employers' liabil- 
ity insurance is preferable to insurance 
in regular companies. Governor Deneen 
in advocating the workingmen's insur- 
ance bill now before the Illinois legisla- 
ture admitted that there is opposition 
both from employers and employes to 
legislation which is so new to the state 
and to the country; but he claimed that 
the public has a deep interest in legisla- 
tion of this character. People are awak- 
ing to the fact that present laws are in- 
adequate to meet present conditions. 
They treat the question of injury and dis- 
ablement as though it were a matter for 
the sole consideration of the private par- 
ties to the employment contract, and 
leave entirely out of view the interest of 
the public in the controversies whicji 
arise between them. The principal feat- 
ure of the new legislation, he thought, 
should be the elimination of the cost, de- 
lay, and uncertainty hitherto attendant 
upon legal procedure in preventing acci- 
dents and in providing for the relief of 
the injured. 

Discussion of American 
standards of living in rela- 


S ^"vfng.° f tion to those of foreign 
countries has too frequently concerned 
itself with the idea of merely repelling 
invasions of lower standards from Eu- 

rope. The more thoughtless of our citi- 
zens fail to appreciate the extent to 
which national boundaries are disappear- 
ing as barriers. Rapid and cheap means 
of communication, together with an in- 
creasing readiness to imitate better meth- 
ods wherever they may be found 
throughout the world, are daily bringing 
American standards into competition 
with foreign standards, whether or not 
foreign standards are placed side by side 
with our own in the persons of our im- 
migrant population. 

Too little has been said of the influ- 
ence of American standards in actually 
uplifting those abroad. Complaint is of- 
ten made against our Italian neighbors 
because of the money which they send 
out of the country. And much harsher 
criticism has been heaped upon those 
who go back to Italy to spend the sav- 
ings of several years in the United States. 
That this is not wholly productive of evil 
from our point of view has been strik- 
ingly brought out in a recent article 
which Ethelbert Stewart, of the United 
States Labor Bureau, has contributed to 
the Chicago Daily News. He points out 
the changes in Italian standards which 
are surely resulting from the money 
which these immigrants send back to the 
old country, and from their own return 
after several years with us. 

Not only is America generously help- 
ing to raise standards of living in Italy 
and other foreign countries, but it should 
be borne in mind that every step in ad- 
vance thus made removes to that extent 
the competition of low standards with 
higher wherever either may be found 
throughout the world. 

The extent to which money is thus sent 
to Italy is indicated in an interesting ta- 
ble which Mr. Stewart has compiled 
showing the total number of post-office 
money orders sent from the United 
States to the countries named during the 
vear ending December 31, 1906, together 
with the total amount for which the or- 
ders were drawn and the average amount 
of each order. It is as follows : 


Charities and The Commons 

May 4 

No. money Total Av. per 

Name of county, orders sent. amount. order. 

Italy 400,714 $16,239,134.40 $40.53 

Great Britain . . 790,428 10,497,744.08 13.28 

Hungary 214,142 7,539,475.27 35.21 

Austria 226,593 6,525,623.82 28.79 

Russia 338,358 6,494,328.43 19.19 

Germany 285,819 3,977,205.73 13.92 

Sweden 179,034 3,687,947.02 20.59 

Norway 112,588 2,577,481.37 22.88 

Greece 34,587 1,470,615.15 43.39 

France 68,034 1,158,094.98 18.49 

Switzerland 49,717 768,988.16 15.45 

Belgium 25,054 624,938.64 24.94 

Denmark 32,071 543,619.05 16.95 

Netherlands 13,653 191,073.25 14.00 

Luxembourg 1,347 37,768.24 28.04 

Egypt 893 17,318.54 19.39 

pSrtugal 870 15,490.59 17.81 

Cape Colony 719 14,639.18 20.35 

Transvaal 542 12,512.87 23.09 

Bermuda 560 9,893.57 17.77 

Chile 319 7,716.47 24.19 

Trinidad & Tobago 608 7 > 4 98.41 10.67 

Bahamas 329 5,009.64 15.22 

Peru 175 4,688.83 26.73 

Costa Rica 114 2,381.66 20.89 

Liberia 61 1,657.58 27.17 

Honduras 36 601.38 16.71 

Bolivia 25 336.61 13.46 

San Salvador ... 21 144.68 6.89 

Total 2,757,409 $62,433,927.60 $22.64 

Mr. Stewart's illuminating commen- 
tary upon the effect wrought in Europe 
is so significant that we quote a few para- 
graphs : 

In southern Italy, where for centuries the 
farmers have been unable to do more than 
pay the interest on their mortgages by eat- 
ing only the products which they could not 
sell, hundreds and thousands of farms have 
been cleared of debt; new, bright homes 
have been built, better farming implements 
have been purchased and land has been im- 
proved by fertilizers, all with money sent 
by the father or son who "went to America." 
In Galicia so marked has been the clearing 
up of farm mortgages, so rapid has been the 
improvement of farm properties by money 
sent from the United States, that the price 
of farm land has doubled and the rate of 
interest on money has been reduced 50 per 
cent since that immigration began about 
ten years ago. 

Not only is the money that is sent back 
lifting mortgages and improving homes, but 
the immigrant who returns from the United 
States to the old home farm he has redeemed 
and rejuvenated becomes an economic as 
well as a social force influencing the whole 

The returned emigrant brings back to his 
old home a higher, if not exactly an Ameri- 
can standard of living. He brings American 
ideas of methods of work and of speed at 
one's work; he has changed his ideas of 
business methods; of buying and selling; of 
clothing, of education for his children; and 
he sets a new standard for the whole com- 
munity. Besides, he inspires all with a new 
hope; in him they see that if their condi- 
tions cannot be improved in Italy, they can 
come to the United States for a few years, 
get their homes out from under the mort- 
gages, save money enough to fix up the 
houses, buy new farming implements, then 

return to Italy and live the life they love. 
It is often asked whether a higher stand- 
ard of living is the cause of increase of 
wages, or whether increased wages cause 
the standard of living to advance. Which 
comes first? 

It is historically true beyond doubt that 
without migration, without the going out 
and return of the peasant and laboring class 
in countries where social stratification has 
become rigid the standard of living gradu- 
ally sinks lower and lower to the starvation 
point, wages going down with this standard. 
Not only is this true, but the peasant class, 
where classes are crystallized, never com- 
pare themselves with others not of their 
class. They do not expect or think of wear- 
ing as good clothes, eating as good food, 
living in as good houses as those of another 
class. In the case of migration, emigration 
and return of emigrants, however, the case 
is different. 

The returned peasant, still a peasant, en- 
ters into and fixes a new standard for the 
class. When peasants return by the tens 
of thousands, as in Italy and Galicia, they 
furnish an amount of leaven for the social 
dough that insures rapid fermentation and 
rising — sometimes uprising, as in Roumania 
just now. 

A Crusade 



Those interested in the in- 
dustrial exhibits which 
have been held in Phila- 
delphia, Chicago and Boston, will right- 
ly gauge the success of these enter- 
prises not only by the extent to which 
public sentiment has been aroused against 
bad industrial conditions, but also by the 
definite movements aided or inaugurated 
to secure permanent improvement of 
those conditions. In the case of all three 
exhibits there have been more or less well 
defined ends in view along legislative 
lines. Child labor, industrial accidents, 
factory conditions were the subjects of 
most of this legislation, while the sweated 
conditions have been attacked largely 
along lines of sanitary inspection and 
with a view to arousing support for the 
Consumers' and Union Label Leagues. 
More fundamental legislative attacks on 
sweating seem to be under way in Eng- 
land as a result of the Sweated Industries 
Exhibition held last year under the aus- 
pices of the London Daily News. This 
development in England is of significance 
for American promoters of the industrial 
exhibits. The recent formation of a Na- 
tional Anti-Sweating League in London 
as a direct result of the Sweated Indus- 
tries Exhibit, suggests a national crusade 

i 9 o; 

The Industrial Viewpoint 


which might logically follow the other 
country-wide awakenings which have so 
rapidly directed public attention in this 
country to certain evils of the industrial 
situation. If the people of the whole 
country can be aroused to fight tubercu- 
losis as a terrible hindrance to industrial 
efficiency, and child labor as an even 
greater industrial curse, it is not unreas- 
onable to suppose that when once the 
facts of sweating are generally known a 
popular uprising similarly powerful may 

The proposed methods of the Anti- 
Sweating League are reported in some 
detail in the April number of the monthly 
magazine published by the Passmore Ed- 
wards Settlement in London. It puts 
concisely the purpose of the league in the 
following language : 

It was the common feeling of those who 
visited the exhibition that the interest and 
indignation that it excited ought not to he 
allowed to pass away, hut ought to be used 
as motive power for a constructive attack 
on sweating. Consequently, it was resolved 
to form the Anti-Sweating League, and, tak- 
ing inspiration from Australia and New Zea- 
land, to work towards the setting up of 
machinery to deal with sweating on lines 
of a compulsory minimum wage in specified 

Many prominent people were in at- 
tendance, including the Lord Mayor, Sir 
Charles Dilke, Miss Gertrude Tuckwell, 
Miss Mary R. Macarthur, Miss Clemen- 
tina Black, A. G. Gardiner (editor of The 
Daily News), and W. Pember Reeves 
(high commissioner for New Zealand). 
Addresses were made by Sir Charles 
Dilke, Mr. Askwith, Miss Black, Sidney 
Webb and Mr. Reeves, calling attention 
to the effect of a minimum wage upon the 
more hopeless classes of workers, upon 
child labor, upon increased efficiency, up- 
on unemployment, and upon piece work, 
while Mr. Reeves outlined what had been 
done in New Zealand. 

In this connection significance attaches 
to a Fabian Tract (No. 130), which can- 
vasses Home Work and Sweating — 
Causes and the Remedies. It touches 
upon the various efforts to combat the 
sweating evil and among "suggestions'' 
gives especial attention to "wage regu- 
lation" and a fundamental legislative way 
of dealing with the situation. 

Starting with rather a broad definition 
of sweating, it points to the significant 
fact that such is the competition between 
factory and home work, that "every im- 
provement in the factory law or in its 
administration tends to drive work out of 
the factory into the home," because the 
home can maintain cheaper standards 
through its freedom from the necessity 
of confirming to prescribed sanitary and 
other regulations for factories. After 
stating the facts concerning the earnings 
of the sweated, and explaining how 
sweating is not "cheap" for the commu- 
nity as a whole, it discusses the inade- 
quacy of Consumers' and Trade Union 
Label Leagues, of the principle of pro- 
tection to home industries, and of immi- 
gration laws, to really cope with the evil. 
The suggestions for a constructive pro- 
gram against sweating include but do 
not express much faith in "efficient sani- 
tary inspection of homes used as work- 
rooms." The emphasis is put upon wage 
regulation, direct employment, and anti- 
sweating clauses in public contracts. 

A statement of the New Zealand laws 
contains an especially interesting point 
showing how the provisions of the arbi- 
tration act may be used in the same way 
by individuals as by a trade union. It 
will be remembered that this act enables 
either party to an industrial dispute to 
have an award upon the case by a con- 
ciliation board whose findings may be 
given the force of law by a higher ar- 
bitration board, the organization of such 
boards being defined. If sweated work- 
ers wish to have a revision of the condi- 
tions of their work, they have but to file 
their statement with the conciliation 
board, and they are at once in the posi- 
tion of a union. "Working women have 
invoked the aid of the law to good pur- 
pose. For instance, in Auckland, it had 
been found impossible to establish a 
tailoresses' union, but under the arbitra- 
tion act they gained an increase of wages 
estimated at fifteen per cent." In urging 
direct employment, attention is called to 
the fact that "the establishment of the 
Army Clothing Factory has saved thou- 
sands of workers from sweating dens 
without any increase in the cost of pro- 


General Alliance of Workers with Boys. — 
The General Alliance of Workers with Boys 
is the clearing house for those who are 
doing social work with boys. It was organ- 
ized in 1895 and for seven years has issued 
the useful maagazine, Work With Boys. 
Frank Lincoln Masseck of Potsdam, N. Y., 
has accepted the secretaryship of this alli- 
ance, Dr. William Byron Forbush of Detroit 
retiring because of pressure of other duties 
and being made president. The alliance de- 
sires contributions to its museum and li- 
brary of boys' work and volunteers to afford 
all kinds of useful information and counsel. 
A general conference of Workers with Boys 
will be conduced by the alliance at Chautau- 
qua, N. Y., July 8 to 12. 

Stamps to Aid Consumptives. — In connec- 
tion with the Austrian charity stamps, de- 
scribed on another page, it is interesting 
to note that the government of Holland 
has authorized the issuance of three 
postage stamps which are to be sold 
at double the prices marked on them, 
which are respectively one, two and five cents, 
for the benefit of the Anti-Tuberculosis So- 
ciety. The government will be reimbursed 
the face value of the stamp sold and the 

same amount will go to the society. Appeals 
have just been sent out by Dr. Van Waven- 
burg, secretary of the society, to all the 
prominent philatelists of the world asking 
them to buy the stamps and help the work. 

Inter-City Settlement Association. — The 
social settlement workers of Baltimore and 
Washington have organized an inter-city 
association for discussion of neighborhood 
problems. On the morning of May 4 a 
meeting will be held in Maccabean House, 
Baltimore, for active workers. In the after- 
noon at St. Paul's Guild House a session for 
volunteers will convene. Miss Alice Robins 
of Lawrence House is president of the as- 
sociation. In this connection it is interest- 
ing to note that the first summer home con- 
nected with a Baltimore social settlement 
will be opened in a few weeks at Owing's 
Mills, Maryland. A fifty acre farm has been 
rented by Maccabean House, where groups 
of about twenty-five will be accommodated 
during the hot months. Baseball and bas- 
ketball fields have been provided, together 
with playgrounds for clubs and classes of 
the house. Miss M. S. Hanaw is head worker 
of Maccabean House. 

the pen with 
the Ideal 
Clip - Cap 



This mandate is in force in every 
well regulated business office 

A legible and permanent record 
can be made at ANY TIME and 

The Waterman's Ideal 

Standard of the World 

Indispensable alike for business 
or private use. 

of spurious or fraudulent imitations 

L. E. Waterman Comp'y 

173 Broadway, New York 

BOSTON : 8 School Street 
MONTREAL : 136 St. James Street 


Many a charitable institu- 
tion falls short of its possi- 
ble efficiency because its 
records are inadequate. 

Our system of Keeping 
records separates things 
that belong apart and cor- 
relates those that belong 
together. Instead of pre- 
serving a mass of isolated 
facts it presents a complete 
history, a birds-eye view 
of the -whole worh. 

It saves time, labor and 
money because it makes all 
the records plain, simple, 
accurate and accessible. 

We shall be glad to show 
you what this system has 
enabled other institutions 
to accomplish. 

ClarKe &t BaKer Co. 

2j58 Canal Street, New York City 
92.5 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia 
66O Mission Street, San Francisco 
115 So\atH Broadway, Los Angeles 

Please mention Charities and The Commons when writing to advertisers. 


AND The Commons 


Lee K. frankel, associate foi 
Jewish Charity 

The Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 

a washing- Pre sident Roosevelt has 
ton Housing appointed a housing com- 

Commission. mission for ^ District of 

Columbia in line with recommendations 
made in a special report of James B. 
Reynolds. Fifteen men and women 
have been named as members of the 
"President's Homes Commission" to un- 
dertake a work in what Mr. Roosevelt 
denominates "a large field of usefulness." 
The persons designated are Gen. George 
M. Sternberg, former surgeon-general 
of the army, and head of the Sanitary 
Housing Company; Dr. George M. 
Kober, of Georgetown University; Wil- 
liam H. Baldwin, a director of the As- 
sociated Charities; Frederick L. Sid- 
dons, Prof. George W. Cook, White- 
field McKinley, Miss Mabel Boardman, 
secretary of the Red Cross ; Mrs. Arnold 
Hague, James Bronson Reynolds, S. W. 
Woodward, long a member of the Board 
of District Charities and member of the 
National Publication Committee of 
Charities and The Commons; John B. 
Sleman, Jr., T. S. Parsons, Emmet L. 
Adam, P. J. Brennan and William F. 
Downey. It will be remembered that in 
1905-6, in co-operation with the Housing 
Committee of the Washington Associated 
Charities and other local bodies, the 
publication committee of this magazine 
undertook a survey of social conditions 
and needs of the National Capital. 
Charles F. Weller, secretary of the As- 
sociated Charities, spent ten months in 
gathering the facts of the "neglected 
neighbors of the shacks, tenements and 
alleys of Washington," assisted by other 
investigators. The findings were brought 
out in a special number, distributed 
widely among residents of Washing- 
ton and members of Congress, and con- 
taining articles by Justice Brewer of the 
Supreme Court, Jacob A. Riis, Dr. 


Kober, Mr. Baldwin, Mr. Woodward, 
Secretary Wallace Hatch of the Housing 
Committee and Mr. Weller. Notable 
legislative advances have followed this 
campaign. For instance, a bill was pass- 
ed for the condemnation of insanitary 
dwellings which had hung fire in Con- 
gress for nine years. A local commission 
was appointed to open up alleys. Even 
more urgent was the appeal made for the 
appointment of such a public commission 
as the present one. 

Two cents' The opportunity seldom 
worth of comes to people with only 

Information. twQ cents ^ thdr command 

to aid a good cause; but in this issue 
such an opportunity is presented. An at- 
tempt is being made to secure an index 
of public opinion on certain questions of 
child labor and education, and it is de- 
sired that at least 10,000 people should 
express themselves on these subjects. 
On the back cover of this week's issue of 
Charities and The Commons, is a 
series of questions designed to test pub- 
lic opinion. You are earnestly requested 
to fill out these questions and send them 
to Scott Nearing, 709 North American 
Bldg., Philadelphia. Kindly specify 
whether you are teacher, employer, or 
one of the other groups mentioned. 

_. _ . Another example of the 

The Forward . . r , ( .\ T _ , . 

Movement in Spirit of the New Baltl- 
Maryland. more> » was shown in the 

eminently successful revival of the Mary- 
land Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection, held in that city April 25 and 26. 
The first state conference in Mary- 
land was organized in 1897, and a second 
session was held in 1898 and then the 
movement lapsed into quiescence for nine 
years. With the intense activity attend- 
ant upon the rebuilding of the city after 
the great fire of 1904, however, came a 


Charities and The Commons 

May 11 

general awakening in civic matters all 
along the line in Baltimore, a condition 
which is now reflected throughout the 
state. The building of municipal docks, 
necessitating the issuance of several mil- 
lion dollars, the extension of the park 
and boulevard system, with an accom- 
panying loan of millions, and the crea- 
tion of a sewer system to cost ten million 
dollars more, show how this new spirit 
of progress and co-operation is taking 
material form in the city. The state is 
following with an oyster culture law, 
providing for state control of the oyster 
beds of the Chesapeake Bay for the bene- 
fit of the people. A good roads move- 
ment is spreading throughout the state 
and other evidences of an awakened civic 
conscience are not lacking. 

It would have been strange if the 
same spirit had not found expression in 
some effort to raise the standard of social, 
charitable and correctional work in Mary- 
land. The movement toward actual co- 
operation in social work has waited upon 
its accomplishment in the business life 
of the city and state, but it has not wait- 
ed long. Hardly had the actual rebuild- 
ing of the "burnt district" been complet- 
ed, when various charitable, social and 
religious activities began to show new 
life and vigor. The Young Men's 
Christian Association felt the need for 
larger and more modern quarters, and 
issued an appeal for $500,000, which was 
contributed in thirty days. The Jewish 
charities felt the impulse toward closer 
relationship and the need for co-ordina- 
tion and The Federated Jewish Charities 
was the result, which during the twelve 
months just passed, raised, through a 
single finance committee, a sum of money 
greater than the total amount raised in 
any preceding year by the twelve com- 
ponent societies and institutions working 
independently. These are but isolated 
instances, showing the trend of events. 
Again, the last legislature passed a num- 
ber of remedial laws, notably an improv- 
ed child labor law, provision for a state 
tuberculosis sanatorium, and increased 
appropriations to a number of existing 
institutions. The efforts to secure the 
passage of these bills and the attempts 

to get other remedies, awakened the sense 
of interdependence of numerous groups 
of workers, which at last resulted, first 
in a largely increased membership and 
interest in the Social Service Club of 
Maryland, and next, following a call is- 
sued by that club, the reorganization of 
the State Conference of Charities and 

The Mary- The Maryland Conference 

lan enc C e 0n of er " enrolled a membership of 

charities. over ^ Q0) though it had 

held no meeting for nine years, and up- 
ward of 800 persons assembled at its 
first session. The conference organized 
by electing John M. Glenn, president of 
the Board of Supervisors of City Chari- 
ties, as president, Waldo Newcomer, 
treasurer, H. Wirt Steele, general sec- 
retary. Vice-presidents were chosen 
from among the prominent citizens of 
Baltimore city and each of the twenty- 
three counties of the state. The pro- 
gram in its very arrangement again evi- 
denced the strength of the new spirit of 
co-operation. The first session was a 
joint meeting with the Medical and Chir- 
urgical Faculty of Maryland, a society 
which held its one hundredth annual 
meeting several years ago. The topic 
discussed at this session, though new to 
state or national conference programs, is 
perhaps indicative of a growing con- 
sciousness on the part of physicians and 
charity workers, — that each needs the 
co-operation of the other in any effort to 
materially better conditions among the 
poor. Dr. Prince A. Morrow, of New, 
York, delivered an address upon The 
Prophylaxis of Social Diseases. The 
paper was discussed by Dr. Lilian Welch, 
who spoke on the subject from the stand- 
point of the home, and by Dr. Charles 
P. Emerson, from the viewpoint of the 
organized medical profession. The sec- 
ond and fifth sessions of the conference 
were joint meetings with the State Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, who had es- 
pecial interest in the general topics, — 
School Attendance and Child Labor, and 
Tuberculosis. The former was discussed 
by Prof. W. H. Hand, of the University 
of South Carolina, and Prof. Bruce R. 


The Common Welfare 


Payne, of the University of Virginia. 
These two southern educators agreed that 
the South is ready for compulsory edu- 
cation of both white and black children, 
though they both expressed the idea that 
the education of the Negro child should 
be an education which will fit him for the 
industrial fight he will have to wage. 
The subject was also discussed by M. 
Bates Stephens, state superintendent of 
public education and James H. Van 
Sickle, superintendent of Public Schools 
of Baltimore city. They showed that 
Maryland is making progress in educa- 
tional matters, and urged that the people 
of the city and state unite in asking the 
legislature in 1908 for more schools, and 
better laws to take children from labor to 
keep them in school. 

The most pronounced needs of the 
state's charitable system were discussed 
in the morning and afternoon sessions 
on Friday, when the conference consider- 
ed state boards of charities, and the state 
care of the insane and feeble-minded. 
Amos W. Butler, secretary of the Board 
of State Charities of Indiana, and presi- 
dent of the National Conference of Chari- 
ties and Correction, discussed the influ- 
ence of a State Board of Charities and 
pointed out the benefits which might be 
expected to accrue under such a board in 
Maryland. In a paper prepared by Com- 
missioner H. B. F. Macfarland of the 
District of Columbia, and read by George 
S. Wilson, secretary of the District Board 
of Charities, was told the story of the 
abolition of the lump-sum subsidy sys- 
tem in the District of Columbia and the 
substitution of a system of public insti- 
tutions and contracts with private insti- 
tutions. State care of the insane was 
treated by Drs. Britton D. Evans, of the 
New Jersey State Hospital for the In- 
sane, and William A. White, of the U. S. 
Hospital for the Insane at Washington. 
Herman Stump, president of the 
Board of Visitors of the State's Institu- 
tion for feeble-minded children, brought 
out the wholly inadequate provision for 
this class of defectives in Maryland. 
Only 300 of a total population of 1,500 
feeble-minded persons can receive cus- 
todial care at present. 

Tuberculosis was discussed by Dr. 

Lawrence F. Flick, of Philadelphia, 
and Dr. Henry Barton Jacobs, of Balti- 
more. In its campaign against this dis- 
ease Maryland has made rapid progress 
in the past five years, and is laying plans 
for still further advance. Dr. Jacob li. 
Hollander, professor of economics at 
Johns Hopkins University and president 
of the Federated Jewish Charities, of 
Baltimore, was elected president of the 
conference for 1908. 

a state A law just enacted by the 
of visitors in legislature of the state of 
Minnesota. Minnesota is significant. 
By it a State Board of Visitors for public 
institutions is established. It will be re- 
membered that in 1901 Minnesota did 
away with its state Board of Corrections 
and Charities and also the various ad- 
ministrative boards of the state institu- 
tions, and established instead a Board of 
Control of State Institutions. The Board 
of Control plan of conducting state in- 
stitutions was much in popular favor 
about that time in the middle northwest. 
The need for supervising or inspecting 
the work of the Boards of Control has 
not been recognized generally by the 
friends of this plan; but in Minnesota, 
by the new law, the State Board of Visit- 
ors is constituted a board of inspection 
for the state and other public institu- 
tions. Thus the old Board of Correc- 
tions and Charities is in principle re- 

The circumstances attending the pass- 
age of the act are interesting. When the 
legislative session was well along, Dr. 
Samuel G. Smith, former president of the 
National Conference, wrote a letter to 
the St. Paul Dispatch drawing attention 
to the fact that while the state's charita- 
ble and correctional institutions were 
doubtless excellently managed, they were 
entirely without inspection. Dr. Smith 
was invited by a state senator to draft a 
bill for such an act as would meet the 
requirements. The bill was drawn and 
introduced. It passed both houses and 
was approved by the governor without a 
particle of lobbying of any kind. Such a 
proceeding is perhaps unique and indi- 
cates a wholesome condition of public 
opinion in Minnesota. 


Charities and The Commons 

May 1 1 

New York ^he enac tment of the new 
child Labor 8 hours law for children 
Bins Pass. un( i er t h e a g e f j5 years 

employed in factories and workshops 
opens a new phase in the educational sit- 
uation in the state of New York. This 
law forbids the employment of children 
in factories and workshops before 8 a. m. 
and after 5 p. m. It is thus the most ad- 
vanced and easily enforceable law of its 
kind. A somewhat similar statute in 
force since 1903 in Illinois has had a 
markedly restrictive effect. The Illinois 
statute permits work between 7 a. m. 
and 7 p. m., and applies to mercantile in- 
stitutions, stores, etc. It is thus less 
drastic but far more widespread in its 
application than the New York measure. 
The first and third great manufacturing 
states are thus committed in principle to 
the short working day for children. The 
Illinois law has worked selectively. 
Many employers ceased to engage chil- 
dren subject to the regulation. Small, 
undereducated children found it increas- 
ingly difficult to find work eight hours a 
day and went back to school. School at- 
tendance increased phenomenally and the 
pressure in favor of industrial education 
intensified, corresponding to the urgent 
need for training to compensate for the 
time of banishment from the workroom. 
That experience suggests queries as to 
the effect of the bill just signed by Gov- 
ernor Hughes. Will manufacturers in 
New York employ children in spite of the 
shortened working day? Or will chil- 
dren rendered temporarily ineligible for 
manufacture crowd into mercantile em- 
ployments? Or will the street trades 
and tenement industries receive a mass of 
recruits? All these things may happen 
in some degree and the experience of 
Chicago, also, may be in some measure 

Obviously the reasonable thing for the 
friends of the children, is to provide as 
rapidly as possible for effective regula- 
tion of the tenement industries and street 
trades, and for such opportunity for in- 
dustrial training in the fifth and succeed- 
ing years of the public schools as will 
offer the children generous compensation 
for their temporary banishment from mill 
and factory and workshop so far as this 
may follow. 

pftais H ior The °P enin & of the new 
Manhattan Harlem and Fordham hos- 
tile a Bronx. pitals marks an important 
advance toward caring for all of the sick 
of Greater New York in modern fire- 
proof buildings with all needed facilities 
for their treatment. On April 30 the pa- 
tients were transferred by ambulance 
from the old Harlem and Fordham hos- 
pitals to the new structures of the same 
names. The present Bellevue hospital 
building was completed in 1816 as an 
almshouse to receive "paupers, prisoners 
and patients." In 1887 and 1892, re- 
spectively, the old Harlem and Fordham 
hospitals were established in rented 
buildings such as those just vacated, and 
now for the first time the hospital service 
of Manhattan and the Bronx is conduct- 
ed entirely in buildings owned by the 
city. Gouverneur hospital was vacated 
early in April by the contractor who has 
been adding a new wing and reconstruct- 
ing the old wing. The erection of the 
new Bellevue hospital, of which the first 
pavilions, to contain 400 beds, are al- 
ready partly finished, will be the final 
stage in placing this hospital service of 
Manhattan and the Bronx in buildings 
constructed especially for hospital pur- 
poses. The new Bellevue when complet- 
ed will contain about 2000 beds. The new 
Harlem and Fordham hospitals which 
continue under the jurisdiction of the 
Board of Trustees of Bellevue and Allied 
Hospitals, are general and also emer- 
gency hospitals and they will serve their 
respective neighborhoods as Bellevue 
serves the central portion of Manhattan. 
The new Harlem hospital is situated on 
Lenox avenue between 136th and 
137th streets and occupies nearly three- 
quarters of the entire block. The build- 
ings have been erected at a cost of over 
$600,000. The hospital will accommo- 
date 150 patients and is so planned that 
wings may be added whenever needed to 
meet the steadily growing demands of 
that portion of the city. The hospital is 
handsome in appearance, and in building 
it the trustees have embodied many mod- 
ern principles of hospital construction, 
notably the plenum ventilating system, 
vacuum cleaning equipment, large roof 
gardens and wide balconies on which 
beds may be rolled directly from the 


The Common Welfare 


wards, to give helpless patients the bene- 
fit of fresh air and sunshine in pleasant 
weather. Plans are now being prepared 
for the construction of a training school 
building for women nurses on the Har- 
lem hospital grounds. The capacity of 
the new Fordham hospital is the same 
as that of Harlem hospital and practi- 
cally the same special features for the 
care of patients have been provided for 
it. In connection with it, a nurses' home 
also has been erected. The total cost of 
the buildings is about $600,000 and pro- 
vision has been made here also for fur- 
ther extensions when they shall be need- 
ed. This hospital is at the corner of 
Southern Boulevard and Crotona avenue, 
opposite Bronx Park, and affording a 
pleasant outlook. In the rear are the St. 
John's College grounds. Owing to the 
great difficulty found in securing pupil 
nurses at present, a special appropria- 
tion has been requested for the employ- 
ment and maintenance of a complete 
staff of graduate nurses, 34 nurses being 
required for each hospital. A favorable 
report has been made upon this request 
by the finance committee of the Board of 
Aldermen. Large out-patient depart- 
ments have been provided in each hos- 
pital, well equipped with waiting rooms, 
rooms for examination and treatment, 
and for compounding and dispensing 
drugs. During 1906 the Harlem hos- 
pital out-patient department treated 26,- 
421 individual patients who made 60,480 
visits. Of the new plants, Courtenay 
Dinwiddie, secretary of the New York 
County Visiting Committee of the State 
Charities Aid Association, writes: 

These new hospitals fill a long-felt want. 
The old hospitals were entirely inappropri- 
ate for hospital purposes. They were built 
for private residences and being wooden 
buildings the danger of fire caused a con- 
stant anxiety on the part of those in charge. 
They were rented from private citizens who 
were at liberty to terminate their rental to 
the city upon the expiration from time to 
time of the periods for which they were 
leased. They were constantly overcrowded, 
not only involving hardship to the hospital 
staffs but making it difficult to care for the 
patients to the best advantage. Each build- 
ing had a capacity for about 50 patients and 
that they were often taxed to their ut- 
most to accommodate those admitted is 
shown by the fact that during 1906 the aver- 
age census in Harlem Hospital was 50 and 

in Fordham 47. Beside the frequent excess 
in the total number of patients over the ca- 
pacity, it was often necessary to crowd some 
of the wards when others were not full in 
order to provide for adequate segregation of 
the different classes. Another source of 
hardship to the patients that will be elim- 
inated by the opening of the new hospital 
is the necessity that often arose for transfer- 
ring sick persons, for whom no accommoda- 
tions could be found or who had to give 
place to more urgent cases, to Bellevue or to 
some other hospital when they were really 
not in a proper condition for the trip. 

Owing to the urgency of the need for 
the accommodations provided by the new 
hospitals, they were opened entirely with- 
out formality. It is planned to have a 
formal opening and inspection within the 
next two or three weeks. 

for r iiSnois ^^ e politicians in control 
charities of the Illinois legislature 
Economy. have chosen a peculiarly in- 
appropriate time in which to starve out 
the state charitable institutions. With 
pronounced prosperity among the people 
of the state and with a surplus of $3,254,- 
000 in the state treasury, the present is 
no time for stinting public interests al- 
ready famished and denying to the state 
institutions more than a million dollars 
of the money necessary for rehabilita- 
tion, the establishment of a psychopathic 
institute, and the introduction on a com- 
prehensive scale of hydrotherapeutic 
treatment for the insane. 

No Illinois Board of Charities has 
ever had the confidence of the people 
so implicitly as has the present one. Its 
expert advice comes appropriately at 
the time when the state is in a financial 
position to turn that sound policy into a 
lasting benefit to the commonwealth. 
Two years ago the legislature appropri- 
ated $5,150,000 for the state institutions. 
This year $7,804,916 is asked, and the 
increase of $2,555,000 is needed to pro- 
vide the improvements outlined by the 
experts of the board. The situation has 
been aptly put by one of the Chicago 
daily papers which says editorially, "The 
state has an increased cash balance and 
can well afford to incur the proposed ex- 
penditures. It cannot afford to incur 
continued reproach." 

The extent of that reproach is indicat- 


Charities and The Commons 

ed most glaringly by a recently issued 
report of the state board on an investi- 
gation of the conditions of the insane in 
county almshouses. Misery, filth, inde- 
cent mixing of the sexes, insanitary 
buildings, cruel treatment, and insuffi- 
cient sleeping accommodations are the 
rule, while in several instances the use 
of chains and manacles was discovered. 
By improving and increasing the accom- 
modations in the state hospitals for the 
insane, in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of the board, the state could 
carry out the much needed reform of re- 
lieving the counties of all care of the 

The spite work and arrogant attitude 
assumed by the legislative leaders is 
shown by the fact that while all the pro- 
posed increases of appropriations urged 
by the board are "slashed" down, a large 
sum is proposed by these legislators for 
increasing the accommodations at the 
very hospital where the board declared 
it was unwise, because of the site, to 
make extended improvements. Selfish 
factional politics are bad enough under 
any circumstances. But to play them 
when the misery or happiness of the 
state's unfortunate wards is the stake, is 
nothing less than barbarism. 

Cleveland The firSt munici pal milk 

Milk exhibit and competition for 

Exhibit. pr } zeSj conducted by the 
United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, was held in the Cleveland Chamber 
of Commerce recently. Samples of milk 
were entered in the competition by sixty- 
five dairymen, who supply the Cleveland 
trade. Of these thirty also entered the 
competition for the best conducted and 
most sanitary dairy farm. The judges in 
both contests were C. B. Lane, assistant 
chief of the dairy division of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, I. C. Weld, of the 
same department, and Dr. C. W. Eddy, 
city meat inspector. 

Dr. H. G. Sherman, chairman of the 
municipal sanitation committee of the 
Chamber of Commerce, was chairman of 
the exhibit. In opening the meeting he 

More than three years ago the committee 
on municipal sanitation of the chamber took 
up the general position of sanitary legisla- 
tion. The laws in force then were obsolete; 
most of them were ineffective, and some im- 
posed unnecessary hardships on the com- 
munity. At the suggestion of the board of 
health, this organization undertook the re- 
writing of these laws, and two years were 
spent in the task. It was the object of the 
committee to evolve a sanitary code which 
should conform to the highest standard of 
city sanitation, and at the same time to 
work no unnecessary hardship upon anyone 
in the enforcement of the law. 

Apparently the committee has met 
with success in its work, for Government 
Inspector Weld stated that the Cleveland 
exhibit was the finest ever shown in this 
country. Among the speakers were: 

E. H. Webster, chief of dairy division, 
Department of Agriculture; C. B. Lane, as- 
sistant chief; Dr. C. W. Eddy, chief of in- 
spection division, Public Health Department; 
Dr. R. G. Perkins, city bacteriologist; Wil- 
liam Pate, Jr., city chemist; D. C. Hale, 
Medina, Ohio. 

The New York Committee on the Physi- 
cal Welfare of School Children has called 
a conference at the Academy of Medicine, 
May 13, at 3 and 8 p. m. The immediate 
results will include a plan to insure prompt 
relief to children whose defects are known; 
a plan to locate before vacation all children 
needing care; a plan for supporting before 
the Board of Estimate and Apportionment 
the efforts of the Boards of Education and 
of Health to secure adequate means to carry 
out their programme of physical examina- 

Girls' Friendly Society and Social Service. 
— The Girls' Friendly Society in America at 
the annual meeting held in Cincinnati, 
formed a committee on social service whose 
object will be to co-operate with all efforts 
to benefit the condition of working women 
and children, to endorse beneficent legisla- 
tion and to form sub-committees in all the 
diocesan organizations, to study labor con- 
ditions, legislative action, and existing laws 
in their own section and report to the cen- 
tral committee. The chairman of this cen- 
tral committee is Miss Cornelia E. Marshall, 
107 East 16th St., New York city, and its 
secretary Miss Mary Eaton, Montclair, New 
Jersey. The organization has a membership 
in this country of 30,000, principally working 
girls. It is especially interested in child 
labor problems as it has enrolled in its can- 
didates department over 5,000 children under 
fourteen years of age. 

One Boys' Club and its GrowtH 

Friendly Criticism as a Factor 

Andrew C. Imbrie 
Alexander C. Providfit 

Two directors of the "West Side Juvenile Clvib, S26 Greenwich Street, New YorK 

When your Ninth Avenue "L" train 
passes Christopher street on its way up- 
town you may catch a glimpse of the 
narrow streets and dingy houses of Old 
Greenwich Village where the West Side 
Juvenile Club is doing its work for the 
boys and girls who live near Gansevoort 

A few years ago this neighborhood 
was picked out by an organizer of boys 
clubs as a promising field for a mass 
club. A store-room between 15th and 
1 6th street, bearing the sign "Tenth Ave- 
nue Boys Club," soon became head- 
quarters, on the evening of each week 
day, for about one hundred boys. A 
young superintendent was installed with 
a modest salary in this his first position 
as executive, having in charge also the 
dispatch of appeals for funds. A sub- 
stantial surplus was accumulated and the 
organizer soon invited an inspection of 
the club by the board of directors, origin- 
ally comprising five men, of whom the 
organizer was one. A second had died, 
unfortunately, and the other three were 
moribund, so far as effective social ac- 
tivity and experience were concerned. 
They had, however, shown their interest 
in boys by contributions to the organiza- 
tion of such work; and did not balk at 
unknown obligations. This is still con- 
sidered in many quarters ample quali- 
fication for enrolling directors. Pos- 
sibly once a month, one or another of 
the directors dropped in to see how the 
superintendent handled the situation, and 
in course of time they actually met and 
elected as chairman a director who had 
inherited a tendency to talk in meeting. 

But some subscribers to the Charity 
Organization Society, "wanted to know" 
before they contributed to this new Tenth 
Avenue Boys Club, in response to our 
appeals, and some remembered that there 
was on Avenue A and Tenth street, "The 
Boys Club." This was confusing, and 


after a skilled investigator had dropped 
in at the Tenth Avenue Boys Club sev- 
eral times, noted a general absence of di- 
rectors and volunteer workers, no piano, 
no industrial classes and no gymnasium, 
we were in a fair way to get a "star" 
in the Charity Organization Society's 
pamphlet. All this, too, in spite of our 
surplus, the existence of which consti- 
tuted perhaps the basis for the most 
serious count in the indictment. The 
investigator laid these defects courteous- 
ly but firmly before the several direct- 
ors (the evil "star" gleaming on the 
horizon), and suggestions were offered 
in response to a request for constructive 
assistance towards reformation. In 
brief, we were to increase the board to 
about twelve directors, incorporate, get 
a piano, start classes, interest volunteers, 
put our surplus into use and change our 
name. We felt that "The Boys Club" 
was a pretty comprehensive name to be 
monopolized by one New York Club, 
even with a large membership and a 
house on the East Side. Nevertheless, 
we realized that the average contribution 
must be protected against going to Tenth 
avenue when East Tenth street was its 
destination — and we finally incorporated 
in October, 1902, under our present cum- 
brous name, "The West Side Juvenile 
Club" (as soon as possible we will give 
up the "Juvenile" incubus). 

Other reforms followed in rapid suc- 
cession, including the transition from the 
possession of a surplus to the anxious 
effort to secure one; the natural effect 
of investment in a piano, transfer of the 
club to larger quarters with a gymna- 
sium, and the establishment of gymna- 
sium classes with salaried instructors. 
The increase of the board of directors to 
seven was also effected, again from the 
ranks of those unfamiliar with the strenu- 
ous life of philanthropy, but having stay- 
ing qualities; (the present chairman and 

Nothing is^solabsorbing to them as makinglsomething with their_own hands. 

Headquarters for a hundredjboys. 


1 l 



' 4*\'& 


k^k J§ .«■..' . 




To be a good cook, one need not fry everything. 

The advanced class has done much necessary work about the club-rooms. 

1 84 

Charities and The Commons 

May 11 

the treasurer still insist that they were 
"shanghaied" into the board on the pre- 
tense that as directors their duties would 
be light). Of the original board, only 
the former chairman remains a director, 
but the body now comprises fourteen 
young men, with sufficient organization 
to prevent duplication of effort in their 
respective departments. Most of them 
have been elected to the board because 
of previous experience as volunteers in 
the club itself. 

It is significant that volunteers were 
practically lacking until we started indus- 
trial classes, when boys and visitors alike 
took hold with zest, and the permanence 
of the club seemed assured for the first 
time. Interest in the formation of a 
girls club was at last aroused also, and 
the fathers and mothers began to receive 

We found at an early day that a vital 
factor in the successful organization of 
the industrial work was the as- 
sociation with our volunteers of a 
thoroughly competent salaried expert, 
and a staff selected by him. Our in- 
structors yield in time and good will as- 
sistance greatly in excess of their re- 
muneration, and our volunteers find their 
presence a source of encouragement and 

The four hundred and sixty registered 
members of the club vary in age from 
seven to sixteen years. They pay cheer- 
fully, monthly dues of five cents ; some 
of them (with delightful innocence) be- 
lieving that the club is largely supported 
thereby. Thus we have sought to com- 
bat the wide-spread tendency to expect 
"something for nothing," and in a meas- 
ure to dispel the air of a charitable in- 
stitution by trying to run it like a club. 
In the library you will find a few hun- 
dred good books from which the pious 
literary frauds have been weeded out; a 
piano that was bought on the installment 
plan ; and a phonograph that plays the 
kind of tunes they really like to hear. 

The club is open in the evening from 
seven until ten o'clock and not only af- 
fords opportunities for the kind of 
healthful recreation that decent boys and 
girls enjoy, but it is a cardinal principle 
with those responsible for its manage- 

ment, that it is better to teach these chil- 
dren useful occupations whereby they 
will acquire the habit of work, than to 
spend one's whole time trying to amuse 

The very small boys are taught basket- 
ry and chair caning, for nothing is so 
absorbing to them as actually making 
something with their own hands. And 
there is an educational advantage in re- 
quiring them to make it with reasonably 
clean hands. The boys between ten and 
thirteen years learn the use of simple 
tools, and are making commendable prog- 
ress in elementary woodworking, while 
a class in mechanical drawing, conducted 
personally by one of the directors of the 
club, was welcomed by some of the more 
ambitious among them. 

The older boys are taught carpentry 
by a practical workman who has had ex- 
perience for several years in trade 
school instruction. The advanced class 
has done much necessary work about 
the club rooms; building tables, parti- 
tions and cupboards for the girls' classes 
in cooking and sewing; constructing a 
stage for entertainments and making 
many useful household articles for their 
own homes. It may be stated that the 
training afforded in practical carpentry 
gives a boy who has decided to become 
a carpenter by trade an advantage of at 
least a year over another boy who goes 
into a shop without such preparation. 

Gymnasium classes are conducted 
every evening in the week; hardly less 
important is the habit soon acquired of 
taking a bath afterwards. The showers 
are supplied with hot and cold water, 
and soap and towels are provided. Two 
basket-ball teams, playing matches with 
other boys' organizations throughout the 
city, have developed a club spirit among 
all the boys as well as the members of 
the team. 

We could double our classes in sew- 
ing, millinery and dress making if we 
had room for all the girls who have ap- 
plied. We suppose that some, at least, 
will never free themselves altogether 
from the allurements of department 
store "bargains," yet they are surely be- 
coming a practical help to their mothers 


One Boys' Club and its'Growth 


in the work of the home, as the mothers 
themselves have often told us. 

The girls in the cooking classes are 
taught how to buy inexpensive foods 
that when properly prepared are health- 
ful, and when daintily served are ap- 
petizing. They learn to keep in order 
the cooking utensils ; and each is encour- 
aged -in a generous rivalry to keep her 
own particular cupboard scrupulously 
neat and clean. Parents and brothers 
have borne witness to the benefits that 
have accrued to many a nearby family 
where these girls have put into practice 
the lessons they have learned. 

Many of the volunteer teachers are 
young women, engaged in business 
pursuits in nearby offices. They have 
maintained winter and summer, a con- 
stant interest in the girls who come to 
the club ; aiding in every possible way the 
salaried teachers in the cooking, dress- 
making and millinery classes; or playing 
the piano for hours at a stretch during 
calisthenic drills or for the little dra- 
matic entertainments in which the boys 
and girls take part. It was these volun- 
teers who raised the funds for the first 
of our domestic science classes. 

Again, if we had not been warned to 
be brief we might tell you at length the 
story of David, and of David's three 
loyal friends who belong to this club — 
how, of their own accord, during the 
long, hot days, they sold lemonade on 
somebody's doorstep until they had 
earned, patiently, every penny of the five 
dollars that brought happiness to David 
at the hospital at Sea Breeze. 

Now, it is not a part of this story 
that David died soon after. The thing 
that brings encouragement is the fact 
that this incident is typical of the desire 
to do something for someone else, that 
begins to pervade the atmosphere of this 
club. If anything were needed to demon- 
strate the principle of broad human sym- 
pathy that underlies the spirit of this in- 
stitution it is the simple fact of these 
three girls, one is a Catholic, two are 

Protestants, while David himself was a 

For nearly four years we have made 
the best of a loft in a factory building — 
a place where candy was made under un- 
appetizing conditions — a place rendered 
habitable by prodigious scrubbing, and 
kept so with infinite pains. The club has 
occupied the second floor — up a winding 
stairway lighted by a single lamp that 
seems only to accentuate the darkness of 
the hallway that is approached through 
a narrow door almost directly under the 
elevated railroad tracks. Now, at the 
request of the other tenants, the build- 
ing is soon to be devoted entirely to 
business uses, and the task of moving the 
club to more suitable quarters in the 
immediate neighborhood has been seri- 
ously undertaken. We have no ambition 
for mere ''bigness." The directors are 
convinced that for this neighborhood at 
least, it would be a mistake to aim at 
building up an institution whose doors 
would swing back and forth with the 
rush of a thousand boys and girls. Per- 
sonal direction and friendly acquaintance 
are essential to the success of a neigh- 
borhood club ; and it is of the utmost im- 
portance to the boys and girls them- 
selves that they shall have what may be 
called a "club spirit." There are many 
three-story brick houses of an old fashion 
in Greenwich village which are admirably 
adapted to the uses of such a club. We 
know of two such houses which could 
be thrown together and easily altered 
for our purposes at a cost of $25,000, or 
$10,000 to cover the purchase price and 
leave the balance on mortgage. 

Criticism, friendly and constructive, 
has been the tonic that redeemed a nerve- 
less organization, with important oppor- 
tunities, from utter flabbiness. At first 
unsought, and not wholly agreeable, 
such criticism has been courted since 
then. We are confident that many un- 
seen defects and others of which direct- 
ors of such clubs are aware, may be 
remedied if critics, official and unofficial, 
friendly or unfriendly, will make them 
known and help to realize their care. 

WKat University Men TKinK of tKe Russell 

Sage Foundation 

Suggestions in Larg'e Part from tKe CHairs of Economics, Sociology 

and Political Economy 


President Columbia University 

On reading the announcement of the es- 
tablishment of the Russell Sage Foundation 
and the act providing for its incorporation, 
one who feels deep personal interest in mod- 
ern democracy and its manifold problems 
can hardly resist the temptation to use 
superlatives. The declared object of the 
Foundation is "the improvement of social 
and living conditions in the United States 
of America." Under this broad and gen- 
erous charter, one sees at a glance problems 
like those of proper housing, nutritious and 
well-prepared food, the small land allotment, 
neighborhood and civic improvement, parks 
and artistic betterment, forest preservation, 
training for specific industries, and a hun- 
dred others, spreading out before him. 

All these problems and the movements for 
their solution radiate from a common center, 
namely, the improvement of the environ- 
ment of the human being. Other agencies 
deal directly with the human being himself, 
with his intellectual, his moral and his re- 
ligious upbuilding. The Russell Sage Found- 
ation will deal with the environment in 
which the human being finds himself and 
will, through improving the environment, 
uplift the human being himself and hasten 
the day when the aim of intellectual, moral 
and religious training will be more clearly 
accomplished than now. 

One hesitates whether most to praise the 
splendid sum set apart for the endowment 
of this Foundation or the wisdom shown in 
leaving its present and future Trustees with- 
out trammels in working out what must be 
admitted by everyone to be a series of the 
greatest and most pressing problems that 
we know. 

Mrs. Sage and her advisers should be held 
forever in highest honor for this splendid 
thought and for its admirable execution. 


Professor Political Economy 

University of Wisconsin 

In stating what in my opinion are the pos- 
sibilities of the Russell Sage Foundation, I 
will take up one specific' point which has 
been emphasized by a recent experience. 
As president of the American Association 

1 86 

for Labor Legislation the task has been as- 
signed to me of preparing the program for 
the first annual meeting. This association 
is, as you know, a branch of the Interna- 
tional Association ior Labor Legislation, 
which aims to promote international 
labor legislation, and particularly to 
secure uniformity. The international as- 
sociation virtually takes the position 
that the time has come to pass over 
from general exhortation to the careful 
scientific study of specific problems. The 
international board asks us for reports on 
such subjects as industrial poisons, night 
work of young persons and the administra- 
tion of labor laws in the United States. It 
is a difficult task to do the work that is ex- 
pected of us. At the same time its import- 
ance is obvious when it is borne in mind 
that this international association is a quasi- 
official one, subsidized by various govern- 
ments of Europe and by our own, and that 
its membership includes the leading men in 
the various official bureaus. The problem 
that we have is to find men who can do the 
work, who are willing to do it, and to as- 
sign it to them. 

Recently I discussed the matter with 
a competent friend and he expressed 
the opinion that the increasing number of 
societies is becoming a great burden. At 
the same time many of these societies, like 
the one we are now speaking of, are neces- 
sary. What is wanted is some thoroughly 
competent person to bring together and 
unite the results of widely scattered efforts. 
One of the best things that the Russell Sage 
Foundation could do would be to appoint a 
man to take the headship of a section of 
economic and social science. In my opinion 
the right man should be a trained economist 
with broad social sympathies. He should 
be a mature man of administrative experi- 
ence and wide acquaintance, with skill in 
stimulating others to undertake investiga- 
tions. Such a man could promote investi- 
gations and bring together their results. He 
would make the Russell Sage Foundation 
a clearing house, as it were, of many exist- 
ing agencies. 

Such a man as is needed undoubtedly 
holds a good position at the present time. 
The position should be one of dignity with 
good tenure of office and a salary equal to 
that of any professor in an American uni- 
versity in order to attract the right man. 

What University Men Think of the Sage Foundation 187 

This suggestion seems to me to be entirely 
in line with the declared purposes of the 
Russell Sage Foundation. 


Professor of Sociology 
University of Missouri 

The greatest need of humanity to-day is 
scientific knowledge of the conditions of 
right human living together and the diffu- 
sion of such knowledge among the masses 
of the people. Poverty, vice and crime are 
no more impossible to stamp out from hu- 
man societies than small-pox and measles. 
To do the one implies the same intelligence 
and self-mastery on the part of men, though 
perhaps in higher degree that the other 
does. The establishment of the Sage 
Foundation for "the improvement of social 
and living conditions in the United States," 
with the express proviso that the causes of 
adverse social conditions, such as poverty, 
vice and crime, be inquired into and rem- 
edies suggested, gives rise to the hope that 
the problem of human misery will at length 
be faced with adequate means for its inves- 
tigation. The Sage Foundation should do 
for social and philanthropic work in the 
United States what the Carnegie Institution 
is doing for scientific .work in the narrow 
sense. The social sciences and arts should 
have as great expansion as all other sciences 
and arts combteed, in that the relations of 
men to each other are equally important, if 
not more important, than the relations of 
man to nature. At present, however, nine- 
tenths of all the money expended in the 
United States in scientific research, is spent 
for the conquest of nature, on a problem of 
transforming the physical environment. If 
the trustees of the Sage Foundation will in 
some measure reverse all this; if they will 
direct scientific energy to the problem of 
transforming the social environment; if 
they will have all adverse social conditions 
scientifically investigated; if they will aid 
in the establishment of chairs of sociology 
and philanthropy in our colleges and uni- 
versities, and in the establishment of 
schools for the practical training of social 
workers; if they will promote the develop- 
ment of all the social arts and sciences, the 
Sage Foundation will become the most ben- 
eficent gift in the history of our race. 


Professor of Political Economy 
and Finance, Cornell University 

The Sage Foundation has so many possi- 
bilities of social service that one finds it dif- 
ficult to decide just where its greatest use 
will be found. It is just this difficulty that 
will face the trustees in directing the work. 
It is greatly to be hoped, however, that the 
resources will not at the outset be scattered 
over too wide a field. The thing needing 

most to be done now is to take up and push 
through some few of the many plans and 
projects which are now incompletely and in- 
efficiently executed. The most urgent need 
is to lay a broad foundation of exact sta- 
tistical knowledge of the dependent and de- 
fective classes in America, and to develop 
into a system the official information now 
so incompletely gathered on these subjects. 


President Yale University 

The Russell Sage Foundation has two dis- 
tinctive merits: the field that it occupies, 
and the incorporators under whose charge 
it has been placed. 

So far as this country is concerned, the 
field is a new one. The only thing which I 
know of similar character is the Institute 
of Social Service in France; and this insti- 
tute has no endowment corresponding in 
magnitude to that of the Russell Sage Foun- 
dation. We have ecclesiastical endowments, 
and scholastic endowments, and endowments 
for research in physical and natural science, 
but we have none that approximately covers 
the field of inquiry here proposed. 

But the very newness of the field might 
constitute a danger unless provision were 
made for wise management. In unwise 
hands such a foundation might become 
worse than useless. And therefore I regard 
the names of those who are charged with 
the duty of organizing the Russell Sage 
Foundation as constituting the most import- 
ant of the causes for public congratulation. 


Professor Sociology 
University of Chicago 

It is impossible in few words to even out- 
line the splendid possibilities of the wise 
and far-sighted Foundation which you invite 
me to discuss. Economic and efficient ad- 
ministration of philanthropic enterprises 
waits upon complete knowledge; and this 
knowledge must not be limited to occasional 
and general investigations like the excellent 
studies of national and state governments 
hampered as they must ever be by legal lim- 
itations and requirements of routine. Illus- 
trations may be drawn from fields with 
which I am just now dealing. Students and 
workers alike, in attempting to plan tasks 
or to plead for funds find themselves sadly 
perplexed by the paucity of information 
even in regard to their own duties and the 
conditions which determine duty. Thus we 
need far more knowledge than we have about 
the minimum living wage or income of fam- 
ilies on the border land of dependence; we 
need to establish a standard for each local- 
ity, for each race, for each period, for all 
these factors are variables, while charitable 
labor must be unremitting. We need ade- 
quate and repeated studies of the require- 
ments of child saving work and of the meth- 


Charities and The Commons 

May ii 

ods and results of work by societies and in- 
stitutions. A well known educational board 
which is called on to aid colleges is said to 
know more about the financial problems of 
many colleges than do their trustees. The 
Young Men's Christian Association and the 
corresponding society for young women are 
attempting new enterprises of vast moment 
for whose basis adequate knowledge does 
not exist. The waste of life and resources 
during the exploring and experimental pe- 
riod of such efforts is pathetic and might be 
materially reduced by scientific, that is, 
business-like investigation. The German 
government never tries an experiment in so- 
cial legislation without making a careful 
study of its probable effect, and this study 
is conducted by experts. Private philan- 
thropy is just as much in need of architec- 
tural plans and specifications in advance of 
making contracts for building. The socie- 
ties recently organized by physicians to 
prevent national injury from the spread 
of the diseases of vice have before 
them still vexing problems of inves- 
tigation as to actual conditions and 
hopeful methods; and the temperance move- 
ment has not any too much light. The 
educational value of properly directed play 
of children in cities is worthy of experi- 
mental study by competent persons, and 
this is true of the recreations of adults; for 
it is leisure that kills as much as overwork. 
The necessity for protective devices in 
mines, mills and factories, and the best 
methods of industrial insurance must be 
established by impartial and thorough in- 

Publication of assured results must ac- 
company and follow investigation, and the 
admirable work of Charities and The Com- 
mons in this direction deserves the largest 
support of all interested in ameliorative 
agencies. There is perfect reciprocity of 
interest between science and practice, and 
in social science the field of action comes 
near to being the only laboratory of true 
experiment which must test even the most 
plausible working hypotheses. Adequate 
knowledge is the first and most essential 
step toward economy and efficiency; on good 
will we can generally count, if we make out 
a good claim and can recommend a wise 
plan of betterment. 


Professor Political E-conomy 

Johns Hophins University 

The feature of this great gift which most 
impresses the student of social conditions is 
the possibility of adequate investigation of 
the cause and the prevention of poverty and 
dependence. Perhaps no period in the his- 
tory of our race has been so relatively un- 
informed as to its environment as our own. 
The vast area, the extensive activities, and 
the scattered data subject to inquiry, on 
the one hand, and the inadequate equip- 

ment of the social investigation both as to 
resources and opportunities on the other 
hand have imposed a heavy handicap upon 
comprehensive social description. In conse- 
quence, although pursued with unexampled 
energy, social inquiry in the United States 
has been almost exclusively historical and 
institutional, or local and intensive. Of ex- 
tensive social investigation — social analysis 
in the proper sense of the term — little has 
been attempted and less achieved. The new 
foundation will provide the social investiga- 
tor with the three essentials for more am- 
bitious procedure, materials, time and re- 
sources. It will do much in realizing the 
aspiration of the social student, that "in- 
vestigation funds" be regarded as no less 
essential to scientific activity in social 
study, than laboratory apparatus is to chem- 
istry and clinical provision to medicine. 


Professor of Sociology- 
University of Pennsylvania 

Prom the standpoint of the teacher the 
great gift of Mrs. Sage is one of the wisest 
of which we have record. Students of so- 
cial history know very well that almost 
without exception endowments, great and 
small, made in bygone years whose purposes 
were definitely defined, and whose adminis- 
tration thereby restricted, have ultimately 
lost much of their value, or in many cases 
have become a positive nuisance. It is a 
good thing to recognize the immediate needs 
and provide for them, but it is far better 
to recognize that needs and conditions will 
change, and to trust to the devoted and 
consecrated men of the future to administer 
the funds in accordance with future needs, 
than to attempt to stipulate just what shall 
be done with endowments in years to come. 
Mrs. Sage lias had good advisers, and has 
done well to take their advice. 

The gift of Mrs. Sage was comparatively 
easy. The wise administration of the very 
large income of that fund will be extremely 
difficult. If the trustees adopt the policy 
merely of carrying on relief work of what- 
ever sort, or of subsidising ordinary agen- 
cies, much of the value of the donation will 
be lost. 

On the other hand — although this is ex- 
tremely difficult if the trustees secure very 
able managers and devote themselves in 
one way or another to educational efforts — 
the word education being used in no narrow 
sense — it is impossible, to over-estimate the 
results. All those in practical social work 
know full well that in perhaps the majority 
of instances they do not have in their posses- 
sion the facts which make possible the 
wisest handling of the cases. The investi- 
gation of the fundamental problems of hu- 
man society has but just begun, and no man 
living knows what policies should be pur- 
sued. If the income of this fund is used 
for broad social investigation, which will 

1907 What University Men Think of the Sage Foundation 189 

take the most highly trained men and 
women and occupy perhaps years of time, 
we shall ultimately be able to do things, and 
to know what things not to do in a way that 
is absoluely impossible to-day. Of course 
such investigations will not be directed to- 
ward immaterial points of policy or of his- 
tory, but toward certain great fundamentals. 
For instance: What are the causes of pov- 
erty and distress in our community, and in 
what way may these causes be removed? 
What is the standard of living, and what 
should be the attitude of the worker in phil- 
anthropy toward the standard of living? 
What are the causes of crime, and what is 
the result of our present criminal system? 
That the program is difficult and involved, 
we all know. That much of the income may 
well be spent in training men and women 
to undertake social work is obvious. I per- 
sonally hope that the schools of philan- 
thropy will receive substantial support. This 
indicates what we take to be the most valu- 
able function the Russell Sage Foundation 
could possibly perform. In a word, in so 
far as the administration of this foundation 
is constructive it will be of prominent value; 
in so far as it is merely remedial it will 
become like all other charitable endowments. 


Professor of Economics 
University of Minnesota 

I should like very much to see the trus- 
tees of the Sage Foundation devote part of 
the income to the education of persons in- 
terested in social service. Of these there 
are two groups: those who are to do the 
work and those who are to furnish the 
background of public opinion for social ex- 
periments. It is certain that this work of 
education cannot be carried on at any one 
point, but must be brought to the people 
who are interested since their work and in- 
terests prevent absence for long periods 
from their home cities. The Social Insti- 
tute seen in the institution of the same 
name in Chicago furnishes a good example 
of what might be done in a number of the 
larger cities where the spirit is ripe for a 
careful preparation and study of social 
problems. The difficulty in the establish- 
ment of such institutes has been the 
trouble in getting money in face of demands 
for practical charity and in securing uni- 
formity of instruction. The Sage Founda- 
tion could meet both of these problems by 
subsidizing local social institutes to the ex- 
tent of $2,000 or $3,000 annually and by pro- 
viding a system of lectures to be given in 
the different institutes under the direction of 
the officers of the foundation. This instruc- 
tion would be supplemented by studies of 
local charities and institutions under the 
supervision of the local institute. 

The establishment of such institutes 
would give the trustees of the foundation a 
strategic point in every part of the United 

States, and in view of the variedness of so- 
cial problems too much importance cannot 
be attached to the advantage of such out- 


Professor of Economics and 
Sociology, "Vassal- College 

Although the Sage Foundation is impres- 
sive because of its very size and because of 
the resulting income, other features of it 
are more noticeable. Even should the in- 
come reach the sum of $500,000, that would 
not do much were it to be applied simply to 
palliative relief or to certain kinds of posi- 
tive work. When we remember the hun- 
dreds of millions that are spent in public 
and private efforts for social betterment in 
the United States along the lines of chari- 
ties, corrections and social improvement in 
its broad and positive sense; and when we 
remember that still the need of money is 
overwhelming, the half million of the Sage 
Foundation income seems but a drop in the 
bucket. If it were to be spent in small 
doles in aid of existing work, it would be 
frittered away with little real effect or spec- 
ial significance. But in the articles of in- 
corporation occur certain suggestive words: 
"research, publication, education." The 
great needs in our social work at present 

1. Fuller special knowledge of certain con- 
ditions, of their causes and of the results of 
existing efforts for improvement; 

2. More general education of the public 
so that it shall discriminate between good 
and wise projects, support heartily the good 
and, by mere disapproval, discourage the 
bad — for the power of an intelligent, aroused 
and devoted public opinion cannot be over- 

The greatest field of usefulness for the 
fund, then, would seem to be social inves- 
tigation, publication and education of the 
general public. Certain kinds of experi- 
mental work may also prove necessary cor- 
ollaries of such lines of effort. Child labor, 
the housing question, the standard of living, 
the magistrates' courts, the social side of 
the crusade against disease, the effects on 
pauperism and delinquency of the lack of 
industrial education are a few of the lines 
of work that at once suggest themselves. 
Let the fund be, in this most important of 
all human interests, what the Carnegie In- 
stitute is for knowledge and the Rockefeller 
Institute for medical research. 


Professor of Political Economy 
University of Pennsylvania 

The Sage Foundation marks an epoch in 
education as well as in philanthropy. With- 
out consciously planning to influence the 
world of thought it may be found after 
twenty years that it has exerted as great 


Charities and The Commons 

May 11 

an influence on universities, their teachers 
and students as on the world of poverty 
which it is designed to help. Courses in 
universities are elastic and move in this or 
that direction as the demands of the age 
force reconstructions in harmony with new 
interests and facts. The limitations to so- 
cial courses in universities have been due 
not to a lack of interest but to a lack of 
material on which to base such courses. 
There is enthusiasm and a great willingness 
to work but few permanent results remain 
because the facts about the social conditions 
of our age and country are so meager. Stu- 
dents have general works to read which 
lack in definiteness of application, theories 
to discuss that have never been put to the 
test and some "slumming" to do which may 
be good as an eye opener to a hitherto un- 
known world. But all this does not make 
courses that influence the lives of students 
and help them to modify public opinion in 
the communities in which they live. A re- 
cent graduate said of his social courses, 
''they are interesting but thin," which tells 
more than I could say in many paragraphs. 
It is a seer rather than a teacher that can 
point out unknown lands, outline their posi- 
tion, and create in the students' minds a 
desire to enter into an inheritance that he 
has seen only in vision. University instruc- 
tion will tend towards social work only 
when material is furnished from which val- 
uable courses can be constructed. These 
facts the Sage Foundation will collect, cor- 
relate and publish. While doubtless the 
main thought of the giver was the use of 
this knowledge in aiding the poor, it will 
at the same time be an engine of power in 
modifying higher instruction and forcing 
it into useful channels. For better than hav- 
ing a new institution with another group of 
poorly informed instructors is the search 
for new material and its presentation in 
forms that enrich the work of those that 
now teach. My joy in the Sage Foundation 
is thus a double one. I am glad that social 
work is to be made effectual and the poor 
are to be aided, but I am also glad that the 
tone of the universities can be elevated, their 
work made definite, and that their young 
men will go out with higher and clearer 
ideals. Progress comes when the poor have 
a better material environment and their edu- 
cated superiors are bent more fully towards 
social service. 


Professor Sociology- 
University of Wisconsin 

When America was mostly country the 
idea was that poverty was of individual ori- 
gin. Then, barring misfortune, a man was 
visibly lord of his life and the hell-fire cir- 
cuit rider who grappled with the "old Adam" 
in him did more than any one else to down 
poverty and vice. In the big city of to-day 
the old interpretation of suffering suffices 

not and the "personal regeneration" policy 
is less adequate. Here less certainly does 
ill come only through one's own defect or 
wrong-doing. More of one's fate hinges on 
factors he cannot control — social factors. 
Conditions may surround him which as sure- 
ly breed poverty, sickness, inefficiency and 
vice as marshes breed mosquitoes. For the 
man cramped in means, the main lines of 
existence are standardized. He has little 
control over the purity of his water or food 
or air, the fitness of his domicile, the dan- 
gers of his task, the disease germs he is ex- 
posed to, the haunts of his children, the edu- 
cation of his boys, the temptations of his 
girls, the disposal of his savings. Certain 
planes of existence are fixed for him. He 
may, if exceptional, escape to another plane 
but otherwise he must accept what he finds. 
What are these planes or condition-making 
factors in the life of the masses of the city 
population, how they arise, how they shape 
the fate and character of those submitted 
to them and how they may be lifted — these 
are the great problems of preventive phil- 
anthropy and these, happily, are the prob- 
lems that Mrs. Sage has recognized as strat- 
egic in promoting the welfare of her fellow- 


Professor of Political Economy 
Columbia University 

With an income of half a million dollars 
a year, the directors of the Sage Foundation 
are happily not limited to any single line 
of activity. Among the investigations 
which I hope they may be moved to set on 
foot at once is a comprehensive study of the 
life and labor of the people of New York city 
comparable with Charles Booth's study of 
London. The obstacles in the way of such 
an investigation are undoubtedly greater in 
New York than they were in London; but 
this merely accentuates our need for the 
information which it would afford. Already 
valuable local studies of living conditions 
are being made through social settlements, 
charitable societies and the official depart- 
ments of the city and state. What is 
needed is a directing head to co-ordinate the 
work already being done and arrange to 
have it supplemented where it is deficient, 
and a comprehending intelligence to bring 
all the material together and interpret it in 
the same illuminating way that Mr. Booth 
has interpreted the facts in reference to 
London which his agents collected. Such an 
undertaking would of course be a labor of 
years, but the present is a peculiarly favor- 
able time for getting it under way. By 1910, 
when the next census will be taken, the de- 
tailed studies of living conditions in differ- 
ent sections of the city should be far enough 
along to permit the publication of results 
along with the statistics supplied by the 
census. This would make the investigation 
as nearly up to date as such a study possibly 

1907 What University Men Think of the Sage Foundation 191 

could be. The assistance which an adequate 
description of the life and labor of the peo- 
ple of New York would render to the cause 
of constructive social betterment can hardly 
be exaggerated. It would bring home to all 
classes in an authoritative way a realiza- 
tion of the extent of the evils to be cor- 
rected. It would indicate, at least in some 
measure, the underlying causes of poverty 
and facilitate agreement among social work- 
ers as to the remedies required. Finally, 
it would afford just the basis for agitation 
for better conditions which we now so con- 
spicuously lack. I cannot conceive any way 
in which a part of the income of this splen- 
did foundation could be used that would 
contribute more towards the ultimate ob- 
jects of the gift than in organizing and 
carrying through such an investigation. 


McVichar Professor of Political 

Economy, Columbia University 

The value of the Russell Sage Foundation 
appears to me to consist in two facts. The 
first is that of having ready to hand an in- 
stitution which can at once and without de- 
lay cope with sudden exigencies such as re- 
sult from the periodical oscillations in our 
economic prosperity. In times of crisis the 
ordinary difficulties of the social situation 
are multiplied with a suddenness and sever- 
ity which transcend all the possibilities of 
relief by the ordinary or even the extraor- 
dinary agencies. To have at hand a founda- 
tion which by its very magnitude can take 
a notable part in the mitigation of these 
evil results of sudden perturbations is a 
fact of the utmost significance. 

Even more important, however, than this, 
is in my opinion the possible utilization of 
the fund as an experimental laboratory. In 
natural science a single step in advance is 
often the result of hundreds of failures. In 
practical social science, we have had such 
comparatively little advance because there 
has been no one willing to risk the failures. 
The Russell Sage Foundation can do much 
by its failures as a scientific laboratory of 
social experimentation. It contains within 
itself the germs of social reconstruction. 


Professor of Political Economy 
"Vale University 

The breadth of view and farsightedness 
which inspired the Sage Foundation have 
been so generally praised that I need not use 
up space in saying what others have already 
so well said. It is more important to briefly 
indicate some of the lines of activity which 
in the very broad field permitted by the 
terms of the gift seem to be worthy of be- 
ing taken up first. I assume that the pur- 
pose of the Foundation is to produce results, 
not to create literature. Yet we have had 
so many examples in the past of misapplied 
generosity that the spending of the money 
should be preceded by a careful study' of con- 
ditions in order to ascertain not only which 
are most important, but which are least 
adequately looked after by existing agencies. 

The term "social conditions" naturally in- 
cludes two groups: 

(1) Those which are individual, or are sub- 
jective, which in turn may be 

(a) mainly moral or psychological, re- 
sulting in pauperism, crime, etc.; 

(b) mainly physical, resulting in dis- 
ease, deformity, etc. ; 

(2) Those which are objective or environ- 
mental, and these again may be divided 

(a) those that are mainly material, e. g. 
dwellings, roads, water supply, etc. 

(b) those which are institutional, such 
as laws, constitutions, social cus- 
toms, etc. 

Certain schools of thinkers tend to lay 
stress upon the individual or subjective, 
others upon the environmental or objective 
conditions of life. It cannot be said that we 
know enough about the matter at present 
to decide which is the more in need of im- 
provement. An indispensable preliminary 
study would, therefore, be a careful investi- 
gation into the causes of poverty, vice, and 
crime. In connection with this there should 
also be a study of the agencies which deal 
with them. We should know, e. g., how 
much is spent in a year in a given city by 
the various philanthropic and charitable so- 
cieties, churches, etc., as well as public agen- 
cies, before we can confidently say how the 
income of the fund can best be used. 

Trie Trend of THings 

The first issue of The Playground, a 
monthly journal published by the executive 
committee of the Playground Association 
of America, has been issued. Its frontispiece 
is a picture of President Roosevelt, followed 
by his letter in favor of public playgrounds. 
A foreword by the secretary sets forth very 

concisely the aims of the association and the 
methods by which it hopes to work. It also 
calls attention to the annual convention in 
Chicago June 20-22, and announces that the 
June number will be a Chicago number. The 
paper is published at 8 Astor place, New 
York, at one dollar a year. 


Charities and The Commons 

May 11 

Volume I, Number I, of The Outlook for 
the Blind, a "quarterly record of their prog- 
ress and welfare," has come from the press. 
It is published by the Massachusetts Asso- 
ciation for Promoting the Interests of the 
Blind and Charles F. F. Campbell is editor. 
This first number contains a review of re- 
cent work for the blind in Maine, Massachu- 
setts, Minnesota, Ohio and Pennsylvania, 
Miss Keller's address on The Heaviest Bur- 
den of the Blind, and several other interest- 
ing articles. The following are the names 
of the publication committee: Mary Morton 
Kehew, Annie B. Fisher, Annette P. Rogers, 
Samuel F. Hubbard, Charles F. F. Campbell. 
The issue is compact and suggestive and the 
venture should prove a factor in carrying 
forward nationally the new work for the 
adult blind. 

train is to endanger every passenger train 
which that freight may meet on the road or 
by which it may be overtaken." After all 
the arguments of the safety device enthusi- 
asts are admitted, he says, there is still the. 
personal element, the vigilance and good 
judgment of the engineman. No service can 
boast of being adequate until the personnel 
is improved. 

* * * 

In The Century for April, Professor George 
M. Stratton writes on Railway Disaster at 
Night, showing what he calls a "psycholo- 
gical need of a revision of the signals." He 
believes that red, green and white lights 
may so readily be mixed that the arm of 
the block signal semaphore should be used 
at night just as in daytime in its three po- 
sitions, illuminated. 

In the second of his series of articles on 
the Negro problem in The American Maga- 
zine, Ray Stannard Baker sums up a dis- 
covery which he has made in the easily re- 
membered phrase: "They want the New 
South but the old darky." Mr. Baker had 
the unique experience, he says, first of being 
told that no Northerner can understand 
the Negro as well as those who have lived 
with them all their lives and then of finding 
that "these men rarely knew anything about 
the better class of Negroes, — those who were 
in business or in independent occupations — 
those who owned their own homes. They 
did come in contact with the servant Negro, 
the field hand, the common laborer, who 
make up the great mass of the race. On the 
other hand, the best class of Negroes did not 
know the higher class of the white people 
and based their suspicion and hatred upon 
the acts of the poorer sort of whites with 
whom they naturally came in contact. The 
best elements of the two races are as far 
apart as if they lived in different countries; 
and that is one of the chief causes of the 
growing danger of the Southern situation." 

In the heat of the railway talk B. B. 
Adams calmly examines The Railway High 
Speed Mania in the April Scribner's. He 
shows, more or less convincingly, that there 
is essentially no great danger in high speed 
provided the road is properly equipped and 
manned. The Empire State express, for ex- 
ample, has never killed a passenger and in 
general high speed wrecks are no worse or 
more frequent than wrecks on slower trains. 
But "to run a train eighty miles an hour 
when the signals are set for a speed of forty 
miles an hour is to constantly skate on thin 
ice. To run an old wooden smoking-car in 
the middle of a train of heavy Pullman 
sleepers and strong steel mail-cars, where 
the 'smoker' will surely be crushed in even 
a light collision, is to risk the lives of the 
Italian or Russian immigrants who ride in 
the smoker. To run a freight train with 
any less care than is given to a passenger 

In the North American Review, W. H» 
Mallock has begun a series of articles A 
Critical Examination of Socialism. P. J. 
McCumber, United States Senator from 
North Dakota, points out What the Pure 
Food Law Has Accomplished. 
* * * 

The Chicago Society of Social Hygiene 
has issued a booklet, The General Need for 
Education in Matters of Sex. It includes the 
following papers, The Origin and Aim of the 
Chicago Society of Social Hygiene; List of 
Officers, Directors and Charter Members; 
The Field of the Chicago Society by Prof. 
Charles R. Henderson, University of Chi- 
cago; Sexual Vice Among Children, by Judge 
Julian W. Mack, Juvenile Court; Boys Ac- 
quire Knowledge of Sexual Matters at an 
Early Age, but Seldom at Home, by O. J. 
Milliken, Superintendent Jewish Training 
School for Boys; The Need for Parental 
Guidance. of Children in Matters of Sex, by 
Herbert W. Gates, department secretary Y. 
M. C. A., Chicago; Sexual Vice as Seen by 
the Midnight Mission, by Rev. Ernest A. 
Bell; The Need of College Students for Edu- 
cation in Sexual Hygiene, by Dr. Winfield S. 
Hall, professor in Northwestern University 
Medical School; The Prevalence of Venereal 
Disease, by Dr. Henry B. Favill, professor 
in Rush Medical College; How the Innocent 
May Suffer, by Dr. E. O. Dudley, professor 
in Northwestern University Medical School; 
Sexual Vice and Venereal Disease Among 
the Homeless, by Raymond Robins, formerly 
superintendent Municipal Lodging House; 
The Venereal Diseases and The "Sexual Ne- 
cessity," by Dr. William T. Belfield, pro- 
fessor in Rush Medical College. 

Frederick Blount Warren, writing in the 
Pilgrim on The Added Blend and the Native 
Stock, says: "The foreigners are, if any- 
thing, more wholesome and sane than our 
native born poorer classes. There are women 
among them who take the same pride in 
their dress as the wealthy women whose 




homes line the more pretentious avenues 
of the land; they have accomplishments to 
which the majority of the well-to-do can not 
lay claim. Their boys dress with care, have 
their clubs where dues must be and are paid 
and they are wholly unselfish and polite in 
their homes." The net result, Mr. Warren 
announces, of his investigations, has been, 
in a sense, "the arraignment of our own 

* * * 

Fellowship, published monthly by Robert 
Browning Settlement, discusses "improved 
locomotion." It recognizes this as the first 
step in housing reform, by relieving conges- 
tion. "When we get about more quickly 
and cheaply our international boundary 

lines, our international hostilities, become 
obsolete." Improved locomotion is after all 
an increased possibility of neighborliness. 
The Robert Browning Settlement council 
adopted the recommendation of its Public 
Question Committee in favor of the follow- 
ing policy: 

1. Public ownership of the electricity of 

2. Unification of greater London; 

3. Adoption of provision of children's 
meals act. 

4. Provision of work for the unemployed. 

This report was sent to the London County 



To the Editor. — The criticism by Dr. Bar- 
rows in a recent number of Charities and 
The Commons, upon the condition of the 
law of New York, seems to me mistaken. 
It rests upon the erroneous assumption that 
the object of the law in inflicting penalties 
upon a criminal is in the nature of retribu- 
tion. Hence it is argued that if a man was 
a paranoiac at the time of committing a 
crime no penalty should be inflicted. 

In my view of the case, society has no con- 
cern with retribution. That is in the hands 
of God, who alone knows all the conditions 
and motives. The business of society is to 
protect its members against violence and 
oppression. The paranoiac who has an im- 
pulse to kill others is even more dangerous 
to the peace and order of society than a man 
in full possession of his senses. Therefore 
it seems to me that the law which inflicts 
upon such a man the death penalty is in tfie 
interest of society, and is entirely just. 

This indeed is the real argument for the 
death penalty. It prevents a man who has 
committed one crime from ever committing 
another. There was a time when the state 
of Michigan abolished the death penalty. A 
man named Latimer was sentenced to im- 
prisonment for life for the murder of his 
mother. He procured prussic acid, poisoned 
his keeper, and escaped. If he had been 
put to death for his first crime, he would not 
have committed the second, and the life of 
an innocent man would have been saved. 
Under the law of Michigan, as it then stood, 
there was nothing which the state could do 
to protect the keeper, and the murderer was 
allowed to live on. 

The temptation which besets those who 
are engaged in the study of sin and suffer- 

ing is to overlook the fact that respectable 
hard-working people are in the majority, and 
are for every reason entitled to protection 
from the state, in person and property. 
Whatever is done for the criminal classes 
should be based upon this consideration. 
When a degenerate gets a murderous im- 
pulse he is more dangerous than a tiger or 
a cobra. In the interest of society he should 
be extinguished. Let this be done decently, 
and with full opportunity for defense. But 
let it be done. 

Everett P. Wheeler. 


The comments of the writer on the Thaw 
trial were almost entirely confined to the 
weakness and defects of our legal procedure. 
The question of retribution was not dis- 
cussed, and there was but the slightest allu- 
sion to capital punishment. Mr. Everett P. 
Wheeler, however, setting aside the main 
point of our contention, makes an argument 
for the infliction of the death penalty upon 
Thaw. His letter, it seems to the writer, 
strengthens the objections to our present le- 
gal system presented in the previous article. 

Capital punishment has not been abolished 
in the State of New York, and therefore the 
abolition of the death penalty cannot be held 
responsible for the failure of the trial. 

Thaw killed a man. He knew what he 
was doing at the time. Under the present 
code of New York he must be put to death 
as Mr. Wheeler would like to have him. But 
why is he not put to death? If the case 
were left purely to the decision of my hon- 
ored friend there would be no doubt about 
the result. But the law of New York does 
not place the decision of such matters in the 
power of one man. It provides a court and a 

i 9 4 

Charities and The Commons 

jury and counsel. A battalion of doctors is 
summoned, and for weeks time is spent in 
deciding, not whether Thaw is dangerous to 
society, but whether he knew what he was 
doing when he did what he did. The doc- 
tors disagreed, and the jury disagreed. It is 
of no use to say that the jury ought to have 
convicted him; the simple fact is that they 
did not. And why did not the jury agree? 
Largely because they were divided on the 
psychological question of his responsibility. 
And also because of the weight of the pen- 
alty prescribed in the code. 

Capital punishment is supposed to be de- 
terrent but it does not deter the paranoiac 
from committing homicide. It does deter, 
however, the jury from sentencing a man to 
death because the law does not mean to put 
him to death if he is not responsible, and 
this is a question with which a jury must 

The prime weakness of capital punishment 
as a protection to society is that its applica- 
tion comes too late. The dangerous para- 
noiac ought to be shut up before he kills his 

Mr. Wheeler says, "Hence it is argued that 
if a man is a paranoiac at the time he com- 
mitted the crime no penalty should be in- 
flicted." No such argument was advanced 
and no such conclusion is possible from my 
article. What I did say was "the whole his- 
tory of Thaw's life tends to show that he 
was such a paranoiac, or what is known as a 
moral idiot who ought long ago have been 
placed under proper restraint." The differ- 
ence between Mr. Wheeler and myself is that 
I would secure the protection of society 
much earlier than he does. His penalty is 
of no use until somebody has been killed, 
and then it is of but little use because it is 
too hard to enforce it. There are many ob- 
jections to the death penalty and one of the 
strongest is that it does not work except in 
communities where there is little regard for 
human life, and in those communities it 
does not act as a deterrent. Our legal pro- 
cedure will continue to be defective until we 
adopt a method which removes the para- 
noiac from society before he has committed 
irreparable injury. 

S. J. Barrows. 


To the Editor: 

Could you not stir up public opinion upon 
the subject of the hardship to the poor of 
the landlords raising the rent — when the 
health board obliges them to put their tene- 
ment houses in decent living order. We all 
rejoice when the landlord is forced to make 
his house fit for human beings to inhabit, 
and yet many a poor family is driven dis- 
tracted at having the rent increased by two 
or three dollars — which means they pay 

heavily for the improvements which any 
just man would have felt it his duty to 
make without compulsion. 

Rents are beyond all reason as it is, and 
adding a couple of dollars monthly means 
moving out, or skimping and pinching still 
more on the necessaries of life. There is 
a great body of poor folk who have not ben- 
efited by the prosperity of the country. 
Wages have remained stationary while food 
and rent advanced. H. T. L. 


To the Editor: 

Mr. Langer's remarks on this subject in 
one of your issues are, in my opinion, ill ad- 
vised. He says, "enforced meddling with 
the subject would only result in sexual sug- 
gestion and precocity, with an inevitable in- 
crease in the already dreadful evil of self- 
abuse." I take issue with him regarding 
this statement. He misses the main point. 
The question is not as to the relative value 
of knowledge and ignorance; as a matter of 
fact the question resolves itself into the 
preference to be given scientific, common- 
sense knowledge based upon the laws of 
hygiene and physiology in comparison with 
the fantastic assertions of the child's imma- 
ture school-mates. Of one thing we may be 
well assured. With the awakening of the 
sexual instinct there is forced upon the child 
a recognition of the development of a new 
and most powerful emotion. He seeks to 
know what it means. If the parents or the 
teacher do not tell him he will accept as true 
the statement of his play-mates who say 
that the instinct requires satisfaction. Such 
a belief is in accord with his own desire and 
the result is often venereal infection or the 
ruin of some young girl. 

The sexual instinct is not low or vile. It 
is a masterful force in every human being, 
for it means the preservation of the species. 
Did it not exist the nations would come to 
an end in one generation. It is a God-given 
instinct which should be recognized and con- 
trolled for the good of the individual and the 
race. Without instruction the child cannot 
know regarding the possibility and health- 
fulness of continence, the dignity of virility 
or the advisability of purity. Unless he is 
told, no child will know of the dangerous 
and insidious nature of the venereal diseases 
nor of the possibility of innocent infection. 
These matters are of the utmost importance 
to every child. They concern the health and 
happiness of all mankind. If education is 
of value we should teach the great truths 
first. A difference of opinion may exist as 
to methods but the value of publicity is now 
acknowledged by the profession and, with 
intelligent discussion, will soon be accepted 
by the public. 

Denslow Lewis. 


Next Massachusetts State Conference. — 
At a meeting of the Executive Committee of 
the Massachusetts State Conference of Char- 
ities the general trend of the Lynn meeting, 
November 6-8 next, was determined upon. 
President Charles A. DeCourcy of Lawrence, 
will speak on The Probation Problem in 
Massachusetts the opening night, and there 
will be a special session on probation, one 
on the prevention of truancy, and the third, 
a report on the result of care of children. 
Two other general sessions will be on Co- 
operation Between Officers of the Poor and 
Private Charity, and The Charity Worker 
and the Neighborhood. Seymour H. Stone, 
48 Rutland street, Boston, is secretary. 

Applied Sociology. — It is encouraging to 
note the increasing number of divinity 
schools which are introducing special in- 
struction in applied sociology. In the dis- 
trict between St. Paul and Minneapolis there 
are, besides several colleges, four such insti- 
tutions conducted by different church bodies. 
A. W. Gutridge, the general secretary of the 
Associated Charities of St. Paul, has during 
the winter delivered two courses of lectures, 
one in a Lutheran Seminary and the other 
in the large Catholic Seminary, on social 
topics. Miss Hanson, also of the St. Paul 
Associated Charities, has just closed such a 
course in another Lutheran seminary. 

For the Summer. — The Chrystie Street 
House, New York, hopes to make pilgrim- 
ages this summer to a country farm house, 
for which it asks in another column of this 
issue. The Chrystie Street House provides 
a temporary "home" for young men. So it 
wants a farm house and not a camp. The 
young men it shelters and encourages are 
sometimes boys recently discharged from 
Hart's Island, to which they have been sen- 
tenced for misdemeanors. Other boys have 
never been imprisoned, but have come, un- 
employed and penniless, to the house, ask- 
ing to be tided over. For both the reform- 
atory boys and the others life in a good, 
homelike farm-house for several weeks or 
even days would seem a blessing this sum- 

A Standard of Living Study. — The West- 
ern New York branch of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae has undertaken a study 
of the standard of living among certain se- 
lected families in Buffalo. For about three 
years the association has maintained a day 
nursery, called the College Creche, in con- 
nection with the Neighborhood House Set- 
tlement in Buffalo, which has been very suc- 
cessful. This investigation has been under- 
taken by members of the association each 
one of whom will study the standard of liv- 
ing of a single family. Fifteen families 


have been assigned, taken from those who 
are using the day nursery. The work is 
to be conducted along the lines followed by 
Mr. Rowntree in his study of poverty in the 
city of York. The study will be con- 
tinued through a period of at least four 
weeks and may be extended. It is expected 
that the results will throw some light upon 
the usefulness of the creche, and it may also 
suggest the value of further study along 
similar lines on a larger scale. 

Columbus Society for the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis. — The Columbus, Ohio, tubercu- 
losis camp opens this month, and re- 
main open until the first of October. Forty 
to fifty patients can be accommodated in 
tents. The work was done last year by two 
nurses and a cook with only one visit a day 
from one of the staff of the Columbus Society 
for the Prevention of Tuberculosis. The 
society supports a dispensary with a staff 
of five physicians. The officers of the Co- 
lumbus Society follow: Mrs. Samuel L. 
Black, president; Henry C. Taylor, 1st vice- 
president; Dr. W. O. Thompson, 2d vice-pres- 
ident; Mrs. Luke G. Byrne, recording secre- 
tary; Miss Lucile Joyce, corresponding sec- 
retary; Dr. C. O. Probst, medical director. 

State Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Texas. — 
The House of Representatives of Texas has 
passed an appropriation of $150,000 for the 
purpose of establishing and equipping a tu- 
berculosis sanatorium. 

For the Feeble-Minded of Rhode Island. — 
As a result of strenuous efforts with legis- 
lators, several hearings before legislative 
committees, and support by some of the 
daily papers, the Local Council of Women of 
Rhode Island has succeeded in getting a bill 
through the senate unanimously endorsing 
the establishment of a state school for the 
feeble-minded. The bill includes also cus- 
todial provision for the care of girls and 
women who may not be eligible to the 
school. Heretofore Rhode Island has board- 
ed out children capable of training in the 
Massachusetts, Connecticut and Pennsyl- 
vania schools, and the older and the hope- 
less feeble-minded have had quarters at the 
state almshouse. The plan is to purchase a 
farm and, by commencing in a small way, to 
build up a farm home for the feeble-minded 
on the cottage system. The Local Council 
of Women is made up of thirty-five societies 
in the state devoted to state and civic im- 
provement. The Societies for Organizing 
Charity of Providence and Pawtucket, and 
the Charity Organization Society of Newport 
are members. 

For the Blind in Cleveland. — The Society 
for Promoting the Interests of the Blind 
in Cleveland held its first public ex- 


Charities and The Commons 

hibition and sale during the week of 
April first. An unused store was secured 
for the display of the process and products 
of weaving in color and design. A woman's 
committee representing various churches 
served luncheon and secured orders for the 
execution of cotton and linen fabrics. Over 
$1,000 was realized. The movement in 
Cleveland is the outgrowth of an effort on 
the part of several organizations. Some 
time ago the Public Library began instruc- 
tion in reading and entertainments for the 
blind. An exchange was organized for the 
use of extra tickets to plays and concerts. 
The Associated Charities undertook a census 
of the social and economic condition of blind 
persons in the city. Under the direction of 
Goodrich House, instruction in weaving was 
taken up, and several skilled workers have 
been developed. Finally, the recent annul- 
ment of the state pensions brought all these 
lines of effort together in an endeavor to in- 
crease the educational possibilities of the 
blind and to discover other occupations and 
industries which may be opened to them. 

Immigrants Information Bureau, Galves- 
ton. — Morris B. Waldman will have charge 
of the Jewish Immigrants Informa- 
tion Bureau to be established in Galveston 
in accordance with the new plans of the 
Jewish Territorialist Organization and the 
Industrial Removal Office. 

Chicago Hebrew Institute. — The Chicago 
Hebrew Institute announces that plans for 
a $100,000 building to be used exclusively 
by the institute have practically been de- 
cided upon. The building will be on the 
West Side. 

Hebrew Federation, Hoboken. — The He- 
brew societies of Hoboken, N. J., have form- 
ed a federation under the following officers: 
Mr. Eichler, president; Jacob Unger, secre- 
tary; H. Tannenbaum, treasurer. 

Boston's Federated Jewish Charities. — At 
a recent meeting of the Federated Jewish 
Charities of Boston, it was announced that 
several organizations had joined forces with 
the Hebrew Benevolent Society, the Leopold 
Morse Home, the Baron de Hirsch Committee 
and the Free Burial Society, who formerly 
formed the federation. The recruits are the 
Helping Hand Temporary Home for Desti- 
tute Jewish Children, the Sheltering Home 
and the Mt. Sinai Hospital. The old feder- 
ation distributed $45,000 last year and the 
greater federation expects to be able to raise 
this sum to $100,000. 

Jewish Hospital for Deformities, New 
York. — The Jewish Hospital for Deformities 
and Joint Diseases, which began work at 
1917 Madison avenue, New York, on No- 
vember 5, 1906, has already arranged to en- 
large its usefulness by the purchase of the 
adjoining property at 1915, which will short- 
ly be altered and added to the hospital. It 
is expected that these alterations will be 

completed by October, 1907, when the insti- 
tution will have its capacity increased by 
thirty beds. The hospital aims to be non- 
sectarian and gives special attention to acute 
chronic joint inflammations. During its 
brief career the staff has treated over 500 
patients a month in its dispensary, and treat- 
ment is free to those who can not afford to 
pay. The officers are as follows: Emanuel 
M. Gattle, president; Louis Blun, 1st vice- 
president; Paul M. Herzog, 2d vice-president; 
Harry Long, secretary; Louis F. Rothschild, 
treasurer; physician and surgeon in chief, 
Henry W. Frauenthal, M. D. 


The Chrystie Street House, a tem- 
porary home for young' men, -wants to 
secure, for the summer, an old house 
■with large grounds, within one hour's 
ride from New "Y"orK, -where twenty 
may be accommodated over Saturday 
and Sunday. Small farm, "with swim- 
ming' facilities and -without near 
neighbors preferred. 

Address 129 Chrystie Street, 

New Yorh. 

Employment Exchange. 

Address all communications to Miss Helen M. Kelsey, 
Editor Employment Exchange of Charities and The 
Commons, Room 535, 156 Fifth Avenue. Kindly enclose 
postage if a reply is desired. 

YOUNG woman, college graduate, wishes oppor- 
tunity to carry on an investigation of some 
special problem. Has had experience in such 
work on more general lines. 

YOUNG- man, who is to do graduate work during 
the summer months, wishes opportunity to do 
evening work in New York settlement. 

YOUNG women of experience with children, either 
as primary or kindergarten teachers, or as 
volunteer workers in the settlements, wish op- 
portunities in the Fresh Air "Work in the vicinity of 
New York. 


ANTED— Young man as resident for winter in 
Suburban settlement. Board at reduced rate 
in return for two evenings' work. 


ANTED— Young women residents-in-training in 
a settlement in Eastern city. Amount of salary 
sufficient only to cover cost of board and room 

WANTED— Woman of experience to expand the 
work of a well-established settlement con- 
ducted in connection with a church in an east- 
ern city. 

WANTED— A general secretary for neighborhood 
work on a large scale of over 20 years' standing. 
Chiefly among Italians, Hebrews and Negroes. 
Office forces of 12 clerks, Clubs and Work well estab- 
lished and prosperous. Visiting Nursing, Rainy Day 
Clubs, Pasteurized Milk Station, Library, etc. 


and The Common* 

Edward T. Ocvine, Editor 
Graham Taylor, associate 
Lee k. frankel. associate for 
jewish charity 

THe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in Philanthropy and Social Advance 

social ^he legislature of the state 

Legislation in of Minnesota, which has 

Minnesota. -^ ad j ournedj enacted a 

number of laws of special interest to so- 
cial workers. The delegates attending 
the National Conference of Charities 
and Correction in Minneapolis next 
month will find much of this legislation 
well worth studying. Beside the enact- 
ment of the law establishing a State 
Board of Visitors for the public institu- 
tions, of which mention was recently 
made in Charities and The Commons, 
other advance legislation was effected. 
One new law deserving notice is that 
providing detention hospitals at the state 
hospitals for the insane. By this means 
all the insane will be detained for a per- 
iod for special examination before being 
placed in the hospital proper. In this 
way it is believed many will be saved the 
necessity of entering the insane hospitals. 
Another law enacted with reference to 
the insane establishes after care by 
means of specially trained state agents. 
The state agency system which has 
proved so effective in work for depend- 
ent and delinquent children and also in 
work for criminals in Minnesota, is thus 
extended to the insane and by the same 
law it is extended to persons discharged 
from the school for the feeble minded 
and the colony for epileptics. Other laws 
relating to the insane, establish a hospi- 
tal for the dangerous or criminal insane 
at St. Peter and make more effective the 
provision for tuberculosis hospitals in 
connection with the three insane hos- 
pitals. A law was passed to establish 
an industrial school for girls. This law 
has been greatly needed for many years, 
but differences of opinion as to method 

have prevented its enactment. The peo- 
ple of Red Wing, where the Training 
School for Boys and Girls is now lo- 
cated, have desired to have the new 
school for girls located at that city. 
There has been a strong feeling in the 
state in opposition to this, among the 
social workers. The new law does not 
settle this question but turns the location 
of the new institution over to the State 
Board of Control. Another important 
law relating to children was a compre- 
hensive delinquent parent law, providing 
for the punishment of parents or other 
people who cause or contribute to the 
dependency or delinquency of children. 
Another measure gives the three large 
cities the authority to establish detention 
homes for delinquent and dependent 
children, under the direction of the ju- 
venile courts. Other laws related to this 
subject render easier the working of the 
probation laws, increase the salaries of 
probation officers and also provide extra 
clerks for the juvenile courts. The state 
hospital for Crippled and Deformed 
Children has been operated in a wing 
of the St. Paul City Hospital. A law 
was enacted to build a new institution 
for this purpose, the city of St. Paul do- 
nating a large tract of timbered land on 
the outskirts of the city to be used in 
connection with the hospital. The State 
Sanatorium for Consumptives received 
attention again at the hand of the legis- 
lature. Another law establishes a hos- 
pital farm for inebriates. Under the 
terms of this measure inebriates will be 
committed on a substantially indetermin- 
ate sentence, to be discharged when 
cured ; by another law it is forbidden to 
send drunkards to prison for the first of- 


Charities and The Commons 

May 25 

fense. A law was passed establishing 
state registration of nurses. Other laws 
enacted make education compulsory for 
deaf children, render more effective the 
child labor laws, provide a woman fac- 
tory inspector, enlarge the scope of the 
bureau of labor and change its name to 
the Bureau of Labor, Industries and 
Commerce, establish free public em- 
ployment bureaus in the cities of St. 
Paul and Duluth as well as in Minne- 
apolis, make more effective the regula- 
tions concerning private employment 
bureaus, simplifying the caring for 
animals exposed to the weather, make 
more stringent the laws relating to the 
sale of liquor to minors and drunkards, 
simplify procedure on the part of health 
boards in the control of infectious dis- 
eases, abatement of nuisances and collec- 
tion of vital statistics, open the way for 
the establishment of public baths in cities 
having from twenty thousand to fifty 
thousand inhabitants, limitmg the num- 
ber of state prisoners that may be em- 
ployed at any particular occupation, with 
certain exceptions, make it illegal for 
junk dealers to buy from minors, ren- 
der more effective the laws relating to 
pure food, transfer Itasca State Park to 
the State Forestry Board and provide for 
restocking forest reserves. The appro- 
priations for the state institutions were 
increased. Among other laws enacted 
are those empowering cities to take over 
the ownership of public utilities, estab- 
lishing a maximum two cent rate for 
passengers on railways and changing the 
law relating to free transportation on 
railways to conform to the national law 
on this subject. 

iiSlrtiin Dr * J olln B ' Hawes > of th e 
in Boston Massachusetts General 
schools. Hospital, Boston, in a re- 
cent address on Fighting Tuberculosis 
in the Homes of the People made some 
very positive criticisms of the present 
methods of school medical inspection in 
that city. He said, in brief, that the in- 
spections were perfunctory, the teachers 
indifferent, and the inspectors, with 
some few exceptions, lax. It is also an 
open fact that the rules of the Board of 
Health do not allow practical work to be 

done by the inspectors. From the ex- 
perience of London, Paris, New York, 
and other cities, enough definite data 
have now been gathered to show beyond 
a doubt that the factor in public school 
medical inspection which changes the 
whole character of the work from an 
academic and ineffective routine, to a 
practical, useful, and definite piece of 
sanitary prophylaxis and prevention, is 
the trained nurse, when introduced into 
the school with authority from the medi- 
cal officers to perform definite nursing 
duties, to carry out definite treatment 
under the physician's orders, and to go 
as a sanitary teacher (not inspector 
only) into the homes of the children. 
It has been found that when this is 
done the teachers become keenly inter- 
ested and are effective allies in guarding 
the children's health. The teachers can- 
not be expected to be interested in a dull 
and fruitless routine which interrupts 
their own work to no purpose. Further, 
it is found that the parents remain abso- 
lutely untouched and unmoved by the 
formal hollowness of mere "inspection" 
but that they, too, respond with grati- 
tude and alacrity when they find that 
care, treatment, observation, and prac- 
tical results follow. It is quite generally 
understood that the chief obstacle to in- 
troducing practical and effective meth- 
ods in public school inspection is the 
supposition that the treatment of chil- 
dren by a public board will be resented 
by the profession at large as an infringe- 
ment of private practice. Set in motion, 
this bugbear is found to be made of 
straw. As a matter of fact, many 
more cases of school children needing 
consecutive medical treatment are 
brought to the private practitioner by the 
nurse, than he now sees, for under the 
present mode of inspection in Boston, 
the ailments of the child are usually 
passed over, and, to judge by the early 
experience of New York, are not treated 
even when discovered. Boston had the 
distinction of being the first American 
city to establish medical inspection in 
the schools; the authorities there should 
now show equal initiative in abandoning 
academic and useless methods; intro- 
ducing a corps of school nurses under 


The Common Welfare 


the Board of Health, and stimulating 
that body to extend its functions in the 
school, to order treatment in all minor 
cases, and to make the nurse responsible 
for carrying out this minor treatment, 
either in the school or in the home, and 
to charge her further with seeing that al! 
major cases are submitted to medical or 
surgical care, whether by the private 
practitioner, the hospital, or the dispen- 

New York's The Public Hospital Com- 
Hospitai mission of New York was 

Commission. appointed by the mayQr Qn 

January 31, 1906, for the purpose of de- 
vising some comprehensive plan for the 
reorganization, extension and adminis- 
tration of the public hospital system. In 
view of the extensive plans for the fu- 
ture by the Departments of Health and 
Public Charities and by the trustees of 
Bellevue and Allied Hospitals, the mayor 
considers it most important that the 
present hospital system should be inves- 
tigated and improved, to the end that a 
general scheme of administration may 
be adopted. Edward M. Grout is chair- 
man of the commission and William R. 
Stewart, secretary. The following are 
the members: 

Dr. Clinton L. Bagg, Dr. Simon Baruch, 
Nathan Bijur, Dr. John W. Brannan, Ed- 
mond J. Butler, George P. Canfield, Dr. 
Charles H. Chetwood, Dr. Floyd M. Crandall, 
Dr. Thomas Darlington, Martin Erdmann, 
Charles W. Fornes, Edward M. Grout, Rob- 
ert W. Hebberd, Clement March, Thomas 
M. Mulry, Eugene A. Philbin, William R. 
Stewart, Howard Townsend, Gaylord S. 
White, William G. Willcox. Raymond F. Al- 
mirall is consulting architect and Orlando F. 
Lewis is assistant secretary. 

For a year following its appointment, 
in the absence of any appropriation, the 
commission was largely quiescent. 
Since March last the executive com- 
mittee has held sessions every two 
weeks, on Monday afternoon, in the 
rooms of the State Board of Charities, 
Fourth avenue and Twenty-second 
street. The commission has received 
extended reports of present conditions 
and plans and future needs from the De- 
partment of Public Charities, the presi- 
dent of Bellevue and Allied Hospitals, 
and the Department of Health. Repre- 
sentatives of the board of managers and 

the staff of the Manhattan State Hospi- 
tal for the Insane have appeared be- 
fore the commission, urging favorable 
recommendation of the requested exten- 
sion of the lease of Ward's Island to the 
state by the city, which lease terminates 
in 1912. After the above mentioned de- 
partments have completed their reports 
to the commission, the representatives of 
the private hospitals of the city are to 
be requested to present in detail the 
present conditions of the private hospital 
service in the city. 

The commission visited the Manhattan 
State Hospital on Saturday, April 6, 
making a thorough inspection of the 
buildings and grounds. At the last meet- 
ing on May 6, the executive committee 
made the following recommendation to 
the mayor: 

In reference to the requested extension of 
the lease of Ward's Island to the state by 
the city, to be used for purposes of a State 
Hospital for the Insane, it is the opinion of 
the commission that the city should either 
grant a short extension of the lease, say for 
five years, with the understanding that the 
property is to be surrendered to the city 
at the end of that period, or it should grant 
an extension of not less than fifty years, 
with an agreement upon the part of the state 
that in consideration of such lease, it will 
construct on Ward's Island a modern hos- 
pital for the care of the insane poor of the 
city of New York, the plans to be approved 
by the Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment of the city of New York. 

The executive committee favors the latter 
proposition, because it seems desirable to 
care for the insane of the city at a point 
of easy access by friends and relatives, and 
by those interested in the care of the insane, 
professionally and otherwise, and also be- 
cause the cost will in any event be levied 
mainly upon the city. 

The executive committee recommends that 
if its recommendations meet with the ap- 
proval of the mayor, he request the gover- 
nor of the state to appoint a committee to 
confer with the .commission in relation to 
the terms of the proposed agreement. 

The executive committee has also 
called to the attention of the mayor and 
the comptroller the necessity which ex- 
ists for an immediate increase in the ac- 
commodations for advanced cases of pul- 
monary tuberculosis in New York. The 
commission is about to request extended 
information on hospital administration 
from the mayors of all cities in America 
and Europe with a population of 100,000 
and upwards. 


Charities and The Commons 

May 25 

Legislation Three bills, primarily for 
migrants' in the protection of foreign 
New York, speaking residents and im- 
migrants have been before the New York 
state legislature this year. They are 
based upon investigations into the con- 
ditions of immigrants and inaugurate 
the distinctly new policy of the state 
taking practical measures to safeguard 
the immigrants already here. The first 
of these bills is the one authorizing the 
board of education to regulate the prac- 
tice of midwifery, and thus protect the 
lives of the mothers and the children 
from death and disease. This bill was 
based upon the investigations of the As- 
sociation of Neighborhood Workers, an 
account of which investigation, written 
by Miss F. Elisabeth Crowell, appeared 
in Charities and The Commons of 
January 12, 1907, and was endorsed and 
furthered by the County Medical Society, 
the city department of health and other 

The other two bills are companions, 
both introduced by Assemblyman Wells. 
One provides that all persons conducting 
a bank in conjunction with the sale of 
steamship tickets, shall before taking de- 
posits, file a bond of $15,000 with the 
state comptroller. This bill is already a 
law. Before its passage any person 
could open a bank, gather the savings 
of immigrants on the pretext of sending 
them abroad to his family, and then run 
away with all the money. The diffi- 
culty of catching the banker or of prov- 
ing that the money was not sent, left 
the immigrant without any redress. Now 
the bond will operate to bar irresponsi- 
ble men from opening banks and will 
give $15,000 to be distributed among the 
defrauded immigrants if the banker dis- 
appear. These bankers are almost al- 
ways steamship ticket agents as well. 
While there are many honest men who 
deal squarely with their patrons, a 
custom has grown up for the agents 
who are not agents of steamship lines to 
authorize themselves as such, and to sell 
their own personal orders for prepaid 
tickets instead of valid orders issued or 
signed by the steamship lines. These or- 
ders, when presented by the immigrant 
at the port of sailing abroad after he 

had sold his home out and traveled from 
the interior, are in many hundreds of 
cases not honored, because the agent has 
sold a worthless piece of paper and no 
money for it has been sent the company. 
No amount of money can compensate 
for the suffering of a family, destitute 
and stranded in a strange city to wait un- 
til the worthless ticket comes back to this 
company and more money arrives, — often 
a period of weeks. The fraud of the 
ticket cannot be proved until the family 
is refused passage by the company for 
in some instances the agent does send 
the money. To prevent this hardship 
the bill provides that agents shall not 
advertise as authorized agents or make 
false or misleading statements and that 
they shall not sell tickets or orders un- 
less they are valid, i. e., signed by the 
steamship companies' agent. It does 
not restrict the sale of orders by any 
person, but does provide that they must 
be valid and contain certain statements 
on the face of the ticket, showing their 
validity. This bill has passed the As- 
sembly and on Wednesday was advanced 
to third reading by unanimous consent, 
which insures its passage. The research 
department of the Woman's Municipal 
League and the National Civic Federa- 
tion, through its welfare committee, and 
Marcus M. Marks, its chairman, drafted 
and urged the passage of these bills. 
The Legal Aid Society, Education Al- 
liance and other organizations endorsed 
them. A special committee will doubt- 
less be formed to co-operate with the 
state comptroller and district attorney to 
enforce these laws. 


In connection with the 
American meeting of the American 

Ethical Union, -r?. u • i T t • i 1 j , i 

Ethical Union held at the 
Society house of the New York Ethical 
Culture Society on May 9 to 12, a 
notable conference on the need and prob- 
lems of moral education was held on 
Saturday, May 11, the morning session 
being devoted to direct moral instruc- 
tion, the afternoon session to indirect 
moral instruction and the evening 
given to a consideration of the de- 
mands for moral regeneration in 
the industrial and political life. 


The Common Welfare 


Gaylord White, of the Union Set- 
tlement, New York, presided in the 
morning, and the program opened with 
an address by Prof. James H. Leuba, of 
Bryn Mawr, on The Moral Nature of the 
Child in Relation to Moral Education. 
Prof. Leuba made an earnest plea for 
the introduction of moral instruction into 
the curriculum of the public school. Dr. 
John Love joy Elliott, of the Hudson 
Guild, New York, and teacher of Ethics 
in the Ethical Culture School, discussed 
Direct Ethical Instruction, speaking es- 
pecially of the use which may be made 
of stories in the younger grades and of 
more analytical work in ethics in the 
high school grades. Miss Alice Seligs- 
berg, of New York, who has recently been 
conducting conferences on moral educa- 
tion, with public school teachers, spoke 
on Moral Instruction in the Public 
Schools, urging that the first step should 
be the preparation of teachers for the 
work of moral instruction by means of 
normal courses, but even preliminary to 
that, the utilization of the present school 
room opportunities such as discipline for 
systematic moral instruction. Dr. Wal- 
ter L. Hervey, of the New York Board 
of Examiners, spoke on Moral Instruc- 
tion in Educational Centers and Y. M. 
C. A.'s, telling of the work which has 
been done in some of the most advanced 
Y. M. C. A. centers as in similar or- 
ganizations. Professor Thomas M. Bal- 
liet, of the New York University School 
of Pedagogy presided at the afternoon 
session, at which Percival Chubb, of the 
Ethical Culture School, discussed Ethical 
Values in Literature, emphasizing the 
possible use of literature for moral in- 
struction and also the use of the festival 
for moral as well as cultural ends. Rob- 
ert A. Woods, of South End House, 
Boston, presented a paper on Ethical 
Construction as a Preparation for Ethical 
Instruction, emphasizing the need of the 
co-ordination of practical, social effort 
with the development of a higher moral 
ideal. Dr. David Saville Muzzey, of the 
history department of the Ethical Culture 
School, spoke on the value of history 
for moral instruction, emphasizing par- 
ticularly the appeal which history makes 

through the consciousness of struggle 
which it inspires to the will of the stu- 
dent. Edwin D. Mead, of Boston, dis- 
cussed The Teaching of Civics, and out- 
lined the opportunity which this sub- 
ject offers for the school room and for 
other educational associations. The 
evening program presented a somewhat 
unusual method of approach to the social 
and industrial problems, John Clyde Os- 
wald, publisher of The American Printer, 
New York, speaking on Moral Quali- 
ties Demanded in the Employer, Timothy 
Healy, president of the Stationary Fire- 
men's Union, New York, telling about 
The Moral Qualities Demanded in the 
Employe, both speakers keeping some- 
what clear of the usual discussion of the 
labor struggle and concerning themselves 
primarily with the moral interests in 
both employer and employe. Herbert 
Parsons, of New York, spoke on The 
Moral Qualities Demanded in Political 
Life, including the politician as well as 
the citizen in his discussion of the need 
of a higher moral ideal in the political 
life, and Professor Charles Zueblin, of 
the University of Chicago, completed the 
program with an address on The Moral 
Qualities Demanded in the Democratic 
Citizen. As an outcome of this meeting, 
the suggestion made by Percival Chubb 
that the Moral Instruction League should 
be organized, met with approval, and 
names were recorded of those who would 
take part in the organization of such a 
league. The Moral Instruction League, 
patterned somewhat after the plan of 
similar organizations in England and 
Germany, might undertake the task as 
outlined by Miss Seligsberg, of gather- 
ing material which may be valuable for 
moral instruction, undertaking to formu- 
late normal courses which may be in- 
troduced at various educational centers 
and in other ways preparing for a more 
adequate introduction of moral instruc- 
tion in the public and private schools. 
Those who may be interested to co- 
operate in the organization of such a 
league may communicate with Mr. L. W. 
Sprague, 33 Central Park West, New 
York city. 


Charities and The Commons 

Chicago's A struggle of three years 
Sanitary has at last been decided by 
inspector. tne ac ti n of Chicago's 
civil service commissioners restoring 
Charles B. Ball to the office of chief 
sanitary inspector from which he was 
ejected three years ago by a court order. 
The matter has been in the courts ever 
since, and was ended by a reverse decis- 
ion of a higher court and the opinion of 
the corporation counsel of the city of 
Chicago declaring that it was the duty 
of the commissioners to certify Mr. Ball 
to the position. The case involved much 
of significance. Mr. Ball, who was 
formerly chief tenement inspector under 
the Low administration in New York 
city, was brought to Chicago by the City 
Homes Association which desired that 
he enter the civil service examination for 
chief sanitary inspector. In this he stood 
at the head of the list and assumed office 
only to be removed by order of Judge 
Hanecy, the contention being that he 
was a non-resident and not eligible for 
office. Perry L. Hedrick, of Chicago, 
who stood second in the examination, 
was therefore certified to the position 
and he held it until he was recently sus- 
pended by the Civil Service Commission 
pending his trial on a charge alleging 
bribery. It should be borne in mind that 
this latter court proceeding, which has 
not yet been tried, is entirely irrelevant 
to the litigation over the right to hold 
the office of chief sanitary inspector. 
The regaining of the inspectorship by 
Mr. Ball means that the municipality is 
upheld in securing the services of the best 
man it could find available, regardless 
of his residence, and that the City Homes 
Association, devoted to improving the 
tenement and housing conditions of Chi- 
cago, has at last been successful in its 
effort to place its candidate, a man of 
wide experience in Washington and New 
York movements for improved housing 
in a position where he can accomplish 
much for better conditions in Chicago. 

During the three years of the legal 
struggle Mr. Ball has been acting as sec- 
retary of the City Homes Association, 
in which position he has carried through 
investigations of much value, and has 
been alert in watching housing legisla- 
tion in the city council, rallying support 
to several measures of social value, and 
organizing effective opposition to dan- 
gerous attacks on the better features of 
the present code. 

what A remark made by Dr. S. 
said "at A. Knopf of New York in 
Washington. a discussion in a section 
meeting at the Washington convention 
of the National Tuberculosis Association, 
was twisted by a Philadelphia newspaper 
correspondent and has been published 
broadcast. The remark was to the ef- 
fect — a medical commonplace — that mor- 
phine should be administered to a pa- 
tient in the last stages of consumption 
in a way to relieve his suffering. The 
newspaper report distorted this into 
"kill your dying consumptives quickly 
and painlessly by heavy doses of mor- 
pine." Quite apart from the false posi- 
tion in which the speaker was placed and 
the injury done him, the publication of 
such a piece of sensationalism cannot 
fail to have a very deleterious effect upon 
impressionable tuberculosis patients 
throughout the country and may keep 
others from seeking needed medical aid. 
Dr. George Dock, of Ann Arbor, chair- 
man of the section, writes as follows to 
Dr. Knopf: 

I heard clearly what you said. I am sure 
I know what you meant, and am sure that 
everybody in the room must have under- 
stood what you said. Your words could not 
possibly be converted into the meaning 
given in the North American. It was per- 
fectly clear that you meant to relieve pa- 
tients in the last stages. Everybody knows 
that this prolongs life, while making it 
very much easier for the patient. The 
publication of such an outrageous lie is a 
most shocking thing in its possible effects 
on thousands of invalids all over the coun- 

Federated Support of CHarities 
Is It Practicable? 

Isaac C O^den 

In a suburban community with a pop- 
ulation of about 60,000 not far from 
New York, the support of its charities 
has always been at best a trou- 
blesome and of late a difficult problem. 
The community is amply supplied with 
charitable and philanthropic organiza- 
tions which have been faithfully adminis- 
tered by their boards of management and 
financed independently of each other by 
the usual methods. In the past these 
were sufficient, but with the growth of 
the community came a corresponding in- 
crease in the needs of the charities and 
the old methods are proving inadequate 
for their necessary support. This increas- 
ing difficulty led some of the men active- 
ly interested in certain of the organiza- 
tions to consider whether some better 
scheme for common support could not 
be devised. They were under the im- 
pression that in a community of moder- 
ate size, blessed with numerous char- 
itable and philanthropic organizations, 
there must be much duplication in giving, 
and that the main support of the differ- 
ent organizations was falling upon a lim- 
ited number of the more able and more 
generous of their fellow citizens. It 
seemed to them that some plan could 
be devised which would enable all the 
organizations to attack unitedly the fi- 
nancial side of their work and that if this 
idea could be embodied in an efficient, 
workable plan, it would be for the ad- 
vantage of all. Accordingly last spring 
a small committee was appointed com- 
posed of representatives from several of 
the charities to investigate and see 
whether a plan would be feasible, such 
as that successfully in use for some 
years past by the Jewish charities in a 
number of our cities. 

The committee began by an examina- 
tion of the existing situation to deter- 
mine the sources of the support of the 
local organizations and to see how far 
this would confirm their views in refer- 
ence thereto. They found that the re- 


ceipts of the various charitable organi- 
zations fell mainly into four classes : 

(1) The income from invested funds. 

(2) The earnings of some of the in- 

(3) Direct contributions from the 

(4) The proceeds of sales, fairs, and 
theatrical and other entertainments. 

The income included in the first two 
classes did not come within the scope of 
the inquiry. 

The receipts in the third class consti- 
tuted the largest source of income and 
were made up of contributions from in- 
dividuals, churches, Sunday schools and 
other organizations. While these were 
the largest in amount they were of a 
somewhat fluctuating nature. Some 
were given by subscribers who could be 
depended on from year to year, but 
many were given without any obliga- 
tion or intention of their being repeated. 
Contributions of this class reached the 
treasury of the societies without any 
great expense and netted within a small 
percentage of the full amount contribut- 
ed. The collection of the items of this 
class depended largely upon the ingenu- 
ity and perseverance of the managers 
of the different organizations and kept 
the finance committees pretty constantly 
at work. 

The fourth item did not enter into the 
receipts of all the societies, but where it 
was employed it constituted an important 
part of their income. Unfortunately 
the amounts spent by those supporting 
the various entertainments were subject 
to a large deduction for expenses and 
it sometimes happened that only a small 
percentage of the gross receipts reached 
the treasury of the society. This method 
seemed economically wasteful and it was 
believed that the same amount of effort 
devoted to disseminating throughout the 
community fuller information regarding 


Charities and The Commons 

May 25 

the different societies and their needs, 
and to direct solicitation, would have 
produced greater net results. 

On the other hand, the contributors 
actual or prospective found themselves 
continually appealed to, sometimes per- 
sonally, sometimes through the mail, in 
the latter case often receiving printed 
circulars enclosing subscription books 
containing lists of more or less prominent 
names with generous amounts attached 
for the stimulation of the prospective 
giver. The effect on the individual who 
was interested in several of the local 
charities, although his separate gifts 
might not be large, was that he felt 
the annoyance of being continually so- 
licited and consequently his gifts were 
apt to aggregate much more in his imag- 
ination than in reality. Some contribu- 
tors were conscientious and systematic 
in making their gifts and sent in their 
contributions at stated intervals without 
solicitation ; a larger part, no doubt 
equally conscientious but less systematic, 
remitted promptly when reminded that 
their usual time for payment had come 
round ; while a still larger number who 
gave more from the impulse of the mo- 
ment or some other motive, required re- 
peated reminders and even then, in most 
cases probably through inattention, their 
names often failed to appear among the 

Aside from the forgetful givers above 
mentioned, the lists of subscribers 
naturally tended to decrease by reason of 
deaths and removals, so that it was nec- 
essary for the managers of the different 
societies continually to exert themselves 
to make good these losses. As a result 
of all this, the thoughts and efforts of 
the various boards of management had 
to be too much devoted to the question 
of raising money and the individual or 
committee, who could evolve anything 
new or successful for stimulating con- 
tributions, felt very much like the tradi- 
tional public benefactor who succeeded 
in making two blades of grass grow 
where only one grew before. 

In order to understand as fully as pos- 
sible the finances of the local charities, 
the annual reports of fifteen of the lead- 
ing organizations were obtained and 
their receipts analyzed so as to deter- 

mine the individual sources of their in- 
come. These organizations included hos- 
pitals, institutions for the care of chil- 
dren, and societies for settlement and 
fresh air work. The analysis covered 
nearly 7,000 contributions and included 
the tabulation of all individual subscrip- 
tions of $5 and over. The result showed 
that out of the 7,000, there were 1,862 
contributions of $5 and over to the fifteen 
societies made by 1,035 persons, an aver- 
age of less than two each : 

638 persons contributed to 1 society. 









made 1862 contributions. 

The distribution of the contributions 
of the 1,035 persons follows: 


No. Persons 


$ 5 











































* 500, 

























1,035 $33,189 

The total contributions analyzed of 
these fifteen societies amounted to $55,- 
088, distributed as follows : 

Individual subscriptions of $5 and 

over $33,189 

Anonymous donations, and receipts 

from churches, etc 3,855 

Individual subscriptions under $5.. 9,462 

Receipts from fairs, etc 8,582 


In this total is not included interest 
on invested funds, nor the earnings of 
any of the societies, but only sums col- 
lected from the public included in the 
third and fourth classes above mentioned. 

1907 Federated Support of Charities. Is it Practicable ? 229 

The item of $9,462, covering subscrip- 
tions under $5, includes over 5,000 con- 
tributions of ten cents and upward. As 
a result of its work the committee found 
that its views as to the support of the 
local charities were confirmed by the re- 
ports analyzed and that several very in- 
teresting points were brought out. 

In the first place the number of per- 
sons (638) contributing to only one so- 
ciety amounted to over sixty-one per 
cent of the whole and those contributing 
to one, two and three societies amounted 
to nearly ninety per cent, leaving less 
than eleven per cent who contributed to 
more than three. Only two persons con- 
tributed to nine of the fifteen societies 
and none to any great number. As ap- 
pears in the second table there were 409 
contributions of $5 and less than $10, of 
which there were actually 400 contribu- 
tions of $5. Therefore of the 638 per- 
sons who contributed to only one so- 
ciety 400 gave $5 each and this was 
the measure of their support to the fif- 
teen local charities in question, except 
in so far as some may have given 
amounts of less than $5 below which 
limit the tabulation was not carried. 

Dividing the second table into two 
parts containing respectively those who 
gave less than $100 each and those who 
gave $100 or more, it appears that there 
were in the first group 965 persons who 
contributed $15,461, an average of $16 
each, and in the second group seventy 
who gave $17,728, an average of $253 
each. This justified the view expressed 
above that the main support of the char- 
ities of the community fell upon a lim- 
ited number of the more able and more 

It seemed also fair to conclude that 
those contributing to the support of but 
one society were actuated by some special 
impulse or personal motive rather than 
by any broad principle of generosity and 
that through the awakening and stimula- 
tion of such a principle the increased 
support required by the growing needs 
of the community could be found. The 
same remark applies to many of the in- 
dividuals in the third table who subscrib- 
ed $9,462 in sums under $5. 

It is to be hoped that the stimulation 
of conscientious and systematic giving 

through some federated plan will ren- 
der unnecessary the use of fairs, theatri- 
cal entertainments, etc., for raising 
money. The purchasers of tickets for 
entertainments are doubtless generally 
under the impression that in so doing 
they are giving in charity, but as a mat- 
ter of fact, to the extent to which they 
receive value for their expenditure, they 
are not giving in charity any more than 
if they went to a regular theatre, and it 
often happens that actually but a small 
part of the sum expended for tickets 
reaches the treasury of the society after 
the expenses have been met. The writer 
knows of a case where a friend's family 
took part in a semi-social entertainment 
for the benefit of a charity where, ac- 
cording to his friend's recollection, the 
net proceeds bore but a very small pro- 
portion to the gross receipts, and where 
in addition to the amount which he paid 
for tickets, he incurred a direct expense 
of over $80 in connection with the af- 
fair. If the gentleman had sent his 
check for $80 to the institution he would 
have been no poorer and he would have 
had the satisfaction of knowing that the 
full amount which came out of his 
pocket had gone directly into the treas- 
ury of the institution for the support 
of its work. The institution would have 
profited much more than from the same 
amount expended by those patronizing 
the entertainment, and in all probability, 
had the time and labor expended on the 
entertainment been spent in direct ap- 
peal to those who not only supported it 
by buying tickets, but who, in many cases 
no doubt, spent several times as much 
in connection therewith, the net result 
would have been much more profitable. 
The committee expects to follow up its 
inquiry with the proposal of some practic- 
al plan of co-operation. But the answer 
to the question "Is federated support of 
charities practicable?" rests ultimately 
with the givers. If it appeal to them 
as an efficient, business-like, workable 
plan, the answer will be favorable, and 
the various boards of management will 
welcome their release from the continual 
struggle with the financial burden and be 
free to devote themselves to the philan- 
thropic side of their work. 

Consumptive Convalescents and THe Land 

Bolton Hall 

Little has as yet been done in provid- 
ing outdoor employment for tubercular 
patients; although the experience of the 
Vacant Lot Gardens in New York and 
Philadelphia in individual cases has 
shown it to be most effective. 

Dr. Trudeau's sanatorium in the Adi- 
rondack^, however, has just initiated an 
Industrial and Gardening Association 
where patients will be able to employ 
themselves in the open air, eventually to 
support themselves and to learn a trade 
which will keep them outdoors. 

To return an arrested case to the bench 
or to the desk, is generally to re-pro- 
nounce the sentence of death from which 
they have been reprieved. It is, there- 
fore, to be hoped that there will be a 
large and rapid extension of this com- 
monsense principle. If this be so, it 
will more than justify all the effort and 
money that has been spent so far, upon 
Vacant Lot Gardening. 

A plan under discussion will provide 
occupation, training and support for 
those who are convalescent from con- 
sumption. Little work is to be expected 
from those who are ill, but when the 
patient is cured or the disease arrested, 
the person requires outdoor life and the 
opportunity of self support without re- 
turning to indoor labor. 

This is no experiment; it has been 
done on a charitable basis in more than 
twenty places in the United States. That 
it can be done and how it is being done 
by the use of very small patches of land 
intensively used, I have amply shown 
elsewhere. 1 The paralytics, rheumatics, 
drunkards, defectives, invalids, cripples, 
women, even children, can shift for them- 
selves, if they get to mother earth. Says 
Lyman Abbot: "For one man who can 
find a job there are thousands who can 
do a job well when it is found for them." 
We must find it for them, but how? 

People will work, and work effectively, 
when they have opportunity and intelli- 
gent supervision, and when they see the 

^n my "Three Acres and Liberty," Macmillan Com- 
pany, N. Y. 


results and get the whole proceeds for 
themselves. Get a piece of land; ten 
acres will do, and fifty is not too much; 
it should be near a town or institution 
where the product may be sold. 

It is better to pay five hundred dollars 
for an acre of land close to residences 
than a hundred dollars an acre for out- 
lying land, because it is cheaper to get 
stable manure to it, and it is more ac- 
cessible to the cultivators, besides being 
easier to show and closer to the market ; 
and because the rise in the value of the 
land is more certain and greater. 

A temporary shelter or a house should 
be put up for superintendence and stor- 
age; tents and shacks will serve for the 
cultivators who desire to live on the 
land. But most of them will go to and 
fro to the work from their residences. 

Everything depends upon the super- 
intendent, who should be capable of 
undertaking the whole affair ; finding the 
land ; raising the money ; having the land 
plowed and getting stable or other 
manure put upon it. Then let the super- 
intendent see all those who might help 
to buy seeds and plants or get them do- 
nated. Explain the plan to the culti- 
vators and apportion plots to each, a 
quarter of an acre or less up to even an 
acre, in accordance with the probable 
capacity of each. 

The superintendent, he or she, should 
have hot beds prepared in advance, mark 
out the plots and meet the cultivators by 
appointment at the ground. Instruct 
them as to the preparation of the soil, 
what they should plant and how; which 
way the rows should run, and what must 
be put in each ; how deep the seeds should 
be planted, and every other detail of cul- 
ture. The superintendent should be con- 
stantly on the ground and know and be 
patient with the peculiarities and short- 
comings of the cultivators. There will 
be stupidities and obstinacy enough to 
try the patience of Job, but "the guides 
should not be angry with those who go 
astray." Any who cannot or will not 


Treatment of Children 


work, simply forfeit their plots for neg- 
lect or insubordination. 

When all this i§ done, the enterprise is 
started. The money needed will be: 
Enough to make at least a partial pay- 
ment on the land, to put up the shelter 
and a stable; to get a pair of horses to 
haul manure; to buy seed, and to buy a 
harness, a farm wagon and some kind 
of carriage, a plow, harrow, weeder, 
sprayer and other tools, for all of which 
(exclusive of the land and buildings) 
five hundred dollars will be ample. 

The superintendent's salary should not 
be less than eighteen hundred dollars a 
year, as on that officer's ability and in- 
telligence the whole thing depends. 
Even if a greenhouse be not used, as it 
is not essential, and if there be no indus- 
trial features added, the superintend- 
ent will find ample work in the winter in 
making the report, lecturing, writing, 
and otherwise extending the scheme. 

To employ those who cannot wait 
even the month or six weeks needed for 
radishes and such quick growing crops 
to mature, there should be a co-operative 
plot on which they may be given work 
at such a rate per hour as the superin- 
tendent thinks their work is worth, the 
crop to belong to the association. 

For this purpose seven hundred dol- 
lars should be enough — say a thousand. 
Another fifteen hundred dollars should 
be added to all this, to avoid running 
short. The building of a house is a 
later matter, but it will naturally follow. 
Even if but half a dozen should be found 
to take up individual plots to begin with, 
there would be no cause for discourage- 

ment, as the plan here as elsewhere will 
be justified by its works, and experience 
shows that as the first of the succession 
of crops begins to come up, more appli- 
cants for the land are found than can be 

Some will be found who can take up 
detached bits of land, under the super- 
intendent's direction and preparation, 
and take care of them on their own ac- 
count. Many know how to raise chick- 
ens, flowers, fruits, or small animals, and 
can have a chance to do so. To care for 
an acre intelligently does not take over 
a month's work altogether during the en- 
tire season even of unskilled labor, and 
when the rudiments of agriculture are 
learned, employment for spare time can 
be found in caring for the yards and plots 
of town residents, and in selling the pro- 

Natural supplementary industries will 
grow up around the headquarters, such 
as preserving fruit and fine vegetables, 
drying kitchen herbs, such as thyme, 
mar jorum and summer savory; cake 
baking, candy making, nut shelling, birch 
bark and rustic work; and others can be 
added. Those who can themselves sell 
direct at retail, early, fresh, well selected 
vegetables or flowers, will of course get 
the largest prices. 

The thing that is necessary is to 
make a beginning — now. To wait 
for another year is needlessly to sacri- 
fice not only well-being, but lives. Do 
not be discouraged because the season 
is already advanced. There are crops 
that can profitably be planted as late as 

Treatment of Children 

Child The Connecticut legislature 

Legislation hag passed a bin fixing a 

Connecticut, penalty for causing delin- 
quency or dependency of children, which 
provides that "Any parent, guardian, or 
other person who shall by any act or neg- 
lect cause, encourage, contribute to, or be 
responsible for such conduct or condition 
of any child under sixteen years of age as 
by statute is made cause for the commitment 
of such child to the Connecticut school for 

boys, the Connecticut industrial school for 
girls, or a county temporary home, shall be 
fined not more than five hundred dollars, 
or imprisoned not more than six months, or 
both. The court may impose conditions 
upon any person convicted under the pro- 
visions of this act, and so long as such 
person shall comply therewith to the satis- 
faction of the court the sentence imposed 
may be suspended." "While we have no 
separate juvenile court," says David I. 


Charities and The Commons 

May 25 

Green, superintendent of the Hartford Char- 
ity Organization Society, "juvenile cases are 
heard separately in chambers and as we 
have an efficient probation system it seems 
to us we now have the essential features of 
juvenile court work." 

This Connecticut legislation is another 
outgrowth of articles published in Chaei- 
ties and The Commons on juvenile court 

Care of Three leading specialists of 
Babies in Baltimore have prepared for 
Institutions. the supe rvisors of the city 
charities a set of requirements for institu- 
tional caring for children. As to air space 
each baby should have 1,000 cubic feet and 
abundant porch space should be provided 
for each baby. There should be provision 
for satisfactory fumigation after infectious 
diseases, and a ward should be held in re- 
serve for the reception of infectious dis- 
eases. There should be an experienced 
trained nurse for each twenty babies and 
there should be a nursery maid or other at- 
tendant serving under the direction of the 
nurse for every four babies. Each baby 
should spend at least four hours in the open 
air subject to the direction of the physician. 
The milk supplied to all babies should be 
subject to repeated chemical and bacterio- 
logical examination by the city health de- 
partment, and should contain no more. than 
100,000 bacteria to the cubic centimeter. 
The minimum quantity of whole milk sup- 
plied to each baby should be: Under one 
month, one-half pint; between one and three 
months, one pint; over three months, one 
quart. Institutions caring for young babies 
should have suitable apparatus for steriliz- 
ing milk, subject to the approval of the city 
health department. At least twenty nap- 
kins should be supplied to each baby. The 
napkins should be boiled after being soiled. 

Hebrew The directors of the Hebrew 
OnSdSf Sheltering Guardian Society 
Society. of New York (orphan asy- 
lum) have decided that the time has come 
for a complete change of system. 

The institution, when completed, will re- 
semble as far as possible a model village, 
with its semi-public buildings, its place of 
worship, its hospital, gymnasium, its dwell- 
ing houses, farms and internal sources of 
supply with intercourse from one to the 
other, and all the interest and activity of 
normal, healthy, village communal life. 

The site purchased is at Pleasantville in 
Westchester county, and comprises about 
150 acres, situated in a high, broad valley, 
surrounded by wooded hills, which serve to 
shield it from undue exposure in the winter 

It is less than two miles from the build- 
ings of the Jewish Protectory and Aid Soci- 
ety, which have just been erected at Haw- 
thorne, and it is hoped that much mutual 
advantage will be gained by the proximity 
of the two institutions. 

A circular plateau in approximately the 
center of the site, will be the location of the 
group of buildings. The remaining land 
will be devoted to a farm colony, vegetable 
gardens, pasturage, playgrounds, the athletic 
field and outdoor gymnasium. The land has 
been operated for a farm, and will lend it- 
self admirably for the purpose of the farm 
school, which it is intended to make one of 
the features of the institution. 

Harry Allan Jacobs and Max G. Heidel- 
berg, associated architects, have been com- 
missioned to design the buildings. When 
the institution is completed it will accommo- 
date about one thousand children, but for 
the present it is contemplated to build suffi- 
cient to house about two hundred and fifty 
(250). As additional money is raised, the 
additional buildings will be erected. 

It is hoped that memorials will be insti- 
tuted in the form of cottages, which will be 
named after those in whose honor they are 

The group will comprise an administration 
building and schoolhouse, technical shops, a 
laundry and general storage supply build- 
ing, a model farm building, superintendent's 
house, and about twelve cottages. Eventu- 
ally it is intended to erect a synagogue and 
gymnasium and the additional cottages. A 
cottage unit of twenty-eight has been deter- 
mined upon. Each cottage will resemble a 
simple, inexpensive home. Each cottage will 
contain in addition to the dormitories, a 
dining room, a kitchen, a large living room, 
the house mother and teacher's rooms and 
the lavatories. 

A hospital and detention cottage is to be 
erected, containing the usual equipment of 
a small village hospital. In addition to the 
hospital several isolated pavilions will be 
erected for use in case of an epidemic of a 
contagious sickness. 

Not the least interesting feature of the in- 
stitution will be the model farm colony. It 
is proposed to erect concrete cow barns and 
stables, chicken runs, silos and all the nec- 
essary plant for a sanitary farm colony. 
The work of construction on the buildings is 
to be begun in the spring. 

Adolph Lewisohn is president of the He- 
brew Sheltering Guardian Society, Mr. Al- 
bert Lewisohn, treasurer, and Mr. Joseph L. 
Buttenwieser, chairman of the building com- 

Hebrew A death rate of only 3.76 per 
Infant Asylum, cent in a total of two nun- 
New York. dred and sixty-six children 
all under the age of four years, is the 
record reported by the trustees of the 
Hebrew Infant Asylum, New York, in re- 
viewing the work of the year just past. 
This result is the more extraordinary when 
considered in the light of the fact that it is a 
congregate institution with practically no fa- 
cilities for isolation, and that during the 
whole of last winter the asylum was under 
quarantine with the exception of four weeks. 
The directors of the asylum are now endeav- 


Treatment of Children 


oring to secure funds for the new building 
designed to meet the special problems arising 
in the care of infants. There are to be two 
buildings, the smaller one a hospital and 
isolation ward and the larger one the insti- 
tution proper which will be divided into 
several wings each of which will contain its 
own dormitory, play room and kindergarten; 
any wing can at any time be completely shut 
off from the others. The capacity of the 
new home will be about three hundred, 
which more than doubles the present capac- 
ity. Benno Neuberger has been succeeded 
as president by Charles Dittman. 

The new buildings are to be situated at 
Kingsbridge road and Aqueduct avenue, just 
in the rear of the Roman Catholic Orphan 

Jewish The Allgemeine Zeitung is 

ChHdraiin authority for the statement 
Germany. that in commemoration of 
the twenty-fifth wedding anniversary of the 
emperor a new institution is to be founded 
immediately for Jewish defective children. 
An appropriation has already been made for 
a building fund, and the institution is to be 
opened as speedily as possible. It appears 
from the article quoted that with the ex- 
ception of the care given to deaf and dumb 
children other Jewish defectives are not 
cared for in Germany and that even the ar- 
rangements for the care of the deaf and 
dumb are inadequate to meet the demands. 
It is pointed out that in Vienna there ex- 
ists a National Jewish Blind Asylum and 
also an excellent Jewish Asylum for the 
Deaf and Dumb. 

Appended to the article is a statistical 
table showing the location of the Jewish or- 
phan asylums throughout the German em- 
pire, the number of their inmates, their fin- 
ancial resources and the cost of their main- 
tenance. The statistics are concluded with 
a graphic contrast showing a statement of 
the same character concerning the one 
asylum for the deaf and dumb in the whole 
empire. The statement shows that this 
asylum cares for twice as many inmates as 
the orphan asylum having the smallest fin- 
ancial resource, and that it does this on one- 
tenth of the amount possessed by the orphan 
asylum with which it is directly contrasted. 

After a year's trial of the 

SyracSIe. 111 P r ° bati <>n system in the po- 
lice court of Syracuse, N. Y., 
Lloyd L. Cheney, the chief probation officer 
■of the city, gives some crude, but neverthe- 
less interesting figures regarding the pe- 
cuniary saving of probation to Syracuse. 

"The total amount appropriated by the 
city last year (1906) for children's court 
and probation work was $1,500. When it is 
considered that Syracuse, like other cities, 
has hundreds of thousands of dollars in- 
vested in jails, criminal courts and peni- 
tentiaries, and expends annually an equally 
vast sum in maintaining its policemen, sher- 
iffs, jailors and penal institutions, and that 

over half of the criminals are among the 
young men, it would seem a most wise and 
economic policy on the part of the adminis- 
tration to make the expenditure of this 
small sum for the prevention of crime among 
the youths of the city. In giving any figures 
for the past year it must be remembered 
that the probation system proper was in 
vogue only since May. 

"During the year ninety juveniles were 
placed on probation. Of this number fif- 
teen were afterward committed to institu- 
tions. Of the remaining seventy-five it is 
safe to assume that under the old system 
at least one-third, or twenty-five, would have 
been committed to some institution. The 
average time of commitment would have 
been at least one year, at a minimum ex- 
pense of $200 per individual. This would 
have meant an expenditure of $5,000. Dur- 
ing the year 192 adults were placed on 
probation, of whom twenty were afterward 
committed. That one-third of the remainder, 
or about fifty-five, would have been commit- 
ted without the probation system, for an 
average term of three months, is a conserva- 
tive estimate. At a cost of fifty cents per 
day these adults would, then, have cost the 
city $2,475. According to this estimate, the 
first year of probation in Syracuse saved the 
city $7,574, with a total expense of less than 

The system in Syracuse differs from 
that used in many cities, in that adults, as 
well as juveniles, are placed on probation. 
The efforts with adults have been quite as 
successful as with children, and there has 
been a much larger number of the former 
cases. The principal offenses charged against 
adults placed on probation are public in- 
toxication, petit larceny and non-support. 

For Train- The fifth session of the Vine- 

ing "Special" land Summer School for 
Children. Teachers at Vineland, N. J., 
opens on July 15 and continues until August 

The session is conducted by the New Jer- 
sey Training School for feeble minded boys 
and girls. 

The purpose of the school is to give pro- 
fessional training to those who desire to 
teach in the special classes in the public 
schools and to fit teachers and others to 
better understand peculiar, backward and 
"special" children. 

The work is carried on along three lines: 

1. Observing and teaching the feeble mind- 
ed children in their school rooms, directed 
by the principal of the schools, Miss Alice 
F. Morrison. 

2. Laboratory work in examining, testing 
and studying feeble-minded children, direct- 
ed by the chief of the paidological staff, Dr. 
Henry H. Goddard. 

3. Lectures, quizzes and assigned reading 
by the superintendent and members of the 

E. R. Johnstone is superintendent of the 


National Jewish Hospital, Denver. — The 
National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives 
at Denver is making preparations "for 
its annual meeting on June 9. At that 
time the new women's pavilion will be 
opened, the Adolph Lewisohn Chapel dedi- 
cated and a ward endowed in memory of 
the late Leo M. Levi, will be opened with 
appropriate ceremonies. A new solarium 
for the Guggenheim pavilion is to be com- 
pleted by the dedication day. It has been 
suggested to the trade school of the hospital 
by the South Bend Concrete Machinery Com- 
pany that the patients be taught the manu- 
facture of hollow concrete blocks. 

New Settlement, Kansas City. — A new 
settlement house that will have a day 
nursery, kindergarten, night school, free 
baths and a dispensary has been op- 
ened by the United Jewish Charities of 
Kansas City, Mo. Miss Maria Binswrengler 
of Port Worth, Texas, will be in charge of 
the settlement work. 

Social Courses in Philadelphia. — The sec- 
ond year of the "Course in Social Work" 
at the University of Pennsylvania is nearing 
a successful close. It has filled a need in 
the city and its success in the future is as- 
sured. The object of the course is similar 
to that of the School of Philanthropy of 
New York city, i. e., to give a scientific train- 
ing to those engaged or interested in social 
work. The work for 1907 has been under 
the able direction of Dr. Samuel McCune 
Lindsay, Dr. James T. Young and Dr. Carl 
Kelsey. Lectures have been given by heads 
of various local charities as well as by some 
of those of neighboring cities. The work 
included two lectures a week and various 
field trips to the surrounding institutions 
in order that the student may face some of 
the problems involved in class discussions. 

Fitchburg Tuberculosis Movement. — A 
movement has been organized among 
members of Fitchburg Ministers' Union, 
Fitchburg Woman's Club, Fitchburg Medical 
Club, for an organization for the promotion 
of education as to treatment of tuberculosis, 
with the ultimate end of establishing an iso- 
lation hospital for advanced cases. A pro- 
visional committee consists of Dr. E. P. 
Miller, Dr. F. H. Thompson, Dr. A. P. Mason, 
Mrs. J. G. Faxon, the Rev. E. B Saunders, 
Charles E. Ware and Mabel M. Cook. 

Jewish Communal Interests, Cleveland. — 
The union of Jewish organizations is the 
latest combination of fraternal orders and 
synagogues in Cleveland. Some fifty insti- 
tutions are represented in the union by dele- 
gates. The object is to have a central body 
representative of Jewish communal interests. 

National Farm School. — The National 
Farm School, at Farm School, Bucks County, 
Pa., opened its new class on April 1. The 
school aims to educate lads between the ages 
of sixteen and twenty-one in practical and 
scientific agriculture. It was founded nine 
years ago by Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, of Phila- 
delphia. The Board of the school has sev- 
eral scholarships to offer to acceptable appli- 
cants recommended by societies and organi- 

Milwaukee Society of Sanitary and Moral 
Education. — In October, 1906, a movement 
was started in Milwaukee for the formation 
of an organization to combat social diseases. 
The Milwaukee Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Education is the result of this move- 
ment. There are some fifty charter mem- 
bers, numbering prominent professional men 
of the city. The officers are : Honorary pres- 
ident, Geo. H. Noyes; president, Chas. H. 
Beale, D. D.; vice-presidents, John M. Beffel, 
M. D.; E. W. Kellogg, M. D.; Mrs. Julia 
Kurtz; secretaries, corresponding, J. W. 
Coon, M. D.; recording, Mrs. Jas. A. Stewart, 
treasurer Jas. K. Ilsley; executive commit- 
tee, Chas. H. Beale, M. D., John M. Beffel, 
M.D., E. W. Kellogg, M. D., Mrs. Julia Kurtz, 
J. W. Coon, M. D., Mrs. Jas. A. Stewart. 

Baltimore's Tuberculosis Hospital. — The 
new tuberculosis hospital for Baltimore, for 
which $25,000 were given at the first annual 
meeting of the Federated Jewish Charities, 
has now received assurance of support. 
Twenty men have each promised $500 for 
the next three years toward its maintenance. 

To Country and Cottage. — Two of the old- 
est Hebrew Orphan Asylums in America are 
putting themselves in line for the modern 
equipment of cottage institutions or sound- 
ing the alarm for such a move. The Cleve- 
land Orphan Asylum has appointed a com- 
mittee to study the cottage plan in its pos- 
sible application to their specific needs con- 
sisting of Messrs. M. A. Marks, S. Levi, J. 
Furth, A. Waldheim, Sam W. Trost, Emil 
Joseph, Superintendent Wolfenstein and his 
assistant, Mr. Peiser. At the Hebrew Or- 
phan Asylum of New York city at its an- 
nual meeting on Sunday, April 28, it was 
announced that the institution was looking 
for land and expected to move into the 
country at some time in the near future. 
There was an exhibition drill at this annual 
meeting and a most interesting exhibit of 
work of the pupils of the manual training 
and carpentry classes. 

Jewish Families in the Northwest. — The 
Jewish Agriculturists' Aid Society of Chi- 
cago has aided thirty families to locate on 
farms in the Northwest and of these four- 


9 o7 



teen purchased farms and twelve entered 
claims for homesteads on free government 
lands. The families are all Russians. 

Simplified Spelling. — Shade of Dickens! 
The sociological section of the American 
Association for the Study and Prevention of 
Tuberculosis in session in Washington this 
month agreed that "for purposes of educa- 
tion, people do not expectorate; they spit." 

Beth-El Sisterhood, New York. — The Beth- 
El Sisterhood of New York has moved 
from its old quarters in East 57th 
street to the new building in East 63rd 
street which was dedicated on Sunday, April 
7. The new building is a four-story struc- 
ture of Harvard brick and white granite 
and its accommodations are so much su- 
perior to the old quarters that the sisterhood 
expects to be able to extend its work to a 
very considerable extent especially in the 
direction of its day nursery and kindergar- 
ten, for which excellent facilities have been 
provided, including a spacious dining room 
on the first floor where the children of work- 
ing mothers will be provided with their 
noon-day meal. The upper floors are devoted 
to club rooms, kindergarten work, library 
and play rooms and there is a roof garden 
for summer work. Mrs. Lazarus Kohns is 
president of the sisterhood. 

Boys' Clubs in London. — The diffi- 
culties that beset a boys' club in 
London seem to be practically those which 
we must face here. The South London 
Jewish Lads' Club states in its second an- 
nual report, just issued, that its troubles 
consist in lack of financial support, insuffi- 
cient advertisement — and most familiar of 
all — lack of managers and really capable 
and interested workers. Although the mem- 
bership consists of nearly fifty boys, and 
the club team has been particularly success- 
ful in athletics, they fear that the lack of 
interest in the club as a social center will 
lead to the abandonment of all social work. 

Junior Republic in California. — Actuated 
by the appeals of William R. George on be- 
half of the nation's younger generation, and 
his advocacy of junior republics in various 
parts of the country, a woman, who refuses 
to allow her name to be made public, has 
given $5,000 for the establishment of such 
a community in southern California. The 
gift is conditional upon the raising of a sim- 
ilar amount for the same purpose. 

Settlement Work in Africa. — The settle- 
ment movement has reached even far away 
Johannesburg where the newly formed Mac- 
cabean Society intends to maintain a Jewish 
working men's club, modelled on the lines 
of Toynbee Hall. The club hopes to pro- 
vide a center for Jewish social work and 
will inaugurate the usual classes and so- 
cial features as well as university extension 

Bellevue Nurses 3 School. — At the com- 
mencement exercises of the class of 1906 of 

the Bellevue Training School for Nurses, 
New York, it was announced that the con- 
tract had been let for the construction of the 
school's new five-story building on the block 
along the water front from East Twenty- 
fifth to East Twenty-sixth Street. Construc- 
tion will be started immediately and the 
building should be completed by the fall of 
1908. It was also announced that there will 
be some changes in the organization of the 
school. The institution has been requested 
to provide nurses for the allied hospitals. 
To undertake this work it will be necessary 
to alter its organization. The position of 
general superintendent of training schools 
has been created, and Miss Annie Goodrich 
has been appointed. 

To Visiting Nurses. — The Minnesota State 
Graduate Nurses' Association desiring to 
entertain nurses, attending the National 
Conference of Charities and Correction, re- 
quest that all nurses planning to be in Min- 
neapolis at that time, will kindly send their 
names to Miss Marie R. Jamme, Visiting 
Nurse Committee, City and County Building, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Charity Federation in Memphis. — The 
same story of success through federation 
of charities comes from Memphis, Tenn., at 
the completion of its first year of work done 
in this way, as comes from the other 
cities that have tried the plan. The Feder- 
ation of Jewish Charities reports through its 
president, Emil Nathan, that the outlook is 
most hopeful for even greater success in the 
second year. The application of ten Rus- 
sian families for the establishment of a col- 
ony was acted upon by the federation and a 
stock company capitalized at three thousand 
dollars. The ten families are now located 
on farms near Des Arc, Arkansas. The ex- 
pense of administering the federation was 
less than one-fifth of one per cent of the 
budget, the entire work being done by vol- 

A Summer Home Investment. — What 
seems to have been one of the best invest- 
ments in real estate ever made by a philan- 
thropic organization is that of the New 
York Children's Aid Society at Coney Island. 
In 1885 it purchased Lot 37 — a strip 300 
feet wide, crossing the island from the At- 
lantic ocean to Gravesend bay — for $6,765. 
Only the block facing the ocean was desired 
and there is a legend that the society of- 
fered the marsh land at the rear for $100 
to the real estate man who arranged the 
transaction. But it was refused. Last year 
this marsh land to the northward of Surf 
avenue was sold for $70,000, and there is 
now a proposal made by Comptroller Metz 
that the society sell the remaining block of 
land to the city to be used as a park, taking 
part value in land on Rockaway Beach, to 
which the home for mothers and sick chil- 
dren would be transferred. A friend of the 
society recently estimated the worth of the 
remainder of the property at something like 
fifty times the original purchase price. 


Charities and The Commons 

Departmental Federation. — Federation and 
unification being in the air, a conference was 
called of the Hebrew Educational Society 
of Brooklyn, the Educational Alliance of 
New York, the Young Men's Hebrew Associ- 
ation and the Harlem Federation to consider 
the feasibility of improving departmental 
work by the engagement of a specialist in 
each deparment who would have supervision 
of the work in his department in all of these 
organizations. As a result of the confer- 
ence it was thought advisable to begin with 
the club work. The conference met at the 
call of Felix Wlarburg, who appointed as a 
committee to consider the question in detail, 
Judge Greenbaum of the Educational Alli- 
ance, S. F. Rothschild of the Brooklyn Sor 
ciety, Dr. M. H. Harris of the Harlem Fed- 
eration, and Percival S. Menken of the Y. M. 
H. A. 

Superintendent of Inspection. — The New 
York State Civil Service Commission will 
hold a competitive examination on June 15, 
1907, for the position of superintendent of 
inspection, salary $2,500 per year. The po- 
sition is an extremely important one. 

Dinner to Governor Hughes. — The New 
York Association of Neighborhood Workers 
will give a dinner to Governor Hughes at 
Clinton Hall on Thursday evening, June 6. 
Tickets may be obtained from Dr. James H. 
Hamilton, University Settlement, 184 Eld- 
ridge street. 



To the Editor: 

Don't class us with Pennsylvania. Rhode 
Island is bad enough, but not quite that. 
Our children must go to school until they 
are fourteen — full school year — since Janu- 
ary, 1907. 

Harriet E. Thomas, 


To the Editor: 

Among the varied suggestions that have 
been made through Charities and The 
Commons and elsewhere concerning the lines 
of work that might be undertaken by the 
Sage Foundation, the writer has looked in 
vain for that of one form of inquiry which 
would seem to hold a promise of most help- 
ful and instructive results. 

A study of at least half a dozen of the 
smaller American cities such as Rowntree 
made of York, England, in his Poverty; a 
Study of Town Life, would not only be use- 
ful in itself but might also be made to show 
in their true bearings toward the life of 
the country at large the facts obtained by 
means of the various investigations carried 
on in the great cities. 

To bring the best results these suggested 

investigations should be made by forces of 
trained workers sufficiently large to com- 
plete them inside a year. The advantages 
of so doing are obvious and, if none of the 
towns selected were larger than York, with 
a little careful planning this could easily 
be done. That it is a thing well worth 
doing and one of the things that the gift 
of the Sage millions makes possible is the 
earnest belief of 

An Interested Outsider. 

Employment Exchange. 

Address all communications to Miss Helen M. Kelsey, 
Editor Employment Exchange of Charities ajnd Thb 
Commons, Room 535, 156 Fifth Avenue. Kindly enclose 
postage if a reply is desired. 

YOUNG woman who is to be graduated from 
one of the large colleges in June, wishes 
an opportunity to take up social work in 
the Fall. Has held positions of responsibility- 
requiring executive ability in student organiza- 
tions. Must be entirely self-supporting. (D726) 

WOMAN of experience in teaching and or- 
ganizing Sunday school work desires posi- 
tion as supervisor of instruction in Sun- 
day school where modern methods are desired. 

WANTED — Woman with some training or ex- 
perience to become head-worker of an 
Italian settlement in Colorado. The 
work has been carried on for three years and is 
well established. (1634) 

WANTED— Men of experience for openings as 
Superintendents of Boys' Clubs, both in the East 
and the Middle West. (1589, 1594) 


ANTED— Young man as resident for winter in 
Suburban settlement Board at reduced rate 
in return for two evenings' work. (1593) 

ANTED— Young women residents-in-training in 
a settlement in Eastern city. Amount of salary 
sufficient only to cover cost of board and room. 


WANTED— Woman of experience to expand the 
work of a well-established settlement con- 
ducted in connection with a church in an east- 
ern city. (1555) 

WANTED— A general secretary for neighborhood 
work on a large scale of over 20 years" standing. 
Chiefly among Italians, Hebrews and Negroe-. 
Office forces of 12 clerks, Clubs and Work well estab- 
lished and prosperous. Visiting Nursing, Rainy Day 
Clubs. Pasteurized Milk Station, Library, etc. (1588) 

The Beth Israel Hospital 


offers a two years' course in the study of nursing to 
women from 21 to 33 years of age, with High School 
education. An allowance of $7.00 and $10.00 
per month is made for uniforms and books. 
For information address. 

Superintendent School of Nurses, 


Cherry Street, New York City. 

"Well furnisHed flat, 6 rooms and 
batH, near Battery; convenient to all 
transportation; for rent June 1-Oct. 1. 
China, linen and silver-ware in- 
cluded. Suitable for teachers, sum- 
mer students, settlement worKers, etc. 
Albert deRoode,79 Wall St., N.Y.City 



Director of the rV-ussell Sage Foundation for the 
Betterment of Social Conditions 

Mr. Glenn was President of 

the National Conference of Charities 

and Correction in 1901 


AND The Commons 

THe New View 

A Foreword by tHe ILditor 


Mr. Howells's latest heroine is a rich American woman who does go through 
the eye of the needle, and who sees things in her former American home, at a 
distance, from an Altrurian point of view, much as Alice in her travels beyond .the 
looking-glass might have seen the things of her ordinary girlhood, when Humpty 
Dumpty or the Caterpillar asks her about them. Among the subjects upon which 
the American heiress discourses to her new friends in Altruria is the treatment of 
crime, and especially the treatment in America of the families of prisoners in 
penitentiaries and reformatories. The Altrurians do not object to the policy of 
making these prisoners work, but they regard it as outrageous that the state 
should take away their wages and leave their families to suffer for want of the 
support which they have deprived them of. They say this is punishing the 
mothers and sisters, the wives and children, of the prisoners, and is like putting 
out the eyes of an offender's innocent relatives, as they have read w^s done in 
Oriental countries. When the Altrurians asked their informant whether there 
was never any sort of protest against such an atrocious perversion of justice, the 
American is obliged to own that she has never heard the system even criticized. 
"Perhaps," she adds diffidently, "it has been, but I spoke only from my own 

Probably Mr. Howells is under no constraint to charge his characters with 
personal knowledge of what goes on in prison congresses and conferences of 
charities, else she would have had to say that she had heard frequent criticism 
of the system to which she refers. There is, however, justification for the as 
sumption that our system of dealing with crime and criminals, their families 
and their victims, is not subjected to the radical and persistent criticism which 
its stupidity and inefficiency demand. As we write in a journal of practical phil- 
anthropy and not for entertainment, we do not attempt the impossible task of 
treating the subject with the light touch and the gentle irony which give charm to 
Mr. Howells's contrast between Altruria and the United States. We must use 
more literal and direct methods of expression ; we are on this side of the look- 
ing glass, and seek no miracles. 

Assuming, then, private property, and such degree of selfishness as we find 
in human nature, and such capacity for self government as exists in American 
countries, are we to be satisfied with our present methods of dealing with crime, 
and especially with the attitude of society towards those who are only charged 
with crime? 

First of all, it is certainly most unsatisfactory that the police force, courts, 
and prisons are to a great extent known and admitted to be integral parts of a 
"system" organized primarily for personal profit and held together — quite as 
much as when the phrase was coined — by the "cohesive power of public plunder." 


238 Charities and The Commons June 1 

It will hardly be denied that in New York, Chicago, and other cities, a few men 
in and out of the police departments are deriving revenues from saloons, pool 
rooms and other gambling houses, race tracks, wire-tapping establishments, 
disorderly houses, pickpockets and other classes of professional criminals, as 
well as from business men, from pushcart peddlers up, who pay for immunity 
from molestation. Until police systems from inspector to patrolman, judges, 
magistrates, clerks, and prison officials from the highest down, get free from the 
"system," no patriotic American will find it easy to defend our treatment of crime 
from scornful and contemptuous criticism. This is not the place to explain the 
workings of the "system" — its relation to the political machine, the awarding of 
public and private contracts, and the employment of large numbers of men. 
It is enough to point out that, although the "system" has other rank offenses for 
which to answer, it is not the least of its offending that it permits neither humanity 
nor efficiency in the relation between the community and the criminal. 

The essential feature of a social, as distinct from a corrupt and anti-social 
police system, is that it shall strive to prevent crime, neither on the one hand 
laying snares for the weak, nor on the other "standing in" with the successful 
criminal, sharing in his plunder and giving protection to such as pay for it. 

It is no doubt altrurian to imply that even by the display of the utmost 
vigilance and wisdom, the police and other educational and protective agencies 
can always prevent the commission of crime. It is not altrurian, but in the 
strictest sense American and practical, to insist that our expensive and often 
farcical' trials, our futile short terms of imprisonment, our brutality in police 
stations, courts and prisons, our grossly inequitable fines, all tempered by alliances 
between officials and criminals, and prevented from assuming even an external 
appearance of justice by the arbitrary and unequal sentences imposed by different 
magistrates for identical offenses — that this is not a sensible way of meeting 
the responsibility of society towards the actual criminal. It would be altrurian, 
no doubt, to suggest that under existing conditions thieves and malefactors should 
be pitied and set at liberty. It is not altrurian, but in accordance with American 
ideas and practical common sense, to propose that • there shall be some ade- 
quate and permanent disposition of each case as it arises, and that the inexcusable 
delays, the unnecessary and indefensible hardships, the "third degree" and 
other forms of police torture, the stupid blunders, the absurd verdicts, and the 
inconsequential sentences shall be reformed altogether out of existence. 

Details may come later. We are concerned at present only with the point 
of view, and we wish to make it clear that the ordinary view, the old view 
which still prevails generally in courts, jails, and police systems, is obsolete, 
anti-social, and atrocious. It is pessimistic and cynical at bottom when it is not 
corrupt. It assumes that courts and police may play fast and loose with justice; 
that any outcome which can be squared with precedents and the face of the evi- 
dence will serve; that each man who forms a link in the chain of criminal 
procedure, from legislature and governor who make the laws, through policeman, 
prosecuting attorney, and inferior court, to the court of appeals, and the prison 
administration, and to the ordinary citizen, to whom in the last analysis all of 
these are responsible, may shift the responsibility for that which is wrong, with 
never a searching inquiry anywhere as to what is wrong and who is responsible. 

It is the new view that all this elaborate scheme and legislation and police ad- 
ministration is literally, as we often glibly say without appreciating its meaning, 
for the purpose of preventing crime, and it is the application of this new view to 
practice that each particular offender who puts himself at odds with society shall 
be so dealt with that he will either voluntarily or by compulsion cease to carry on 

1907 The New View 239 

such conflict. In the majority of criminal trials we pursue a course which is 
obviously, and demonstrably, having diametrically the opposite effect. 

It is sometimes said that the four pillars of organized charity are (1) 
investigation, (2) registration, (3) co-operation, and (4) friendly visiting. Pre- 
cisely these four principles are needed in criminal jurisprudence, and they are all 
conspicuously absent. There is no such inquiry into the circumstances of the 
alleged offense and the character and usual conduct of the alleged 
offender as will enable an intelligent decision to be reached by those who 
are to pronounce upon his guilt or innocence, and by those who should 
be held responsible in case of conviction for his future reconciliation 
with society. There is no such registration as will bring to bear upon future 
similar decisions, knowledge and experience of this kind once gained. There 
is no genuine co-operation even among the various branches of the state which 
are charged with different parts of the police function considered as a whole ; 
and there is no such introduction of the element of personal interest in the wel- 
fare of convicts, no such evidence of human fellowship, as will make reconcilia- 
tion the natural and easiest course. Here and there a chaplain, or a keeper, or 
a personal friend of prisoners, may supply the place for which society makes no 
systematic and adequate provision, but such exceptional instances only serve 
by their radiance to make darker the habitual indifference and neglect. 

The new view of crime, as of abject poverty, is that it may be eliminated. It 
will not be eliminated by revolutionary changes in our economic system, how- 
ever desirable such changes may appear on their own account, but only by the 
application of science to its specific problems, only by action after open-eyed 
seeing and serious thinking on the particular defects which are to be remedied 
and on the specific remedies which are proposed. 


The Field Department of Charities and The Commons is maintained co- 
operatively by the sixteen leading charity organization societies of the country, 
for the exchange of information, schedules, pamphlets, and the like; the publi- 
cation of propaganda leaflets ; and the extension of the spirit of organizing char- 
ity. Mary E. Richmond, secretary of the Philadelphia Society for Organizing 
Charity is editor, and Francis H. McLean, superintendent of the Brooklyn Bureau 
of Charities, associate. At a meeting of Charities Publication Committee in 
New York last week Mr. McLean reported notable development of the work of 
the extension branch during its initial six months. During that period the asso- 
ciate editor has been in correspondence with groups of people in the following 
places : 

Austin, Tex. Fitzgerald, Ga. Portsmouth, N. H. 

Belmont, N. Y. Hazelton, Pa. Parkersburg, W. Va. 

Birmingham, Ala. Jacksonville, Fla. Pontiac, 111. 

Charlotte, N. C Knoxville, Tenn. Port Huron, Mich. 

Columbus, Miss. Louisville, Ky. Pocatello, Idaho. 

Colorado Springs, Col. Muskegon, Mich. Reading, Pa. 

Englewood, N. J. Norristown, Pa. Richmond, Va. 

Frankfort, Ky. Newburyport, Mass. Springfield, 111. 

Fort Worth, Tex. Pittsburg, Pa. Toledo, Ohio. 

240 Charities and The Commons 

In addition to. the above the pamphlets of the Field Department have been 
sent, in varying quantities, as requested, to individuals or groups of individuals 
in the following cities: 

Chicago, 111. Dorchester, Mass. Evanston, 111. 

Iowa City, la. Jamestown, N. Y. Kansas City, Mo. 

Cincinnati, Ohio Brooklyn, N. Y. Brookline, Mass. 

Buffalo, N. Y. Baltimore, Md. Boston, Mass. 

Cambridge, Mass. Charlotte, N. C. New York, N. Y. 

Quincy, Mass. Springfield, Mass. 

Thus in forty-five cities the Field Department has been called upon for service of 
various kinds and of various values. As in all educational work it is difficult to say 
now just how much ground is gained. It is pleasant to note, however, that the Field 
Department has been informed that in a number of cases its suggestions have already 
been of immediate value. For instance, the Louisville, Ky., society reports that it has 
now developed the first real co-operation in the history of the society. The Young 
Women's Christian Association of Knoxville, Tenn., which has been doing ordinary relief 
work in that city, has decided that the men must organize a charity organization society 
and the Field Department has been requested to correspond directly with twelve or 
fifteen men in that city, in an effort to get them awakened to conditions which exist 
there. The Colorado Springs Society, long a sort of free lance, has signed the Trans- 
portation Rules and has indicated its desire to be taken into the orthodox fold. The 
Austin people are now forwarding to the associate editor data regarding every single 
philanthropic agency in a local field as the basis for this department to suggest the spe- 
cific plan for organization. So there might be other illustrations. It is, of course, 
not expected that all of the movements will be successful but if the Field Department 
manages to influence some of the groups so that they organize on a broad and intelligent 
basis, it will certainly be worth while. Many of the societies now in existence, especi- 
ally in the western part of the country, are practically moribund. Their condition may 
be often traced to a bad organization. It is in the direction of good organization that 
we hope the Field Department may be of especial use. 

It should be added that in making specific suggestions we always seek to obtain 
as clear and definite a picture as possible of the local situation, realizing that there are 
local elements which must always be taken into account. For instance, the form of 
organization suggested for Pittsburg and Birmingham varies considerably from that 
suggested for Toledo and Knoxville. 

The various societies of the Field Department have sent in returns on a schedule 
of questions regarding public and private out-door relief in their respective cities and 
the influence which their respective societies have had upon public relief. The associate 
editor has been appointed chairman of a committee to publish suggestive case records. 
The question of printing a suggested model for a constitution which might be of use 
for new societies, is now being considered. 

A meeting of the co-operating societies will be held in Minneapolis at the time of 
the National Conference to discuss field work and co-operation with the smaller cities. 


and The Commons 

edward t. devine, editor 
Graham Taylor, Associate 
lee k. frankel, associate for 
jewish charity 

TKe Common Welfare 

Paragraphs in PHilantHropy and Social Advance 

Chicago Chicago's recent municipal 
Parks and. election involved much of 

Playgrounds. significance for the parks 

and playgrounds of the city. It was im- 
portant not so much because of the can- 
didates on the tickets, although Mayor 
Busse will have the appointment of the 
consolidated park board if the charter 
legislation passed at Springfield meets 
with similar action in the popular refer- 
endum because of the bond issues 
which the people approved by their votes. 
These included $3,000,000 for the South 
Park Board, which has the distinction 
of having established Chicago's magni- 
ficent system of recreation centers in 
small parks, and $500,000 for the Lincoln 
Park Board, whose field of operations is 
the north division of the city. The bonds 
may be issued for general new park pur- 
poses, or for additions to parks already 
established, but it was understood that 
the people urging the popular approval 
of the bond issues had very definitely in 
mind the extension of the recreation 
center system. The unequal present dis- 
tribution of these people's club houses, 
with gymnasium, swimming pool and 
playground features, is still further ac- 
centuated by the proportion of these bond 
issues which belong to the South Park 
Board. Much as it is to be regretted 
that the congested West and North sides 
have not yet come into their own, so far 
as recreation centers are concerned, it is 
practically impossible for them to con- 
template as yet the duplication of the 
South Side system. Sixty-two per cent 
of the property in Chicago assessable 
for park purposes, lies within the south 
division which happens to include the 
downtown business district. Despite the 

fact that the South Park Board has done 
well with its lion's share, for sixty-seven 
per cent of the city's park area is under 
its control, the West and North sides have 
cause for just complaint in that between 
them they have but thirty-eight per cent 
of the park funds to divide. What this 
means for the masses of people on these 
two sides is readily appreciated by any- 
one familiar with their vast congested 
districts, which have no counterpart on 
the South Side. Whatever the defects 
of the park consolidation measure passed 
by the legislature, it has elemental jus- 
tice in that it provides that park taxes 
from the city as a whole shall be ex- 
pended on a unified park system for the 
whole city. The proposed board to be 
appointed by the mayor, consists of nine 
members, three from each side of the 
city. Thus far the South Park Board 
has expended in four years $6,500,000 
in establishing the ten recreation centers 
now in operation. It is reported that 
the $3,000,000 new bond issue will be 
available for recreation centers in new 
small parks yet to be acquired. Accord- 
ing to a communication of President 
Henry G. Foreman, the recommenda- 
tions of which were adopted by the board, 
recreation centers are to be established 
in the two large parks of the South Side 
system, — Washington and Jackson. 
While the South Side can point with 
pride to the vast total of $9,500,000 which 
it will have invested wisely in recreation 
centers, the West Side is now able to see 
that its $1,000,000 voted two years ago, 
will soon bear fruit. Three small parks 
with recreation centers will before long 
be fully established in the neediest por- 
tions of its tenement house population. 


Chanties and The Commons 

June 1 

The largest of these, eight acres, already 
has the land provided at a cost of about 
$160,000, located near Northwestern 
University Settlement, and not more than 
three-quarters of a mile from Chicago 
Commons. It will serve both the seven- 
teenth and sixteenth wards, the latter 
densely crowded with Poles, and the 
former with nearly as crowded a popu- 
lation of Poles, Italians and Scandina- 
vians. The disposition of the $500,000 
for the North Side, authorized at this 
year's election is yet undetermined. A 
few people wish to see it expended for 
small beauty spots and playgrounds in 
congested neighborhoods, one of which 
would be only one and one-third acres in 
extent. These efforts are being dis- 
couraged, however, by an effective com- 
mittee which greatly desires to see the 
money spent in starting a North Side 
system of recreation centers, and feels 
that this can be done best, by putting 
most of the money into one good recrea- 
tion center in a park of several acres in 
the heart of the congested area. 

Chicago's That over five million 
Recreation people patronized Chicago's 
centers. _ ten recreation centers dur- 
ing the year ending November 30, 1906, 
is shown in the annual report of the 
South Park commissioners, recently is- 
sued. The exact number was 5,473,695. 
Quite as significant as the size of this at- 
tendance, which counts only the number 
of people who made actual use of the va- 
rious facilities, and does not include 
visitors and those who merely looked on 
at games, is its distribution. The in- 
door gymnasiums had an attendance of 
371,158, but of still greater interest is 
the fact that the number of different in- 
dividuals, as indicated by the registration 
cards, was 31,276, of which 19,535 were 
men and boys and 11,741 women and 
girls. There were 20,750 children under 
sixteen years of age attending, in the 
main, afternoon classes, and 10,519 
young men and women attending the 
evening classes. The lunch rooms had 
429,312 customers at five cents or more 
each. Other statistics of attendance are : 
Shower baths, 806,032; swimming pools, 
765,299; reading rooms, 608,274; social 
gatherings and lectures in the assembly 

halls, 186,534; use of smaller club rooms 
by 28,239; outdoor gymnasiums, 2,278,- 
847. The greatest vigilance is exercised 
to prevent accidents in the gymnasiums 
and playgrounds. In the outdoor gym- 
nasiums, playgrounds, and ball fields of 
all ten parks, there were thirty-five in- 
juries for the year. Since there are four 
distinct and separate play spaces in each 
park, there was an average of less than 
one injury for each play space. In the 
twenty indoor gymnasiums there were 
twenty-six injuries, and in the ten swim- 
ming pools there were only three injuries 
for the year. Significant indication of 
efficient business administration is fur- 
nished by the laundries and ice cream 
factory, both of which are publicly owned 
and operated by the commissioners. The 
laundering of the bathing suits and 
towels used in the shower baths and 
swimming pools, as well as the table 
linen used in the refectories, was done 
in the three laundries at Davis Square, 
Ogden Park, and Mark White Square. 
Giving the laundries credit for the work 
done at the lowest prices obtainable from 
laundrymen for the same kind of work, 
a saving, is shown of $9,999.82 for the 
year: The ice cream factory was in 
operation from May 1 to October 1, and 
furnished all of the ice cream for the re- 
fectories and lunch counters, except two. 
The total quantity made in the factory 
during the year was 27,319 gallons, and 
the cost, delivered, to the different re- 
fectories and lunch counters, was sixty- 
one and one-half cents per gallon. No 
expense was spared in the making. To 
maintain the factory cost $22,743.79, 
and the income from the sale of ice cream 
was $23,307.79. 

Deianey: The Pennsylvania legisla- 
a state ture has adjourned without 

Disgrace. passing . any child labor 

legislation. The injury inflicted upon 
the children by the decisions of Judges 
Wheaton and Stahlke, last year, has not 
been remedied by the enactment of the 
bill carefully drawn to meet their ob- 
jections to the law of 1905. The inef- 
fective and inhuman measure which re- 
mains, after their decisions destroyed 
the enforcement clauses, thus distorting 
the law and leaving it a travesty of its 

9 07 

The Common Welfare 


framers' intent, will continue for two 
years to permit children II, 12 and 13 
years of age to work under false or 
worthless certificates, 12 hours by day 
and (in some industries) 10 hours by 

This result is due to the joint efforts 
of certain manufacturing interests and 
the chief factory inspector of Pennsyl- 
vania, John C. Delaney. This official 
drafted a bill so bad that the friends of 
the children .were solidly opposed to it. 
He introduced it into the legislature 
through a representative named Hab- 
good who stated that, when he intro- 
duced the bill, he had not read it. 

After much effort on the part of the 
National and the Pennsylvania Child 
Labor Committees, amendments were 
agreed upon by the advocates of the two 
pending bills (the Townsend bill being 
that of the children's friends and the 
Habgood bill that of their enemies), as 
follows : 

(a) That the hours of labor for children 
under the age of 16 years should be limited 
to 58 in one week; 

(b) That employment certificates should 
be issued by school superintendents, school 
principals and their deputies; and 

(c) That the right to bring suits against 
law-breakers should be vested in any citizen 
of the state and not confined to the deputy 
factory inspectors. 

Mr. Habgood would doubtless have 
agreed to these reasonable amendments 
but for pressure brought to bear upon 
him by textile and glass manufacturers 
and the factory inspection department. 

The manufacturers, too, were disposed 
to conduct a fair and honorable fight. 
The textile manufacturers consented to 
the clause fixing fifty-eight hours as the 
working week. The glass manufactur- 
ers stoutly protested against the prohi- 
bition of night-work. In this, however, 
their chief advocate was not a manufac- 
turer, but Mr. Butler, statistician of the 
Department of Factory Inspection. This 
worthy official denied the right of the 
state to interfere in any way with the 
parents' right over the child, and declar- 
ed that the entire "educational system of 
Pennsylvania is rotten from top to bot- 
tom." He made an impassioned appeal 
before the Senate committee, in which 
he said, "to issue certificates by school 

authorities, I tell you, gentlemen, that's 
going to cripple the manufacturer . . . 
and if such a bill goes through, you are 
going to have trouble with your indus- 
tries." Chief Factory Inspector Delaney 
and Mr. Butler had warned advocates of 
an effective child labor law at the begin- 
ning of the campaign that "unless you 
strike out that prohibition of nightwork, 
the glass manufacturers will come to 
Harrisburg and compel you to do so." 

Within a week of the close of the ses- 
sion the Habgood bill was called up and, 
all efforts at co-operation having been 
abandoned, the amendments proposed by 
the Child Labor Committee were brought 
forward and adopted by substantial ma- 
jorities on the floor of the house. Later, 
however, when the bill was up for final 
passage on a special order requiring a 
two-thirds vote, it was revealed that 
while a majority of the house members 
favored its .adoption, the requisite two- 
thirds vote could not be obtained. 

How Much A summary of the situa- 
oh° n penn= tion suggests the follow- 

sylvanians? ing" : 

(1) The Child Labor Committee 
through lack* of funds was unable to 
maintain a representative permanently at 
Harrisburg, who through a series of 
weeks might have educated the legisla- 
tors upon this important and difficult 
kind of legislation, to the point of intelli- 
gent and aggressive action. School su- 
perintendents and influential women 
from many clubs did effective work, and 
the Pennsylvania Child Labor Commit- 
tee did all that lay within its power. But 
incessant attention was needed on the 

(2) The manufacturers conducted 
their campaign of opposition with skill 
and intelligence, wisely sending to the 
hearings those who represent the best 
features of the various industries, rather 
than their typical features, and who were 
able to impress legislators with the time- 
worn arguments that child labor is bene- 
ficial to the children, to the families, a 
substantial asset in the public wealth and 
the salvation of manufacturing industry. 
The representative of the National Child 
Labor Committee was able to show the 
fallacy of this position; demonstrating. 


Charities and The Commons 

June i 

indeed, that the glass industry has in- 
creased more rapidly in Ohio and Illinois 
than in Pennsylvania, although both the 
former states forbid employment at night 
for children under the age of 16 years, 
and that the textile industry (which a 
manufacturer declared is being driven 
from New York by restrictive legislation) 
has developed there more rapidly since 
1900 than in Pennsylvania. Such argu- 
ments, however, during the closing days 
of the session, appeared to have little 
weight against a combination of manu- 
facturing interests and official influence. 

(3) The school authorities from vari- 
ous parts of the state proved beyond 
question the willingness of school super- 
intendents to undertake the extra labor 
involved in issuing employment certifi- 
cates to children properly entitled to 
them, and in various skirmishes routed 
those who opposed this measure on the 
theory that school superintendents would 
refuse to perform this public duty. 

(4) While even the most ardent 
advocates of good child labor laws speak 
respectfully of the frank and able oppo- 
sition of the manufacturers, no one can 
be found who does not feel that Penn- 
sylvania has been disgraced by the atti- 
tude of the Factory Inspection Depart- 
ment. These public servants appointed 
by the state to guard the life and health 
of factory toilers were so evidently deter- 
mined to serve the interests of the manu- 
facturers that all semblance of disinter- 
estedness disappeared. That such manu- 
facturers as can profit by exploiting 
young children who can legally work, by 
means of perjured affidavits, will not fail 
to reward Chief Factory Inspector De- 
laney and his "cabinet" is obvious. Are 
these public servants to be entrusted until 
another legislative session, two years 
hence, with the protection of thousands 
of little children, upon whose scantily re- 
warded labor the gigantic industries of 
the state are said to depend? 

Two Years' Two years of active work 
^SSSS 1 of the National Association 
Tuberculosis, for the Study and Preven- 
tion of Tuberculosis were outlined by Dr. 
Livingston Farrand, the executive secre- 
tary, at the recent Washington meeting 
of the association. Dr. Farrand pointed 

out that from the outset the association 
has emphasized the need of organization 
of state and local societies which should 
make the education of their respective 
communities their main care. When the 
National Association was started two 
years ago there were seven state so- 
cieties in existence, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Ohio, 
Indiana and Illinois. There are now 
fifteen formally organized, eight having 
been formed during the last two years 
in New Jersey, Delaware, North Caro- 
lina, Georgia, Kentucky, Minnesota, 
Iowa and Washington. Provision for 
organization has been practically com- 
pleted in eight others which makes twen- 
ty-three commonwealths definitely in line 
in the campaign. The distribution of 
these state societies shows a strong line 
of organization from New England 
through the north central division and 
extending down the south Atlantic coast. 
The Mississippi valley is also well in 
hand with Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois 
and Missouri alive to the problem and 
working toward its solution. On the 
Pacific coast the Washington association 
is young and vigorous and in southern 
California agitation is active which will 
soon bring about results in the entire 
commonwealth. It is evident that the 
regions at present most in need of defi- 
nite organizations are the South and far 
West. The association is planning an 
active campaign in the southern states 
during the coming year. With regard 
to local organization it was reported that 
of the thirty-eight cities of the United 
States with populations of over 100,000 
there are now definite societies for the 
prevention of tuberculosis in twenty-six. 
Of the remaining twelve of this class 
the situation is being actively canvassed 
in seven and it is hoped that the other 
five will fall in line during the coming 
year. The rapid growth of the organ- 
ized movement is shown by the fact that 
two years ago there were nineteen spec- 
ial local associations or committees for 
the prevention of tuberculosis. In May, 
1906, this number had increased to thirty- 
two, while at the present time there are 
seventy-four, an increase of nearly three 
hundred per cent in two years. Dr. 


The Common Welfare 

2 45 

Farrand laid special emphasis upon the 
work accomplished by the exhibition of 
the National Association, which was 
organized in connection with the Com- 
mittee on the Prevention of Tubercu- 
losis of the Charity Organization So- 
ciety of New York, in November, 1905. 
This has been shown during the past 
year successively in Milwaukee, Grand 
Rapids, Manistee, Detroit, Toronto, 
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Mexico City, San 
Antonio, Minneapolis, St. Paul and 
Providence. The attendance for the year 
has been 221,981, making a total attend- 
ance since its formation seventeen months 
ago, of 372,000. The exhibition is now 
at Jamestown and it is planned to send 
it through the southern states next win- 
ter. Attention was called to the number 
of local exhibitions which have sprung 
up as a result of this movement. Such 
are already in operation under the aus- 
pices of • their respective state or local 
association in New York city, Boston, 
New Jersey, Illinois and Toronto, and 
are being formed in the states 
of Rhode Island, Maryland, and 
Washington, as well as in the cities 
of Milwaukee and Washington, D. D. 

M c In practical results, the in- 

New Sana= * ' 

toriums and crease in the establishment 

Dispensaries. Qf state sanatoriums fc not . 

able. Two years ago there were four 
state sanatoriums in operation, and agi- 
tation had been begun for five others. 
At this time there is definite provision 
for seventeen operating on state lines 
of which fourteen are public foundations, 
while three are under private auspices. 
Bills have been introduced into the leg- 
islatures of many other states and the 
chances of favorable legislation in the 
immediate future are particularly good 
in at least six of these. In the program 
advocated for all local associations stress 
has been laid upon the desirability of ade- 
quate dispensary facilities as a necessary 
factor in the local campaigns. It was 
reported that during the past year eigh- 
teen new special tuberculosis dispensa- 
ries have been opened and agitation is 
in progress for their establishment in 
most of the cities in which organized 
work is now carried on. It is probable 

that this feature of treatment and pre- 
vention will be one of the most 
striking results of the immediate future. 
Another feature of the campaign of 
which special mention was made was the 
formation of the Western Tuberculosis 
Conference composed of members of the 
National Association from Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Iowa and Missouri. Two meetings of 
the conference have been held, one in 
Chicago and one in Minneapolis and a 
new impetus given to the already vigor- 
ous work of that group of states. An- 
other act of which the moral as well as 
the practical influence can hardly be over- 
estimated was President Roosevelt's or- 
der issued in February, 1906, in response 
to a resolution of the national associa- 
tion. As the result of the report of a 
special commission the president directed 
that the head of each executive depart- 
ment of the government cause to be 
printed and transmitted to all federal 
buildings under his control rules pre- 
pared by the commission to prevent the 
spread of tuberculosis in such places. 
These rules, carefully drawn up, have 
been so distributed and, particularly 
through the Post Office Department, 
have reached every corner of the United 
States in a way which no other agency 
could compass. It has always been recog- 
nized that probably the strongest aux- 
iliary that could be brought into the edu- 
cational campaign would be the co-opera- 
tion of the women of the country. After 
long preliminary negotiations the im- 
portance of the subject of tuberculosis 
and its prevention was presented at the 
annual meeting of the National Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs held in St. Paul 
in May. It was voted by that body that 
the subject should be recommended to 
all its branches as a topic of study and 
work for the next two years and the 
executive office has been in correspond- 
ence with the representatives of the 
federation in formulating a program 
which is being sent to all branches of 
that organization in furtherance of the 
plan. The federation is operating par- 
ticularly in those states and communities 
where no organized effort now exists 
and is co-operating with the National As- 


Charities and The Commons 

June 1 

sociation in its work of education and 
prevention. At the annual conference 
of physical directors of the Y. M. C. A.'s 
of the United States held in Indianapolis 
on May 30, 1906, the subject of tuber- 
culosis and its prevention was presented 
by a representative of the National As- 
sociation and following that meeting 
definite steps were taken to inaugurate 
plans of work for the year. Meetings 
were held in various centers and an out- 
line for lectures to be used by the physical 
directors was drawn up and printed in 
their official organ and the systematic 
presentation of the subject is now being 
carried out in the branches of this or- 
ganization throughout the United States. 
An outline of the plans of the associa- 
tion for the coming year along educa- 
tional lines was given, of which the pro- 
posed campaign through the southern 
states is the main feature. It seems 
reasonable to expect, that with the in- 
creased interest which is being aroused 
in all parts of the United States, the 
next two years will find the country effi- 
ciently organized in every quarter for 
the work of tuberculosis prevention. 

Final Plans Local Preparations for the 
tor National reception and entertain- 

Conference. ment Qf ^ National Con . 

ference of Charities and Correction to 
convene in Minneapolis June 12, are 
completed. Judging from the numerous 
requests for accommodations already re- 
ceived by the local committee, the attend- 
ance promises to be large and representa- 
tive. In the new City and County Build- 
ing, in Plymouth Church and in the Au- 
ditorium, seating 2,500 people, all within 
torium, seating 2,500 people, all within 
a few blocks of the hotel district, there 
are ample accommodations for all the 
various section and general meetings of 
the conference, as well as convenient 
rooms for use as committee headquar- 
ters. On Saturday afternoon, June 15, 
the delegates will be the guests of the 
city of Minneapolis on a trolley excursion 
to Lake Minnetonka, where chartered 
boats will take the visitors on a cruise 
around the lake. The Minneapolis Wo- 
men's Club will give a reception to the 
women delegates of the conference on 

Friday afternoon, June 14, in Alice 
Shevlin Hall, on the University of Min- 
nesota campus. Several delegates have 
been invited to give short talks on sub- 
jects of special interest to club women. 
On Tuesday afternoon, June 18, an op- 
portunity will be given to visit St. Paul 
as the guests of the people of that city. 
Chartered cars will be provided for the 
trip. The new state Capitol, which is 
pronounced one of the finest public 
buildings of its kind in the United States 
will be inspected and from the capitol 
the cars will go to Como Park. Here 
supper will be served by the St. Paul 
Commercial Club. Attention is called to 
the facilities in Minnesota for tak- 
ing a summer vacation before or 
after the conference. There are three 
hundred-sixty-five lakes in Minnesota 
and at a majority of them are to be found 
very desirable summer hotels and board- 
ing places at reasonable rates. Opportu- 
nities for fishing, hunting, sailing and 
bathing abound. Letters received at head- 
quarters from governors of several 
states, show the real interest that is be- 
ing manifested by these officials. The 
governor of Colorado has just sent 
his third revised list; others are fre- 
quently sending additions to lists already 
appointed. ' North Carolina is about to 
spend half a million dollars in extending 
and improving its provision for the in- 
sane. The commission appointed to have 
charge of the work is sending some of its 
members to the conference. The rail- 
road legislation of many western states, 
principally in the way of reducing fare, 
is interfering with excursion rates to 
some extent. The Bulletin for May, 
just out, gives many particulars con- 
cerning rates, as well as a complete pro- 
gram of all the meetings. Persons desir- 
ing extra copies either for themselves or 
for distribution may obtain them by writ- 
ing to Edwin D. Solenberger, City and 
County Building, Minneapolis, Minn. 

National ra Two important conven- 
chiidren's tions relating to work for 

Home Society. chiWren w j U be hdd at 

Minneapolis, June 10-12 preceding the 
National Conference. One of these, 


The Common Welfare 


the fourth annual Conference on the Edu- 
cation of Backward, Truant and Delin- 
quent Children was announced and the 
program outlined in Charities and The 
Commons for April 20. The other is 
the twenty-fourth annual meeting of the 
Children's Home Society, beginning 
Monday evening, June 10, and closing 
Wednesday evening, June 12. The Na- 
tional Children's Home Society is a fed- 
eration of twenty-seven state children's 
home societies including the New York 
Children's Aid Society, the Illinois Chil- 
dren's Home and Aid Society, the Ore- 
gon Boys and Girls' Aid Society and the 
children's home societies of California, 
Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kan- 
sas, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Min- 
nesota. Montana, Nebraska, New Jersey, 
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, 
Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Caro- 
lina, South Dakota, Texas, Virginia, 
Washington, West Virginia and Wiscon- 
sin. The united work of these federated 
societies constitutes the greatest child 
helping work in the world except that of 
the Barnardo societies in London. The 
program will include addresses from 
President Cyrus Northrop, of the Min- 
nesota State University, the first presi- 
dent of the Minnesota Children's Home 
Society; Prof. Charles R. Henderson, 
D.D., of Chicago University, president 
of the National Children's Home Society ; 
Homer Folks, secretary of the New York 
Charities Aid Association ; C. Loring 
Brace, superintendent of the New York 
Children's Aid Society, and Hastings H. 
Hart, superintendent of the Illinois Chil- 
dren's Home and Aid Socety. 

Pennsylvania : A. Grave- 
yard for Social Legislation 

Florence Lucas Sanville 

From New York comes cheering news 
of the successful enactment of a law 
limiting the work of children in factories 
to eight hours a day. Massachusetts 
has just prohibited by law the work of 
women and children in textile factories 
after six p. m. In Illinois a progressive 
factory inspector is endeavoring to ob- 
tain more effective legislation against 

the sweat-shop evil. At this legislative 
feast of her industrial peers, Pennsyl- 
vania sits — the cheerless skeleton of tra- 
dition, all the more mournful by contrast. 
Her legislature has killed or mutilated 
beyond recognition, one after another, 
measures introduced for urgently needed 
industrial or social reform. 

The history of one bill began a year 
ago when a committee composed of rep- 
resentatives of the Consumers' League 
and of fourteen other organizations, in- 
vestigated sweatshop work in Philadel- 
phia. The results of this inquiry show- 
ed so conclusively congestion and preva- 
lence of evil conditions in sweated indus- 
tries, and the utter lack of adequate regu- 
lation, that the committee felt the first 
need to be legislation which should defi- 
nitely give supervision of these condi- 
tions to the state department where it 
properly belongs, — that of factory in- 

The measure which was drawn pro- 
vided for registration, licensing, and ade- 
quate inspection of all places where goods 
afterwards to be sold are made or alter- 
ed under contract ; and it limited all work 
of this class which is carried on in a 
room connected with any part of a tene- 
ment or dwelling, to resident members 
of a family. It aimed to provide, for 
work in Pennsylvania, safeguards 
which are provided in New York and 
Massachusetts, and which the chief in- 
spector of Illinois is endeavoring to pro- 
cure for that state. 

The opponents of the bill were, as 
might have been expected, the merchant 
tailors and certain manufacturers of 
clothing. Its most active and potent 
enemy, however, was the official whose 
first interest should be to see such a 
measure enacted, — namely the chief fac- 
tory inspector of the state. The main 
arguments of the department against the 
bill (made at a Senate hearing), were 
that the inspectors of the department 
were not fit men to enforce provisions of 
a measure which would give them right 
of entrance into private houses ; second, 
that the need for such a measure does not 
exist in the state ; third, that thirty-nine 
deputies were insufficient to handle the 
work. This last argument is peculiarly 


Charities and The Commons 


significant when it is remembered that 
Commissioner Sherman, with forty-nine 
deputies for his entire state, has persist- 
ently endeavored to enforce the regula- 
tion of tenement-houses in New York 
with its infinitely more complex prob- 
lems; and Chief Inspector Davies, with 
eighteen inspectors for the state of Illi- 
nois, has been trying to have a more 
stringent law passed. 

The sw r eatshop bill passed the House 
without amendment ; failed in the Senate, 
was reconsidered and failed finally on 
May 8. 

The fate of two other bills redounds 
as little to the credit of the legislature. 
The bill of the Octavia Hill Association, 
providing for much-needed tenement in- 
spection passed both houses. But in its 
passage through the senate it was shorn 
of all requirements for tenement-houses, 
and provides merely for registration, li- 
censing and quarterly inspection, giving 
the inspectors no provisions to enforce. 
The Department of Health and Charities 
will have charge of the enforcement of 
the measure with two inspectors for 
which the bill provides. The mutilated 
bill now awaits the governor's signature. 

Most discouraging of all, perhaps, is 
the failure of all child-labor legislation 
at this session. 

This record of disaster, following so 
closely upon the Philadelphia Industrial 
Exhibit with its extensive and widespread 
public interest, is the more dishearten- 
ing. It stamps Pennsylvania as unwil- 
ling to keep pace with her neighbors in 
their effort to adjust legislation to the 
increasing pressure of economic and 
social conditions, and it involves new 
struggle to raise the state to the plane 
of intelligent humanity along which her 
industrial equals are now advancing. 

San Francisco in 1907 

Lilian Brandt 

With the president, the chairmen of 
two section committees, and other prom- 
inent members of the National Confer- 
ence of Charities and Correction in San 
Francisco, the sunny days in Philadel- 
phia last year had for their background 
the smoke and flames, the ashes and 
ruins, the tents and breadlines, of what 

the newspapers delighted to call "the 
stricken city." The conference this year 
will find that, fourteen months after the 
disaster, San Francisco would resent the 
use of this adjective. Business is going 
on most energetically, in temporary struc- 
tures or in its old homes, permanent 
buildings are going up, more places of 
amusement are open than ever before, 
and larger audiences are found in them. 

About 17,000 people are living in two 
and three-room cottages in the perman- 
ent camps, 1,300 in the homes for aged 
and infirm in Golden Gate Park and at 
the Ingleside Race Track, and about 12,- 
000 in independent, unsupervised shacks 
and tents scattered all over the city. 

The ten thousand claims for supplies 
purchased, seized, and confiscated by the 
relief authorities or taken by the refugees 
in the early days have nearly all been ad- 
justed, by an expenditure of over a mil- 
lion and a half dollars. The rehabilita- 
tion of individuals is practically com- 
pleted, no applications having been re- 
ceived since February 15 ; about 28,000 
families have been assisted at an expend- 
iture of over $2,500,000. The rehabili- 
tation of charitable institutions has pro- 
ceeded to the point of paying over to a 
carefully prepared list $355,000 of the 
half million appropriated for this pur- 
pose. A permanent home for aged and 
infirm is in process of construction on the 
almshouse tract. About a thousand 
burnt-out lot-owners have been enabled 
to begin rebuilding under the bonus plan, 
by which they were given a grant of one- 
third the amount they proposed to spend, 
up to five hundred dollars. The chief 
problem now remaining for the corpo- 
ration is to transfer the relief work to 
the ordinary relief agencies of the city. 

Less than a million and a third of the 
nine-million-dollar fund remains unspent. 
It is estimated that the five departments 
will require at least $625,000, and $145,- 
000 is pledged for further appropriations 
to charitable institutions. 

The principal items in the $625,000 
estimate of future expenses by the exist- 
ing departments are: 


The Common Welfare 


For the maintenance of the camps 
on public squares until August 1, 
when they are to be removed.... $100,000 

For expenses connected with the 
camps not on public squares, 
which will be maintained longer. 50,000 

For completing the home for aged 
and infirm 100.000 

For its maintenance until June 30, 
1908, when it is expected that the 
city can take it over 120,000 

For the continuance of the hospital 

bureau for a year 100,000 

If no unforeseen expenses arise there 
will be left a balance of not more than 
$500,000, instead of the four million for 
which The San Francisco Call a few 
months ago invited its readers to ' sug- 
gest the best disposition. It is thought 
that $150,000 should be retained until 
the term provided by the statute of 
limitation expires, as a reserve for 
rejected claims, bills, or other demands 
for which suits may be commenced. Part 
of the rest will probably be spent through 
the regular charitable organizations. 
Some of those most closely connected 
with the work think that the rest should 
be held for the extraordinary require- 
ments which are expected to develop 
early next winter. Signs are seen, by 
those inclined to be apprehensive, of a 
turn in the prosperity which has been so 
conspicuous, and it is thought that hard 
times may be coming. A large part of 
the industrial population is on strike or 
locked out, there is a scarcity of money, 
and the high cost of labor and building 
materials is expected to delay and even 
paralyze many of the enterprises which 
have been counted on to maintain the 
prosperity of the past winter. 

The feeling on the part of those who 
should know best, is that on the whole 
it has been done wisely and well. There 
have been complaints, of course. One of 
the prominent men in the corporation 
writes : 

They have come from the people who 
would have liked to have the handling of 
the money; from those who would have liked 
to receive more money than was given to 
them, or some of the money where their ap- 
plication was refused; from others who are 
always finding fault and complaining and 
who think they can do everything better 
than other people; and finally, during the 
past few months, from a number of well- 
meaning people who have projects for which 
they think the money in our hands could 
more profitably be expended than for the pur- 
poses for which it was raised and for which 
it was placed in our hands. I will frankly ad- 
mit that we have made many mistakes. . . I 
can only say in a general way that every- 
one connected with the work has tried to 
do his or her best, and that nearly all of 
them have devoted a great deal of time, and 
some of them all of their time, and more 
than they could afford, to this work, and that 
there has been perfect harmony and com- 
mon zeal in the performance of the duties 
that were placed upon us. 

Oscar K. Cushing, who has been con- 
nected with the relief work perhaps more 
intimately than anyone else has been con- 
tinuously, from the beginning to the 
present time, writes under a recent date : 

The relief fund has done a great deal of 
good, and in my opinion its bad effects are 
very small in comparison with the good 
that has been accomplished. The great ma- 
jority of those who needed help have been 
assisted, though there are, no doubt, persons 
who are in need of help who have been too 
sensitive to come forward and make their 
wants known. The ground was fully cov- 
ered, however, and the time to stop was 
reached when the committee closed its doors. 

TKe Housing Problem in Wisconsin 

Within the last few 
months widespread 
interest in housing 
conditions has been 
aroused in Wisconsin 
by a monograph re- 
cently issued by the 
State Bureau of La- 
bor and Industrial 
Statistics. This re- 
port is the result of 
a law passed by the 
legislature calling for 
such an investiga- 
tion. The interest 
aroused is due not so 
much to the size of 
the problem as to the 
fact that all of the 
elements of unsatis- 
factory housing con- 
ditions exist in some" 
degree and need only 
time and public indif- 
ference to develop 
dangerous p r o p o r- 
tions which will make 
the problem, owing 
to its nature, exceed- 
ingly difficult to solve. 

The detailed inves- 
tigation in Milwau- 
kee covered eight 
districts which were 
supposed or known 
to contain unsanitary 
or crowded condi- 
tions. The first dis- 
trict chosen was th^ 
ghetto, including 
about seventeen 
blocks, west of the 
Milwaukee river and 
about eight . blocks 
north of the main 
business section. This 
territory was former- 
ly occupied by Ger- 
mans, but it is now 
Inhabited almost ex- 
clusively by Russian 
and Hungarian Jews. 


Dessa Runz 

Back to back tenements. Space four feet 
eleven inches. 

The steady immigra- 
tion of these people 
is constantly increas- 
ing the size of this 
Yiddish quarter and 
also the density of 
population within its 
borders. The chief 
evils found here were 
a number of old and 
dilapidated buildings, 
a considerable amount 
3f basement dwelling, 
nsufficient and insan- 
itary closet provis- 
ions, unclean houses 
and yards due to 
:areless habits of 
zenants and the con- 
fining of chickens in 
basements by 
"kosher" butchers. A 
legree of over- 
:rowding was also 
found in this quar- 
ter, although the evil 
of one-room over- 
crowding was not so 
serious as in other 
sections of the city. 
The second district 
covered a consider- 
able area directly 
north of the main 
business thorough- 
fare, extending from 
the first alley north 
of Grand avenue to 
the southern bound- 
ary of the Jewish 
quarter, and from 
Second ' street to 
about Eighth or 
Ninth. Throughout 
this section the in- 
terior of blocks and 
the rear of lots pre- 
sent an array of 
sheds, shanties, dilap- 
idated dwellings and 
a generai appearance 
Df shiftlessness so 


Charities and The Commons 

foreign to the larger and better 
part of Milwaukee, that the in- 
vestigator feels himself transported 
to a strange city. This is not a 
tenement district, however, as the build- 
ings are small, few containing more than 
one or two families, and the number of 
basement dwellings is limited. But in 
this district the small houses are often so 
crowded upon a lot that not one square 
foot of free yard space remains. By 
this crowding of buildings, exterior win- 
dows are rendered useless in many cases 
for lighting .or ventilation and dark 
rooms are developed which equal in 
wretchedness those in the largest tene- 
ments. Other evils are dirt, decay, im- 
proper drainage, defective plumbing or 
none, rear dwellings, open basements 
which become the receptacle for all man- 
ner of rubbish, and an accumulation of 
garbage in back yards. In some cases 
the only means of securing water upon 
the premises is from a pump or hydrant 
in the immediate vicinity of the garbage 
pile. This district contains within its 
boundaries six blocks inhabited chiefly by 

The third district investigated included 
about twenty-seven blocks in the lower 
third ward between Lake Michigan and 
the Milwaukee river. The majority of 

Catch basin for three buildings. 

the inhabitants of this section are Ital- 
ians although a few Irish still remain, the 
remnant of a large Irish population in- 
habiting the ward before the fire of 1892, 
which swept over this section, destroying 
many dwellings and scattering the in- 
habitants. This district now contains a 
considerable number of small tenements 
in which the greatest evils are basement 
dwellings, dark sleeping rooms, inade- 
quate light and ventilation in living 
rooms, and lack of cleaning and repair. 
Many of the lots left vacant by the fire 
are now occupied by dilapidated frame 
dwellings which were moved on at a 
later date. In some cases no space is 
left between houses on adjoining lots, so 
that exterior windows are here rendered 
useless, and unsanitary dark rooms are 
developed in these small frame dwell- 
ings. Rear yards are badly drained and 
water stands in many cellars. 

The fourth district selected for inves- 
tigation was Jones Island, a part of the 
city directly south of the Italian district, 
separated from the mainland by the Kin- 
nikinnic river. This so-called island, 
which is really a peninsula formed by a 
sand bar, is inhabited by Polish and Ger- 
man fishermen and their families. The 
houses are one-story frame cottages 
crowded in at random, with no attempt 
at the formation of streets. With a very 
few exceptions, each house contains but 
one family. The district has no city wa- 
ter supply, sewerage, paving or light. At 
the time of inspection the only police pro- 
tection it received was in the appearance 
of an officer upon the island once a week. 
Some effort has since been made by the 
city to furnish light and more adequate 
police protection. 

The fifth district included the 'long- 
shoremen's homes, mechanics' homes and 
cheap lodging houses along South Water, 
Clinton, and Reed streets in the fifth ward 
and Kinnikinnic avenue in the twelfth 
ward, which establishments are notori- 
ously unsanitary, overcrowded and badly 
constructed and regulated. 

The sixth district included a small sec- 
tion of the Seventeenth ward in the vicin- 
ity of the rolling mills, where are situ- 
ated a number of Italian and Hungarian 

The Honsingr Problem in Wisconsiu 


lodging and boarding houses. The ma- 
jority of these, are conducted by a man 
who is known as the "boss" and his wife, 
who cares for the rooms and does the 
cooking. The relative cleanliness of such 
establishments depends upon the degree 
of overcrowding and the personal habits 
of the occupants, but in general the stan- 
dard of living is deplorably low. 

The seventh district selected was a 
typical block of dwellings in the Four- 
teenth ward, which i